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Itenza. Esatt soclear medi"A7 75-7ANDAOS POR THE Ite citacids aas (5) radiation ACOTECA

Du erzy staciocs in the interest of CATOMALPOGRAMS FOR AND I said is to prevent the hazTHE C2609TALNG

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anco decided by Congress in its de terson of the need for standards,

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coral groups listed above, utilizing Arr:S2 2 C PACSize ne sc ionizing radiation Nothing in these ach:

merem 07 DETTE BASTAZY creditation standards is intended to TRA) IR DETTA H723S

discriminate against proprietary AmiAL CTO PAZ 75BASSADOS 708 AC

schools. CAZUIT ATIN OP DENTAL RADIOGRAPET TW, POR DUAL ASSISTANTS

473.2 Definitions. AVUZ DTO PAKI 75-BANDARDS POR AC

CARLITATION OP EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS All terms not defined herein shall

WANDLAR MEDICINE TECHNOLOGISTS have the meaning given them in the AVVENDIZ Z TO PART 75STANDARDS POR AC- Act. As used in this part: CREDITATION OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS Accreditation, as applied to an edu

# RADIATION THERAPY TECHNOLOGISTS cational program, means recognition, AWDIZ Y TO PART 75-HTANDARDS FOR LICERMINOS RADIOORAPHERA, NUCLEAR MEDI

by a State government or by a 200CINE TEAMNOLAISTA, AND RADIATION

governmental agency or association, of THERAPY TECHNOLOIHTB

a specialized program of study as meetAPPENDIX OTO PAKT 75 TANDARDS FOR LI- ing or exceeding certain established

CENSING DENTAL HYGIENISTS AND DENTAL qualifications and educational standAMAIWIANTH IN DENTAL RADIOGRAPHY ards. As applied to a health care or AUTHOUTY: Boc, 979 of the Consumer-Pa

educational institution, accreditation blant kladiation Health and Safety Act of means recognition, by a State govern1901, l'ub L. 97 36, 96 Stat. 699 600 (42 U.S.C. ment or by a nongovernmental agency 10WM).

or association, of the institution as MOURON MO FR 60717, Dec. 11, 1985, unless meeting or exceeding certain estabotherwise noted,

lished standards or criteria for that

type of institution. 676.1 Background and purpose.

Act means the Consumer-Patient Ra() The purpose of these regulations diation Health and Safety Act of 1981, In to implement the provisions of sec- 42 U.S.C. 10001-10008. tion 070 of the Consumer-Patient Radi- Continuing competency means the alton Health and Safety Act of 1981, 42 maintenance of knowledge and skills

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and/or demonstrated performance that beings and conducts in vivo or in vitro are adequate and relevant to profes- detection and measurement of radiosional practice needs.

activity for medical purposes. Credentialing means any process Permit means an authorization issued whereby a State Government or non- by a State for specific tasks or pracgovernmental agency or association tices rather than the entire scope of grants recognition to an individual practice in an occupation. who meets certain predetermined Radiation therapy technologist means a qualifications.

person other than a licensed practiDental hygienist means a person 11- tioner who utilizes ionizing radiationcensed by the State as a dental hygien- generating equipment for therapeutic st.

purposes on human subjects. Dental assistant means a person other Radiographer means an individual than a dental hygienist who assists a other than a licensed practitioner who Lentist in the care of patients.

(1) performs, may be called upon to perEducational program means a set of form, or who is licensed to perform a ormally structured activities designed comprehensive scope of diagnostic o provide students with the knowledge radiologic procedures employing equip nd skills necessary to enter an occu- ment which emits ionizing radiation, ation, with evaluation of student per- and (2) is delegated or exercises responormance according to predetermined sibility for the operation of radiationbjectives.

generating equipment, the shielding of Energized laboratory means any facil- patient and staff from unnecessary ray which contains equipment that gen- diation, the appropriate exposure of cates ionizing radiation. This does not radiographs, or other procedures which iclude facilities for training students contribute to any significant extent to hen the equipment is not powered to the site or dosage of ionizing radiation nit ionizing radiation, e.g., practice to which patient is exposed. 1 setting controls and positioning of Radiographers are distinguished from atients.

personnel whose use of diagnostic proPormal training means training or cedures is limited to a few specific ducation, including either didactic or body sites and/or standard procedures, linical practicum or both, which has a from those personnel in other clinical pecified objective, planned activities specialties who may occasionally be or students, and suitable methods for called upon to assist in diagnostic radileasuring student attainment, and ology, and from those technicians or hich is offered, sponsored, or ap assistants whose activities do not, to roved by an organization or institu- any significant degree, determine the on which is able to meet or enforce site or dosage of radiation to which a hese criteria.

patient is exposed. lonizing radiation means any electro- Radiologist means a physician ceragnetic or particulate radiation (X- tified in radiology by the American wys, gamma rays, alpha and beta par- Board of Radiology or the American icles, high speed electrons, neutrons, Osteopathic Board of Radiology. nd other nuclear particles) which iteracts with atoms to produce ion

$75.3 Applicability. airs in matter.

