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(b) There shall be at the head of the Agency the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, hereinafter referred to as the "Administrator." The Administrator shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall be compensated at the rate now or hereafter provided for Level II of the Executive Schedule Pay Rates (5 U.S.C. 5313).

(c) There shall be in the Agency a Deputy Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall be compensated at the rate now or hereafter provided for Level III of the Executive Schedule Pay Rates (5 U.S.C. 5314). The Deputy Administrator shall perform such functions as the Administrator shall from time to time assign or delegate, and shall act as Administrator during the absence or disability of the Administrator or in the event of a vacancy in the office of Administrator.

(d) There shall be in the Agency not to exceed five Assistant Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall be compensated at the rate now or hereafter provided for Level IV of the Executive Schedule Pay Rates (5 U.S.C. 5315). Each Assistant Administrator shall perform such functions as the Administrator shall from time to time assign or delegate. SEC. 2. TRANSFERS TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

(a) There are hereby transferred to the Administrator:

(1) All functions vested by law in the Secretary of the Interior and the Department of the Interior which are administered through the Federal Water Quality Administration, all functions which were transferred to the Secretary of the Interior by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1966 (80 Stat. 1608), and all functions vested in the Secretary of the Interior or the Department of the Interior by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act or by provisions of law amendatory or supplementary thereof.

(2) (1) The functions vested in the Secretary of the Interior by the Act of August 1, 1958, 72 Stat. 479, 16 U.S.C. 742d-1 (being an Act relating to studies on the effects of Insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides upon the fish and wildlife resources of the United States), and (11) the functions vested by law in the Secretary of the Interior and the Department of the Interior which are administered by the Gulf Breeze Biological Laboratory of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries at Gulf Breeze, Florida.

(3) The functions vested by law in the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare or in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare which are administered through the Environmental Health Service, including the functions exercised by the following components thereof :

(1) The National Air Pollution Control Administration, (11) The Environmental Control Administration: (A) Bureau of Solid Waste Management, (B) Bureau of Water Hygiene,

(C) Bureau of Radiological Health, except that functions carried out by the following components of the Environmental Control Administration of the Environmental Health Service are not transferred: (1) Bureau of Community Environmental Management, (11) Bureau of Occupational Safety and Health, and (111) Bureau of Radiological Health, insofar as the functions carried out by the latter Bureau pertain to (A) regulation of radiation from consumer products, including electronic product radiation, (B) radiation as used in the healing arts. (C) occupational exposures to radiation, and (D) research, technical assistance, and training related to clauses (A), (B), and (C).

(4) The functions vested in the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare of establishing tolerances for pesticide chemicals under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended, 21 U.S.C. 346, 3468, and 348, together with authority, in connection with the functions transferred, (1) to monitor compliance with the tolerances and the effectiveness of surveillance and enforcement, and (11) to provide technical assistance to the States and conduct research under the Federal Food, Drug. and Cosmetic Act, as amended, and the Public Health Service Act, as amended.

(5) So much of the functions of the Council on ERvironmental Quality under section 204(5) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, (section 4344(5) of this title), (Public Law 91–190, approved January 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 855), as pertains to ecological systems.

(6) The functions of the Atomic Energy Commission under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, administered through its Division of Radiation Protection Standards, to the extent that such functions of the Commission consist of establishing generally applicable environmental standards for the protection of the general environment from radioactive material. As used herein, standards mean limits on radiation exposures or levels, or concentrations or quantities of radioactive material, in the general environment outside the boundaries of locations under the control of persons possessing or using radioactive material.

(7) All functions of the Federal Radiation Council (12 U.S.C. 2021(b)).

(8) (1) The functions of the Secretary of Agriculture and the Department of Agriculture under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. 135–135k), (11) the functions of the Secretary of Agriculture and the Department of Agriculture under section 408(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as amended (21 U.S.C. 346a (1)), and qui) the functions vested by law in the Secretary of Agriculture and the Department of Agriculture which are administered through the Environmental Quality Branch of the Plant Protection Division of the Agricultural Research Service.

