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PREFACE.

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It is just four years since the famous Announcement was made in the Imperial Parliament on August 20, 1917, about the political goal of India and the method of its realization. The Government of India Act 1919 based upon it, has been in operation for a year. Though our experience of it is short it has fully demonstrated the statesmanship and wisdom of the new departure made by the Announcement. Responsible Government, in every country, is a plant of slow growth. It is an exotic plant in India. Unfortunately for us, the season in which its seed was sown here, though it was promising at first, has proved unsatisfactory in the end. The whole atmosphere has become charged with the heat of opposition, and the poison of racial hatred. Sedulous efforts are being made to damn the Reforms both in the press and on the platform. It is all the more necessary, therefore, that an attempt should be made to give a faithful account of the Reforms Scheme, not only to ensure its satisfactory and successful operation, but also to facilitate our progress towards the goal of Responsible Government, as well to do justice to the gallant band of statesmen headed by the present Secretary of State Mr. Montague, who honestly laboured for the good of India. True education is the basis of all responsible government; and if the present book succeeds, to however small an extent, in creating an intelligent popular opinion about the Reforms, I shall be satisfied.

I do not pretend to any originality in the matter of this book; for I have freely used the voluminous official literature on the subject, and whenever I thought the topic to be particularly important, I have purposely incorporated authoritative sentences and even paragraphs from that literature in my book. As the book is meant mainly for students I thought it desirable to place before them an account :of the Reforms in the measured and weighty language which characterizes the various reports bearing upon them. I trust that some originality will be found in the arrangement of the topics which has enabled me to compress into a very small compass up-to-date information about the Reforms.

I regard it as a distinguishing feature of the book that it should have secured a Foreword from the pen of the Honourable Sir Chimanlal H. Setalwad, KT., B. A., LLD. As an educationist, and as a Member of the Executive Council, the authoritative verdict he has given upon the Reforms, will command, I have no doubt, the most careful attention of all. I am much obliged to him for having written the Foreword.

I am also very thankful to the Hon. Mr. R. P. Paranjpye for having accepted the dedication of the book. His is an example of what useful work a Minister can do under the Reforms, silently but steadily, for the people. In matters political, large and imposing results should never be expected to accrue in a very short time.

I am aware of the many shortcomings of the book. I shall gratefully receive any suggestions that will increase its usefulness to those for whom it is meant.

I must, in conclusion, express my thanks to the Manager of the Karnatak Press, Bombay, for having seen the book through the press with great expedition.

WILLINGDON COLLEGE, Sangli, 20th August 1921.

B. G. S.

Table of Contents.

Introduction.

What brought about the Reforms ?-(1) Dynamic

tendencies inherent in all British Institutions. (2) Spread of
Western Education and Ideals. (3) The effects of the War-
External. (4) Internal. (5) The Congress-League Scheme
(6) Curtis' Scheme. (7) The Announcement of August 20,1917.

Scope of the preesent Book-(8) A faithful outline

of the New Constitution. (9) The Announcement accepted.

(10) Other ancillary reforms indicated but not fully treated.

(11) Rules under the Act.

(12) Time a great factor.

(13) Sources.

(14) Import of the Announcement.

(15) Four Forinulae of the Report.

CHAPTER. I

Local Self-Government.

(16) Its present position. (17) Recent Developements.

(18) Village Panchayats. (19) Summary.

CHAPTER II.

Structure of the Provincial Executive.

(20) Scope of the Reforms Scheme. (21) Redistribution

of Provinces. (22) Backward Tracts.

(23) Structure of the Provincial Executive Council. (24)

Status of the Governor. (25) The Executive Council. (26)The-
Ministers. (27) Normal Strength of the Executive Council.

(86) Conduct of the two halves of Government in the Council.

(87) Towards the Public Services. (88) Indianization of the Services as an end in itself. (89) Resolution of the Government of India. (90) Indianization as a means to Responsible Governmeut. (91) Position of Europeans in the Services (92) Classification of Services. (93) Viceroy's assurance to them. (94) Provision made by the Act. (95) By rules under the Act.

CHAPTER V.
Structure of Provincial Legislative Councils.

(96) Pre-Reforms Condition. (97) The New Departure.

(98) Constitution. (99) Numbers. (100) Disappearance of the official bloc. (101) Proportion of Elected and Nominated Members. (102) Expert Members.

Methods of appointment.-(103) Historical. (104) The New Principle. (105) British Subjects. (106) Female Suffrage.

(107) The Franchise in the Bombay Presidency. (108) Explanatory Remarks.

(109) Classification of constituencies. (110) Communal Representation for the Mahomedans. (111) Pros and cons of Communal Representation. (112) Reservation of Seats. (113) Nomination. (114) Wage earners in Bombay and Calcutta. (115) Special electorates. (116) Proportional Representation. (117) General Disqualifications of Candidates.

(118) Corrupt practices.
(119) Electoral Rules.
(120) Composition, Session, and
)

Duration of the
Councils. (121) Power of Rule-making under the Act. (122)
Presidency of the Council. (123) Advantages of an elected
President. (124) Standing Orders.

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