(a) Federal Government. Except as proLicensed practitioner means a licensed vided in section 983 of the Act, the octor of medicine, osteopathy, den- credentialing standards set out in the Istry, podiatry, or chiropractic.

Appendixes to this part apply to those Licensure means the process by which individuals who administer or propose n agency of State government grants to administer radiologic procedures, in vermission to persons meeting pre- each department, agency and instruetermined qualifications to engage in mentality of the Federal Government in occupation.

as follows: Nuclear medicine technologist means a (1) Radiographer Standards apply to verson other than a licensed practi- all individuals who are radiographers ioner who prepares and administers as defined in $75.2 and who are not adio-pharmaceuticals to human practitioners excepted by the Act.

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AzoO A TO PAZT 15–STANDARDS

702 403DITATION OF EDUCATIONAL Des 27 Dessel

POCUS POR RADIOGRAPHERS 14, turite tufanacu, trang tron or

nun * Arnim pra dize Ces A Description of the Profession A mums un Win a sattuta e The stope shall perform effectively minime in the Irrartment of Defense 114 momente tervet, provided that 1. Applying movledge of the principles of Wilma muunnos are determined by such retiadaa protection for the patient, sell, and Ispartment of component to offer

others Huivalent protection of patient health

2 Applying knowledge of anatomy, poston salety

tioning, and radiographic techniques to ac

curately demonstrate anatomical structures (911) Woreign national employed by on a radiograph. the federal government in positions 3. Determining exposure factors to achieve Gutxine of the United States who show optimum radiographic technique with a minevidence of training, experience, and imum of radiation exposure to the patient. competence determined by the employ

4. Examining radiographs for the purpose In agency to be equally protective of

of evaluating technique, positioning, and patient health and safety; and

other pertinent technical qualities.

5. Exercising discretion and judgment in (Ivi Persons first employed by the the performance of medical imaging proce Ir'ederal government as radiologic per- dures. sonnel after the effective date of this 6. Providing patient care essential to reputation who (a) received training radiologic procedures. fronn Innlitutions in a state or foreign

7. Recognizing emergency patient condiJurisdiolion which did not accredit

tions and initiating lifesaving first aid. training in that particular field at the

B. Sponsorship time of praduation, or (b) practiced in # Mtate or forelun jurisdiction which

1. Accreditation will be granted to the in

stitution that assumes primary responsiblldid not lloenne that particular field or

ity for curriculum planning and selection of whileh did not allow special eligibility course content; coordinates classroom teachto take a lioensure examination for ing and supervised clinical education; sp

points faculty to the program; receives and processes applications for admission; and grants the degree or certificate documenting completion of the program.

2 Educational programs may be established in:

(a) Community and junior colleges, senior solleges, and universities; (b) Hospitals; (c) Medical schools;

(d) Postsecondary vocational technical ..chools and institutions; and

(e) Other acceptable institutions which deet comparable standards.

3. The sponsoring institutions and Mlate(8) must be accredited by a recogized agency. When the sponsoring instituton and affilitate(s) are not so recognized, hey may be considered as meeting the reuirements of accreditation if the institu

on meets or exceeds established equivalent andards.

C. Instructional Facilities 1. General. Appropriate classroom and clinal space, modern equipment, and supplies

r supervised education shall be provided. 2 Laboratory. Energized laboratories utied for teaching purposes shall be certified required for compliance with Federal and

State radiation safety regulations. The e of laboratories shall be governed by esblished educational objectives. 3. Reference Materials. Adequate up-to-date dentific books, periodicals, and other refence materials related to the curriculum id profession shall be readily accessible to . adents.

D. Clinical Education 1. The clinical phase of the educational ogram shall provide an environment for ipervised competency-based clinical eduition and experience and offer a sufficient id well-balanced variety of radiographic exninations and equipment. 2. An acceptable ratio of students to regtered technologists shall be maintained in le clinical teaching environment. 3. A clinical instructor(s), who shall be resonsible for supervising students according > objectives, shall be identified for each priary clinical education center. 4. The maxdmum student enrollment shall ot exceed the capacity recommended on the asis of volume and variety of radiographic rocedures, resources, and personnel availble for teaching purposes. 5. In programs where didactic and clinical xperience are not provided in the same intitution, accreditation shall be given only

the Institution responsible for admissions, urriculum, and academic credit. The acredited Institution shall be responsible for Coordinating the program and assuring that the activities assigned to the students in the

clinical setting are educational. There shall be a uniform contract between the accredited institution and each of its affiliate hospitals, clearly defining the responsibilities and obligations of each.

E. Curriculum 1. The structure of the curriculum shall be based on not less than two calendar years of full-time study or its equivalent.

2. Instruction shall follow a planned outline that includes:

(a) The assignment of appropriate Instructional materials;

(b) Classroom presentations, discussions and demonstrations; and

(c) Examinations in the didactic and clinical aspects of the program.