(9) So much of the functions of the transferor officers and agencies referred to in or affected by the foregoing provisions of this section as is incidental to or necessary for the performance by or under the Administrator of the functions transferred by those provisions or relates primarily to those functions. The transfers to the Admin. istrator made by this section shall be deemed to include the transfer of (1) authority, provided by law, to prescribe regulations relating primarily to the transferred functions, and (2) the functions vested in the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Health, Education. and Welfare by section 169(d) (1) (B) and (3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (as enacted by section 704 of the Tax Reform Act of 1969, 83 Stat. 668); but shall be deemed to exclude the transfer of the functions of the Bureau of Reclamation under section 3(b)'(1) of the Water Pollution Control Act (33 US.C. 46a (b)(1)).

(b) There are hereby transferred to the Agency:

(1) From the Department of the Interior, (1) the Water Pollution Control Advisory Board (33 U.S.C. 4661). together with its functions, and (11) the hearing boards provided for in sections 10(c) (4) and 10(1) of the Fed. eral Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 4668(c) (4); 4668(1)). The functions of the Secretary of the Interior with respect to being or designating the Chalrman of the Water Pollution Control Advisory Board are hereby transferred to the Administrator.

(2) From the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, the Air Quality Advisory Board (42 U.S.C. 1857e), together with its functions. The functions of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare with respect to being a member and the Chairman of that Board are bereby transferred to the Administrator.

Sec. 3. PERIORMANCE OF TRANSFERRED FUNCTIONS The Administrator may from time to time make such provisions as he shall deem appropriate authorizing the performance of any of the functions transferred to him by the provisions of this reorganization plan by any other officer, or by any organizational entity or employee, of the Agency.

Sec. 4. INCIDENTAL TRANSVERS (a) So much of the personnel, property, records, and unexpended balances of approprlations, allocations, and other funds employed, used, held, available or to be made available in connection with the functions transferred to the Administrator or the Agency by this reorganis. tion plan as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget shall determine shall be transferred to the Agency at such time or times as the Director shall direct

(b) Such further measures and dispositions so there Director of Office of Management and Budget shall der

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MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT To the Congress of the United States:

As concern with the condition of our physical environment has intensified, it has become increasingly clear that we need to know more about the total environmentland, water and air. It also has become increasingly clear that only by reorganizing our Federal efforts can we develop that knowledge, and effectively ensure the protection, development and enhancement of the total environment itself.

The Government's environmentally-related activities have grown up piecemeal over the years. The time has come to organize them rationally and systematically. As a major step in this direction, I am transmitting today two reorganization plans: one to establish an Environmental Protection Agency, and one to establish, within the Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

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to be necessary in order to effectuate the transfers referred to in subsection (a) of this section shall be carried out in such manner as he shall direct and by such agencies as he shall designate.

Sec. 5. INTERIM OFFICERS (a) The President may authorize any person who immediately prior to the effective date of this reorganization plan held a position in the executive branch of the Goyernment to act as Administrator until the office of Administrator is for the first time Alled pursuant to the provisions of this reorganization plan or by recess appointment, as the case may be.

(b) The President may similarly authorize any such person to act as Deputy Administrator, authorize any such person to act as Assistant Administrator, and authorize any such person to act as the head of any principal constituent organizational entity of the Administration,

(c) The President may authorize any person who serves in an acting capacity under the foregoing provisions of this section to receive the compensation attached to the office in respect of which he so serves. Such compensation, if authorized, shall be in lieu of, but not in addition to, other compensation from the United States to which such person may be entitled.

SEC. 6. ABOLITIONS (a) Subject to the provisions of this reorganization plan, the following, exclusive of any functions, are hereby abolished:

(1) The Federal Water Quality Administration in the Department of the Interior (33 U.S.C. 466–1).

(2) The Federal Radiation Council (73 Stat. 690; 42 U.S.C. 2021(h)).

(b) Such provisions as may be necessary with respect to terminating any outstanding affairs shall be made by the Secretary of the Interior in the case of the Federal Water Quality Administration and by the Administrator of General Services in the case of the Federal Radiation Council.

Sec. 7. EFFECTIVE DATE The provisions of this reorganization plan shall take effect sixty days after the date they would take effect under 5 U.S.C. 906(a) in the absence of this section.

