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substitute an acceptance for a previous declaration of objection and the amendment previously objected to shall thereupon enter into force for that Party.

3. An acceptance or declaration of objection under this Article shall be made by the deposit of an instrument with the Organisation. The Organisation shall notify all Contracting Parties of the receipt of such instruments.

4. Prior to the designation of the Organisation, the Secretarial functions herein attributed to it, shall be performed temporarily by the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as one of the depositaries of this Convention.

ARTICLE XVI

This Convention shall be open for signature by any State at London, Mexico City, Moscow and Washington from 29 December 1972 until 31 December 1973.

ARTICLE XVII

This Convention shall be subject to ratification. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Governments of Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America.

ARTICLE XVIII

After 31 December 1973, this Convention shall be open for accession by any State. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Governments of Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America.

ARTICLE XIX

1. This Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of the fifteenth instrument of ratification or accession.

2. For each Contracting Party ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the fifteenth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after deposit by such Party of its instrument of ratification or accession.

ARTICLE XX

The depositaries shall inform Contracting Parties:

(a) of signatures to this Convention and of the deposit of instruments of ratification, accession or withdrawal, in accordance with Articles XVI, XVII, XVIII and XXI, and

(b) of the date on which this Convention will enter into force, in accordance with Article XIX.

ARTICLE XXI

Any Contracting Party may withdraw from this Convention by giving six months' notice in writing to a depositary, which shall promptly inform all Parties of such notice.

ARTICLE XXII

The original of this Convention of which the English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Governments of Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America who shall send certified copies thereof to all States.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, being duly authorised thereto by their respective Governments have signed the present Convention. DONE in quadruplicate at London, Mexico City, Moscow and Washington, this twenty-ninth day of December, 1972.

1. Organohalogen compounds.

ANNEX I

2. Mercury and mercury compounds.

3. Cadmium and cadmium compounds.

4. Persistent plastics and other persistent synthetic materials, for example, netting and ropes, which may float or may remain in suspension in the sea in such a manner as to interfere materially with fishing, navigation or other legiti

mate uses of the sea.

5. Crude oil, fuel oil, heavy diesel oil, and lubricating oils, hydraulic fluids, and any mixtures containing any of these, taken on board for the purpose of dumping.

6. High-level radioactive wastes or other high-level radio-active matter, defined on public health, biological or other grounds, by the competent international body in this field, at present the International Atomic Energy Agency, as unsuitable for dumping at sea.

7. Materials in whatever form (e.g. solids, liquids, semi-liquids, gases or in a living state) produced for biological and chemical warfare.

8. The preceding paragraphs of this Annex do not apply to substances which are rapidly rendered harmless by physical, chemical or biological processes in the sea provided they do not:

(i) make edible marine organisms unpalatable, or

(ii) endanger human health or that of domestic animals.

The consultative procedure provided for under Article XIV should be followed by a Party if there is doubt about the harmlessness of the substance.

9. This Annex does not apply to wastes or other materials (e.g. sewage sludges and dredged spoils) containing the matters referred to in paragraphs 1-5 above as trace contaminants. Such wastes shall be subject to the provisions of Annexes II and III as appropriate.

ANNEX II

The following substances and materials requiring special care are listed for the purposes of Article VI (1)'(a).

A. Wastes containing significant amounts of the matters listed below:

arsenic

lead

copper

and their compounds

zinc

organosilicon compounds

cyanides

fluorides

pesticides and their by-products not covered in Annex I.

B. In the issue of permits for the dumping of large quantities of acids and alkalis, consideration shall be given to the possible presence in such wastes of the substances listed in paragraph A and to the following additional substances:

beryllium
chromium
nickel
vanadium

and their compounds

C. Containers, scrap metal and other bulky wastes liable to sink to the sea bottom which may present a serious obstacle to fishing or navigation.

D. Radioactive wastes or other radioactive matter not included in Annex I. In the issue of permits for the dumping of this matter, the Contracting Parties should take full account of the recommendations of the competent international body in this field, at present the International Atomic Energy Agency.

ANNEX III

Provisions to be considered in establishing criteria governing the issue of permits for the dumping of matter at sea, taking into account Article IV (2), include:

A.-Characteristics and composition of the matter

1. Total amount and average composition of matter dumped (e.g. per year). 2. Form, e.g. solid, sludge, liquid, or gaseous.

3. Properties: physical (e.g. solubility and density), chemical and biochemical (e.g. oxygen demand, nutrients) and biological (e.g. presence of viruses, bacteria, yeasts, parasites).

4. Toxicity.

5. Persistence: physical, chemical and biological.

6. Accumulation and biotransformation in biological materials or sediments. 7. Susceptibility to physical, chemical and biochemical changes and interaction in the aquatic environment with other dissolved organic and inorganic materials. 8. Probability of production of taints or other changes reducing marketability of resources (fish, shellfish, etc.).