3. All professional courses, including clinical education, must include specific curriculum content that shall include, but shall not be limited to:

(a) Introduction to radiologic technology: (6) Medical ethics; (c) Imaging; (d) Radiographic processing technique; (e) Human structure and function; (1) Medical terminology; (8) Principals of radiographic exposure; (h) Radiographic procedures; (1) Principles of radiatio protection; (j) Radiographic film evaluation; (k) Methods of patient care; (1) Pathology; (m) Radiologic physics; and (n) Radiation biology.

Related subjects added to the professional curriculum shall meet the requirements of the degree-granting institution.

F. Finances Financial resources for operation for the educational program shall be assured through regular budgets, gifts, grants, endowments, or fees.

G. Faculty 1. Program Director. A program director shall be designated who is credentialed in radiography. The program director's responsibilities in teaching, administration, and coordination of the educational program in radiography shall not be adversely affected by educationally unrelated functions.

(a) Minimum qualifications. A minimum of two years of professional experience and proficiency in instructing, curriculum design, program planning, and counseling.

(b) Responsibilities. (1) The program director, in consultation with the medical director/advisor (G. 2.) shall be responsible for the organization, administration, periodic review, records, continued development, and general policy and effectiveness of the program.

(2) Opportunities for continuing education : End GEORİTE documents succes shall be provided for aì) lacuity members. fui competion of the program

2. Megval Director/Medical Advisor—(2) MİTEL- 2 The formel Eining in dentel sedloga mum qualifications. The medical director Pby may be a part of sotal roquoi medical advisor shall be a qualified radiolo bygiene aduce non accredited by tego Klet, certified by the American Board of Rs TIEDOD recognized by the United States De cholowy, or shall possess suitable equivalent partment of Education qualifications,

2. The sponsoring entity and the destal (b) Responsibilities. The medical directori diography training must be approved by the medical advisor shall work

in consultation Biete entity responsible for approving dental with the program director in developing the hygiene education programs & the State es wouls and objectives of the program and im- tity responsible for credentialing dental per blementing the standards for their achieve Bonnel in radiography. ment, 3 Instructors, All instructors shall be quali

B. Curriculum fled through academic preparation and expe- Dental radiography training for dental hr: rience wo teach the assigned subjecta.

gieniste must provide sufficient content as

instructional time to assure competent per H. Students

formance. Admission

1. The dental radiography curriculum coe

tent and learning experiences must incat (8) Candidates for admission shall satisfy the theoretical aspects of the subject us vel the following minimum requirements: Com- as practical application of techniques. The pletion of four years of high school; success

theoretical aspects should provide content ful completion of a standard equivalency Decessary for dental hygienists to under test; or certification of equivalent education stand the critical nature of the radiological by an organization recognized by the United procedures they perform and of the juder Blator Department of Education. Courses in ments they make as related to patient se physics, chemistry, biology, algebra, and ge- operator radiation safety. ometry are strongly recommended.

2. The dental radiography curriculum mas (b) The number of students enrolled in

include content in seven areas: radiation each class shall be commensurate with the

physics; radiation biology, radiation health most effective learning and teaching prac

safety, and protection; X-ray films and rads tices and should also be consistent with ac

ographic film quality; radiographic teck coplable student-teacher ratios.

niques; darkroom and processing techniques

and fllm mounting. 1. Records

-Radiation Physics. Curriculum content Records shall be maintained as dictated by

should include: historical background; role

of radiology in modern dentistry; types of good educational practices.

radiation; X-ray production principles; of NOTE: Educational programs accredited by eration of X-ray equipment; properties an organization recommended by the United X-radiation; and X-radiation units, detes States Department of Education are consid- tion and monitoring devices. ered to have met these standards.

-Radiation Biology. Curriculum content

should include: Interaction of ionizing is APPENDIX B TO PART 75-STANDARDS diation with cells, tissues, and matter, face FOR ACCREDITATION OF DENTAL RA

tors influencing biological response of cells DIOGRAPHY TRAINING FOR DENTAL

and tissues to ionizing radiation; somatie

and genetic effects of radiation exposure HYGIENISTS

and cumulative effects of X-radiation and

latent period. A. Sponsorship

-Radiation Health, Safety, and Protection Sponsorship must be by an entity that as- Curriculum content should include: sumes primary responsibility for the plan- Sources and types of radiation exposure ning and conduct of competency-based didac- public health implications and public contic and clinical training in dental radiogra- cerns; principles of radiological health isphy.

cluding collimation and filtration; radi1. This responsibility must include: defin- ation protection methods in the dental of ing the curriculum in terms of program fice; necessity for high diagnostic yield goals, instructional objectives, learning ex- with a reduction of X-radiation exposure: periences designed to achieve goals and ob- and monitoring devices. jectives, and evaluation procedures to assess -X-ray Films and Radiographic Fibn Quality attainment of goals and objectives; coordi- Curriculum content should include: X-radi. Dating classroom teaching and supervised ation production and scatter, X-ray beam clinical experiences; appointing faculty; re- quality and quantity; factors in Dencia ceiving and processing applications for ad- radiographic density, contrast, definition,

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