MESSAGE OF THE PRESIDENT To the Congress of the United States:

I transmit herewith Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970, prepared in accordance with chapter 9 of title 5 of the United States Code and providing for an Environmental Protection Agency. My reasons for transmitting this plan are stated in a more extended accompanying message.

After investigation, I have found and hereby declare that each reorganization included in Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1970 is necessary to accomplish one or more of the purposes set forth in section 901(a) of title 5 of the United States Code. In particular, the plan is responsive to section 901 (a) (1), “to promote the better execution of the laws, the more effective management of the executive branch and of its agencies and functions, and the expeditious administration of the public business;" and section 901 (8) (3), "to increase the efficiency of the operations of the Government to the fullest extent practicable."

The reorganizations provided for in the plan make necessary the appointment and compensation of new officers as specified in section 1 of the plan. The rates of compensation fixed for these officers are comparable to those fixed for other officers in the executive branch who have similar responsibilities.

Section 907 of title 5 of the United States Code will operate to preserve administrative proceedings, including any public hearing proceedings, related to the transferred functions, which are pending immediately prior to the taking effect of the reorganization plan.

The reorganization plan should result in more efficient operation of the Government. It is not practical, however, to itemize or aggregate the exact expenditure reductions which will result from this action.


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ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) Our national government today is not structured to make a coordinated attack on the pollutants which debase the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the land that grows our food. Indeed, the present governmental structure for dealing with environmental pollution often defies effective and concerted action.

Despite its complexity, for pollution control purposes the environment must be perceived as a single, interrelated system. Present assignments of departmental responsibilities do not reflect this interrelatedness.

Many agency missions, for example, are designed primarily along media lines—air, water, and land. Yet the sources of air, water, and land pollution are interrelated and often interchangeable. A single source may pollute the air with smoke and chemicals, the land with solid wastes, and a river or lake with chemical and other wastes. Control of the air pollution may produce more solid wastes, which then pollute the land or water. Control of the water-polluting effluent may convert it into solid wastes, which must be disposed of on land.

Similarly, some pollutants chemicals, radiation, pesticides—appear in all media. Successful control of them at present requires the coordinated efforts of a variety of separate agencies and departments. The results are not always successful.

A far more effective approach to pollution control would:

-identify pollutants. --trace them through the entire ecological chain, ob

serving and recording changes in form as they occur. -Determine the total exposure of man his environ

ment. -Examine interactions among forms of pollution. -Identify where in the ecological chain interdiction

would be most appropriate. In organizational terms, this requires pulling together into one agency a variety of research, monitoring, standard-setting and enforcement activities now scattered through several departments and agencies. It also requires that the new agency include sufficient support elements-in research and in aids to State and local antipolution programs, for example-to give it the needed strength and potential for carrying out its mission. The new agency would also, of course, draw upon the results of research conducted by other agencies.

COMPONENTS OF THE EPA Under the terms of Reorganization Plan No. 3, the following would be moved to the new Environmental Protection Agency: The functions carried out by the Federal Water Qual

ity Administration (from the Department of the

Interior). -Functions with respect to pesticides studies now

vested in the Department of the Interior. -The functions carried out by the Natonal Air Pollu

tion Control Administration (from the Department

of Health, Education, and Welfare). -The functions carried out by the Bureau of Solid

Waste Management and the Bureau of Water Hygiene,
and portions of the functions carrled out by the
Bureau of Radiological Health of the Environmental
Control Administration (from the Department of
Health, Education and Welfare).

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July 9, 1970.


-Certain functions with respect to pesticides carried

out by the Food and Drug Administration (from the

Department of Health, Education and Welfare). -Authority to perform studies relating to ecological

systems now vested in the Council on Environmental

Quality. -Certain functions respecting radiation criteria and

standards now vested in the Atomic Energy Com

mission and the Federal Radiation Council. -Functions respecting pesticides registration and re

lated activities now carried out by the Agricultural Research Service (from the Department of Agri

culture). With its broad mandate. EPA would also develop competence in areas of environmental protection that have not previously been given enough attention, such, for example, as the problem of noise, and it would provide an organization to which new programs in these areas could be added.