B.-Characteristics of dumping site and method of deposit

1. Location (e.g. co-ordinates of the dumping area, depth and distance from the coast), location in relation to the other areas (e.g., amenity areas, spawning, nursery and fishing areas and exploitable resources).

2. Rate of disposal per specific period (e.g. quantity per day, per week, per month).

3. Methods of packaging and containment, if any.

4. Initial dilution achieved by proposed method of release.

5. Dispersal characteristics (e.g. effects of currents, tides and wind on horizontal transport and vertical mixing).

6. Water characteristics (e.g. temperature, pH, salinity, stratification, oxygen indices of pollution-dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)-nitrogen present in organic and mineral form including ammonia, suspended matter, other nutrients and productivity). 7. Bottom characteristics (e.g. topography, geochemical and geological characteristics and biological productivity).

8. Existence and effects of other dumpings which have been made in the dumping area (e.g. heavy metal background reading and organic carbon content). 9. In issuing a permit for dumping, Contracting Parties should consider whether an adequate scientific basis exists for assessing the consequences of such dumping, as outlined in this Annex, taking into account seasonal variations.

C-General considerations and conditions

1. Possible effects on amenities (e.g., presence of floating or stranded material, turbidity, objectionable odour, discolouration and foaming).

2. Possible effects on marine life, fish and shellfish culture, fish stocks and fisheries, seaweed harvesting and culture.

3. Possible effects on other uses of the sea (e.g. impairment of water quality for industrial use, underwater corrosion of structures, interference with ship operations from floating materials, interference with fishing or navigation through deposit of waste or solid objects on the sea floor and protection of areas of special importance for scientific or conservation purposes).

4. The practical availability of alternative land-based methods of treatment, disposal or elimination, or of treatment to render the matter less harmful for dumping at sea.

TREATY ON THE PREVENTION OF MARINE POLLUTION BY DUMPING OF WASTES AND OTHER MATTERS, EFFECTIVE AUGUST 30, 1975

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5 Not applicable to Cook Islands, Niue, and Tokelan Islands. Extended to Bailiwick of Guernsey, Belize, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Ducie and Oneo Islands, Faldland Islands and dependencies, Gilbert Islands, Henderson, Hong Kong, Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Jersey. Montserrat, Pitcairn, St. Helena and dependencies, Solomon Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, and United Kingdom Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelai on the Island of Cyprus.

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A REPORT ON HIS PROPOSALS FOR A COMPREHENSIVE
RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

FEBRUARY 12, 1980.-Message and accompanying papers referred to the Committees on Armed Services, Interior and Insular Affairs, Interstate and Foreign Commerce, and Science and Technology and ordered to be printed

59-011 O

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1980

To the Congress of the United States:

Today I am establishing this Nation's first comprehensive radioactive waste management program. My paramount objective in managing nuclear wastes is to protect the health and safety of all Americans, both now and in the future. I share this responsibility with elected officials at all levels of our government. Our citizens have a deep concern that the beneficial uses of nuclear technology, including the generation of electricity, not be allowed to imperil public health or safety now or in the future.

For more than 30 years, radioactive wastes have been generated by programs for national defense, by the commercial nuclear power program, and by a variety of medical, industrial and research activities. Yet past governmental efforts to manage radioactive wastes have not been technically adequate. Moreover, they have failed to involve successfully the States, local governments, and the public in policy or program decisions. My actions today lay the foundation for both a technically superior program and a full cooperative Federal-State partnership to ensure public confidence in a waste management program.

My program is consistent with the broad consensus that has evolved from the efforts of the Interagency Review Group on Radioactive Waste Management (IRG) which I established. The IRG findings and analysis were comprehensive, thorough and widely reviewed by public, industry and citizen groups, State and local governments, and members of the Congress. Evaluations of the scientific and technical analyses were obtained through a broad and rigorous peer review by the scientific community. The final recommendations benefited from and reflect this input.

My objective is to establish a comprehensive program for the management of all types of radioactive wastes. My policies and programs establish mechanisms to ensure that elected officials and the public fully participate in waste decisions, and direct Federal departments and agencies to implement a waste management strategy which is safe, technically sound, conservative, and open to continuous public review. This approach will help ensure that we will reach our objective the safe storage and disposal of all forms of nuclear waste.

Our primary objective is to isolate existing and future radioactive waste from military and civilian activities from the biosphere and pose no significant threat to public health and safety. The responsibility for resolving military and civilian waste management problems shall not be deferred to future generations. The technical program must meet all relevant radiological protection criteria as well as all other applicable regulatory requirements. This effort must proceed regardless of future developments within the nuclear industry-its future size, and resolution of specific fuel cycle and reactor design issues. The specific steps outlined below are each aimed at accomplishing this overall objective.

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