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WE, the people of the United States, in order to Preamble.
form a more perfect union, establish justice,
insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the
common defence, promote the general welfare,
and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves
and our posterity, do ordain and establish
this Constitution for the United States of



All legislative powers herein granted shall be Congress. vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.



The House of Representatives shall be com-how chosen. posed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislature.


No person shall be a Representative who shall Qualification of not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.


of representatives


Representatives and direct taxes shall be apand direct taxes. portioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, threefifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United Census every ten States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

Vacancies, how filled.

When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies, The House of Representatives shall choose and bring im- their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

Representatives choose officers


Senate, how chosen.


The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Senators classed. consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class, at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class, at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by vacancies, how resignation or otherwise during the recess of the legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.



No person shall be a Senator who shall not qualification of have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant

of that State for which he shall be chosen.


The Vice President of the United States shall Vice President to be President of the Senate, but shall have no

vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall choose their other officers, Officers of Senate. and also a President pro tempore in the absence

of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.


The Senate shall have the sole power to try Trial of impeachall impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

Judgment in im peachments.

Effect of.

Elections, when and how held.

Congress assemble annually.

Elections, how judged.


Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.


The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.


Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized Absent members. to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each house may provide.



Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of twothirds, expel a member.

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