In brief, these the principal functions to be transferred:

FEDERAL WATER QUALITY ADMINISTRATION.—Charged with the control of pollutants which impair water quality, it is broadly concerned with the impact of degraded water quality. It performs a wide variety of functions, including research. standard-setting and enforcement, and provides construction grants and technical assitance.

CERTAIN PESTICIDES RESEARCH AUTHORITY FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.–Authority for research on the effects of pesticides on fish and wildlife would be provided to the EPA through thansfer of the specialized research authority of the pesticides act enacted in 1958. Interior would retain its responsibility to do research on all factors affecting fish and wildlife. Under this provision, only one laboratory would be transferred to the EPA—the Gulf Breeze Biological Laboratory of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. The EPA would work closely with the fish and wildlife laboratories remaining with the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife.

NATIONAL AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION.-As the principal Federal agency concerned with air pollution, it conducts research on the effects of air pollution, operates a monitoring network, and promulgates criteria which serve as the basis for setting air quality standards. Its regulatory functions are similar to those of the Federal Water Quality Administration. NAPCA is responsible for administering the Clean Air Act, which involves designating air quality regions, approving State standards and providing financial and technical assistance to State Control agencies to enable them to comply with the Act's provisions. It also sets and enforces Federal automotive emission standards.

ELEMENTS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL ADMINISTRATION.—ECA is the focal point within HEW for evaluation and control of a broad range of environmental health problems, including water quality. solid wastes, and radiation. Programs in the ECA involve research, development of criteria and standards, and the administration of planning and demonstration grants. From the ECA, the activities of the Bureaus of Water Hygiene and Solid Waste Management and portions of the activities of the Bureau of Radiological Health would be transferred. Other functions of the ECA including those related to the regulation of radiation from consumer products and occupational safety and health would remain in HEW.

PESTICIDES RESEARCH AND STANDARD-SETTING PROGRAMS OF THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION.–FDA's pesticides program consists of setting and enforcing standards which limit pesticide residues in food. EPA would have the authority to set pesticide standards and to monitor compliance with them, as well as to conduct related research. However, as an integral part of its food protection activities. FDA would retain its authority to remove from the market food with excess pesticide residues.

GENERAL ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH FROM THE COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY.—This authority to perform studies and research relating to ecological systems would be in addition to EPA's other specific research authorities. and it would help EPA to measure the impact of pollutants. The Council on Environmental Quality would retain its authority to conduct studies and research relating to environmental quality.

ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION STANDARDS PROGRAMS.—The Atomic Energy Commission is now responsible for establishing environmental radiation standards and emission limits for radioactivity. Those standards have been based largely on broad guidelines recommended by the Federal Radiation Council. The Atomic Energy Commission's authority to set standards for the protection of the general environment from radioactive material would be transferred to the Environmental Protection Agency. The functions of the Federal Radiation Council would also be transferred. AEC would retain responsibility for the lmplementation and enforcement of radiation standards through its licensing authority.

PESTICIDES REGISTRATION PROGRAM OF THE AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE.-The Department of Agriculture is currently responsible for several distinct functions related to pesticides use. It conducts research on the efficacy of various pesticides as related to other pest control methods and on the effects of pesticides on non-target plants, livestock, and poultry. It registers pesticides, monitors their persistence and carries out an educational program on pesticide use through the extension service. It conducts extensive pest control programs which utilize pesticides.

By transferring the Department of Agriculture's pesticides registration and monitoring function to the EPA and merging it with the pesticides programs being transferred from HEW and Interior, the new agency would be given a broad capability for control over the introduction of pesticides into the environment.

The Department of Agriculture would continue to con. duct research on the effectiveness of pesticides. The Department would furnish this information to the EPA, which would have the responsibility for actually licens. ing pesticides for use after considering environmental and health effects. Thus the new agency would be able to make use of the expertise of the Department.

ADVANTAGES OF REORGANIZATION This reorganization would permit response to environmental problems in a manner beyond the previous capsbility of our pollution control programs. The EPA would have the capacity to do research on important pollutants irrespective of the media in which they appear, and on the impact of these pollutants on the total environment. Both by itself and together with other agencies, the EPA would monitor the condition of the environment-biological as well as physical. With these data, the EPA would be able to establish quantitative "environmental baselines"-critical if we are to measure adequately the success or failure of our pollution abatement efforts.

As no disjointed array of separate programs can, the EPA would be able--in concert with the States—to see and enforce standards for air and water quality and for individual pollutants. This consolidation of pollution control authorities would help assure that we do not create new environmental problems in the process of controlling existing ones. Industries seeking to minimize the adverse impact of their activities on the environment would be assured of consistent standards covering the full range of their waste disposal problems. As the States de velop and expand their own pollution control programs. they would be able to look to one agency to support their efforts with financial and technical assistance and training.

In proposing that the Environmental Protection Agency be set up as a separate new agency. I am making an er. ception to one of my own principles: that, as a matter of effective and orderly administration, additional ne* independent agencies normally should not be created. In this case, however, the arguments against placing environmental protection activities under the jurisdiction of one or another of the existing departments and agencies are compelling.

In the first place, almost every part of government is concerned with the environment in some way, and affects it in some way. Yet each department also has its own prie mary mission—such as resource development, transportstion, health, defense, urban growth or agriculture-*hich necessarily affects its

view of environmental questions.

In the second place, if the critical standard-setting functions were centralized within any one existing of partment, it would require that department consantly


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to make decisions affecting other departments—in which, whether fairly or unfairly, its own objectivity as an impartial arbiter could be called into question.

Because environmental protection cuts across so many jurisdictions, and because arresting environmental deterioration is of great importance to the quality of life in our country and the world, I believe that in this case a strong, independent agency is needed. That agency would, of course, work closely with and draw upon the expertise and assistance of other agencies having experience in the environmental area.

ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF EPA The principal roles and functions of the EPA would include: -The establishment and enforcement of environmental

protection standards consistent with national environmental goals. - The conduct of research on the adverse effects of pollution and on methods and equipment for controlling it, the gathering of information on pollution, and the use of this information in strengthening environmental protection programs and recommending policy

changes. -Assisting others, through grants, technical assistance

and other means in arresting pollution of the

environment. -Assisting the Council on Environmental Quality in

developing and recommending to the President new

policies for the protection of the environment. One natural question concerns the relationship between the EPA and the Council on Environmental Quality, recently established by Act of Congress.

It is my intention and expectation that the two will work in close harmony, reinforcing each other's mission. Essentially, the Council is & top-level advisory group (which might be compared with the Council of Economic Advisers), while the EPA would be an operating, "line" organization. The Council will continue to be a part of the Executive Office of the President and will perform its overall coordinating and advisory roles with respect to all Federal programs related to environmental quality.

The Council, then, is concerned with all aspects of environmental quality-wildlife preservation, parklands, land use, and population growth, as well as pollution. The EPA would be charged with protecting the environment by abating pollution. In short, the Council focuses on what our broad policies in the environment field should be; the EPA would focus on setting and enforcing pollution control standards. The two are not competing, but complementary-and taken together, they should give us, for the first time, the means to mount an effectively coordinated campaign against environmental degradation in all of its many forms.


The oceans and the atmosphere are interacting parts of the total environmental system upon which we depend not only for the quality of our lives, but for life itself.

We face immediate and compelling needs for better protection of life and property from natural hazards, and for & better understanding of the total environment and understanding which will enable us more effectively to monitor and predict its actions, and ultimately, perhaps to exercise some degree of control over them.

We also face a compelling need for exploration and development leading to the intelligent use of our marine resources,

The global oceans, which constitute nearly three-fourths of the surface of our planet, are today the least-understood, the least-developed, and the least-protected part of our earth. Food from the oceans will increasingly be a key element in the world's fight against hunger. The mineral resources of the ocean beds and of the oceans themselves, are being increasingly tapped to meet the growing world demand. We must understand the nature of these resources, and assure their development without either contaminating the marine environment or upsetting its balance.

Establishment of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA—within the Department of Commerce would enable us to approach these tasks in a coordinated way. By employing a unified approach to the problems of the oceans and atmosphere, we can increase

our knowledge and expand our opportunities not only in those areas, but in the third major component of our environment, the solid earth, as well.

Scattered through various Federal departments and agencies, we already have the scientific, technological, and administrative resources to make an effective, unified approach possible. What we need is to bring them together. Establishment of NOAA would do so.

By far the largest of the components being merged would be the Commerce Department's Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA), with some 10,000 employees (70 percent of NOAA's total personnel strength) and estimated Fiscal 1970 expenditures of almost $200 million. Placing NOAA within the Department of Commerce therefore entails the least dislocation, while also placing it within a Department which has traditionally been a center for service activities in the scientific and technological area.

COMPONENTS OF NOAA Under terms of Reorganization Plan No. 4, the programs of the following organizations would be moved into NOAA: -The Environmental Science Services Administration

(from within the Department of Commerce). - Elements of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries

(from the Department of the Interior). -The marine sport fish program of the Bureau of

Sport Fisheries and wildlife (from the Department

of the Interior). - The Marine Minerals Technology Center of the Bu

reau of Mines (from the Department of the Interior). - The Office of Sea Grant Programs (from the National

Science Foundation). -Elements of the United States Lake Survey (from

the Department of the Army). In addition, by executive action, the programs of the following organizations would be transferred to NOAA:

- The National Oceanographic Data Center (from the

Department of the Navy). -The National Oceanographic Instrumentation Center

(from the Department of the Navy). -The National Data Buoy Project (from the Depart

ment of Transportation). In brief, these are the principal functions of the programs and agencies to be combined: THE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SERVIC ADMINISTRATION

(ESSA) comprises the following components: -The Weather Bureau (weather, marine, river and flood

forecasting and warning). -The Coast and Geodetic Survey (earth and marine

description, mapping and charting). -The Environmental Data Service (storage and re

trieval of environmental data). -The National Environmental Satellite Center (obser

vation of the global environment from earth-orbiting

satellites). -The ESSA Research Laboratories (research on physical

environmental problems). ESSA's activities include observing and predicting the state of the oceans, the state of the lower and upper atmosphere, and the size and shape of the earth. It maintains the nation's warning systems for such natural hazards as hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, earthquakes and seismic sea waves. It provides information for national defense, agriculture, transportation and industry.

ESSEA monitors atmospheric, oceanic and geophysical phenomena on a global basis, through an unparalleled complex of air, ocean, earth and space facilities. It also prepares aeronautical and marine maps and charts.

BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES AND MARINE SPORT FISH ACTIVITIES.—Those fishery activities of the Department of the Interior's U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service which are ocean related and those which are directed toward commercial fishing would be transferred. The Fish and Wildufe Service's Bureau of Commercial Fisheries has the dual function of strengthening the fishing industry and promoting conservation of fishery stocks. It conducts research on important marine species and on fundamental oceanography, and operates a fleet of oceanographic vessels and a number of laboratories. Most of its


supplementary legislation to perfect their authorities will be necessary. I look forward to working with the Congress in this task,

In formulating these reorganization plans, I have been greatly aided by the work of the President's Advisory Council on Executive Organization (the Ash Council), the Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources (the Stratton Commission, appointed by President Johnson), my special task force on oceanography headed by Dr. James Wakelin, and by the information developed during both House and Senate hearings on proposed NOAA legislation.

Many of those who have advised me have proposed additional reorganizations, and it may well be that in the future I shall recommend further changes. For the present, however, I think the two reorganizations transmitted today represent a sound and significant beginning. I also think that in practical terms, in this sensitive and rapidly developing area, it is better to proceed a step at a time and thus to be sure that we are not caught up in a form of organizational Indigestion from trying to rearrange too much at once. As we see how these changes work out. we will gain

better understanding of what further changes—in addition to these might be desirable.

Ultimately, our objective should be to insure that the nation's environmental and resource protection activities are so organized as to maximize both the effective coordination of all and the effective functioning of each.

The Congress, the Administration and the public sll share a profound commitment to the rescue of our natural environment, and the preservation of the Earth as a place both habitable by and hospitable to man. With its acceptance of these reorganization plans, the Congress will help us fulfill that commitment.


July 9, 1970.

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activities would be transferred. From the Fish and Wildlife Service's Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, the marine sport fishing program would be transferred. This Involves five supporting laboratories and three ships engaged in activities to enhance marine sport fishing opportunities.

THE MARINE MINERALS TECHNOLOGY CENTER IS concerned with the development of marine mining technology.

OFFICE OF SEA GRANT PROGRAMS.—The Sea Grant Program was authorized in 1966 to permit the Federal Government to assist the academic and industrial communities in developing marine resources and technology. It aims at strengthening education and training of marine specialists, supporting applied research in the recovery and use of marine resources, and developing extension and advisory services. The Office carries out these objectives by making grants to selected academic institutions.

THE U.S. LAKE SURVEY has two primary missions. It prepares and publishes navigation charts of the Great Lakes and tributary waters and conducts research on a variety of hydraulic and hydrologic phenomena of the Great Lakes' waters. Its activities are very similar to those conducted along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts by ESSA's Coast and Geodetic Survey.

THE NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA CENTER is responsible for the collection and dissemination of oceanographic data accumulated by all Federal agencies.

THE NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTATION CENTER provides a central Federal service for the callbration and testing of oceanographic instruments.

THE NATIONAL DATA BUOY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT was established to determine the feasibility of deploying a system of automatic ocean buoys to obtain oceanic and atmospheric data.

ROLE OF NOAA Drawing these activities together into a single agency would make possible a balanced Federal program to improve our understanding of the resources of the sea, and permit their development and use while guarding against the sort of thoughtless exploitation that in the past laid waste to so many of our precious natural assets. It would make possible a consolidated program for achieving a more comprehensive understanding of oceanic and atmospheric phenomena, which so greatly affect our lives and activities. It would facilitate the cooperation between public and private interests that can best serve the interests of all.

I expect that NOAA would exercise leadership in developing a national oceanic and atmospheric program of research and development. It would coordinate its own scientific and technical resources with the technical and operational capabilities of other government agencies and private Institutions. As important, NOAA would continue to provide those services to other agencies of government, industry and private individuals which have become essential to the efficient operation of our transportation systems, our agriculture and our national security. I expect it to maintain continuing and close liaison with the new Environmental Protection Agency and the Council on Environmental Quality as part of an effort to ensure that environmental questions are dealt with in their totality and they benefit from the full range of the government's technical and human resources.

Authorities who have studied this matter, including the Commission on Marine Science, Engineering and Resources, strongly recommended the creation of a National Advisory Committee for the Oceans. I agree. Consequently, I will request, upon approval of the plan, that the Secretary of Commerce establish a National Advisory Committee for the Oceans and the Atmosphere to advise him on the progress of governmental and private programs in achieving the nation's oceanic and atmospheric objectives.

AN ON-GOING PROCESS The reorganizations which I am here proposing afford both the Congress and the Executive Branch an opportunity to re-evaluate the adequacy of existing program authorities involved in these consolidations. As these two new organizations come into being, we may well find that


SUBCHAPTER REFERRED TO IN OTHER SECTIONS This subchapter is referred to in sections 4342, 4344 of this title.

§ 4331. Congressional declaration of national environ

mental policy. (a) The Congress, recognizing the profound impact of man's activity on the interrelations of all components of the natural environment, particularly the profound influences of population growth, highdensity urbanization, industrial expansion, resource exploitation, and new and expanding technological advances and recognizing further the critical importance of restoring and maintaining environmental quality to the overall welfare and development of man, declares that it is the continuing policy of the Federal Government, in cooperation with State and local governments, and other concerned public and private organizations, to use all practicable means and measures, including financial and techni. cal assistance, in a manner calculated to foster and promote the general welfare, to create and maintain conditions under which man and nature can exist in productive harmony, and fulfill the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations of Americans.

(b) In order to carry out the policy set forth in this chapter, it is the continuing responsibility of the Federal Government to use all practicable means, consistent with other essential considerations of national policy, to improve and coordinate Federal plans, functions, programs, and resources to the end that the Nation may

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