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Although analogies are only suggestive, not rigorous, it is interesting to observe a historical similarity: The scattering of alpha-particles through unexpectedly large angles by atoms of gold led Lord Rutherford about 1911 to the discovery of the nucleus of the atom.

One of the most important areas of research would be in the socalled weak interactions, where it should be possible to observe a new type of particle which has been hypothesized for many years as the agent responsible for the weak interaction, but which has never yet been seen. This particle, the WW, is now predicted to have a mass of about 60-80 GeV, well within the range of Isabelle.

Mr. McCORMACK. Your test here shows 85 GeV-gigaelectronvolt. Dr. VINEYARD. Eighty-five is a typo there. The neutral W should be 85 and charged W, which is written down, should be perhaps 65, according to the best present information.

Mr. McCORMACK. Sixty-five to eighty-five.

Dr. VINEYARD. Sixty-five. Replace 85 by 65.

Mr. McCORMACK. Is there a range between the positive and negative W?

Dr. VINEYARD. Not as far as I'm aware.

Mr. McCORMACK. They're all 85 or all 65?

Dr. VINEYARD. The positive and negative both should be at 65. Mr. McCORMACK. All right. Thank you very much.

Dr. VINEYARD. Observations of these phenomena are expected to bring together all three fundamental forces-weak, strong and electromagnetic-into a unified theory. And not to be forgotten, when exploring a whole new realm of energies, is the opportunity for finding novel and unexpected phenomena. When Columbus sailed west he expected to find India.

The Isabelle, in common with all synchrotrons and storage rings, requires a large number of electromagnets to bend the orbits of its particles. In Isabelle superconducting coils will be used in the magnets. Such magnets produce much higher fields than ordinary magnets, thus saving space and construction cost, and they substantially conserve the overall electric power required for operation, as I believe the committee has heard earlier today.

The superconducting coils must operate at temperatures near absolute zero, and require sophisticated refrigeration systems.

The technology of large high-field superconducting magnets is being advanced by the research on this project, as well as on some other similar ones, and this is expected to have useful impact on other areas, such as magnetic fusion and magneto-hydrodynamics, of interest to the energy problem. Other interesting frontier technologies are involved, including large-scale ultra-high-vacuum systems, and complex computerized control systems.

The basic design calls for two rings more than 2,000 meters in circumference, housed in a single tunnel some 14 feet in diameter and completely shielded with earth. The existing Brookhaven site is quite adequate for the machine.

The cost for the basic machine is estimated to be $125 million, with an additional allowance of $17 million for contingency and $31 million for inflation during the 5 years it would require for construction.

This project has been under consideration since 1971, and under intensive study in all of its aspects since 1974. During this period, ERDA has supported the R. & D. with operating funds and in the last year has supplied construction, planning, and design funds in anticipation of authorization. The proposal has been reviewed and endorsed by a number of groups, including an international summer workshop in 1975, special panels appointed by ERDA for considering the entire national rogram in high energy physics in 1974, and again in 1975, and by the ERDA High Energy Physics Advisory Panel, the so-called HEPAP. Its support is strongly advocated by HEPAP and it is recommended by ERDA as the next major element of a balanced and desirable U.S. high energy program.

Full-scale superconducting magnets for Isabelle have been built and tested at Brookhaven. They have met and surpassed all of their specifications. Other crucial technological elements of the design have been fully explored. We are satisfied that the machine is ready for construction and that it would go far to assure the continuing vigor of this frontier field of scientific investigation.

Even limited authorization for a modest sum in fiscal year 1978 which would allow the start of detailed design, the start of some priority construction, and procurement of some long-lead-time equipment would substantially advance the date of the machine's completion. I urge the committee to help us to exploit this important and urgent opportunity. And I have, Mr. Chairman, a booklet which has some pictures and a bit more detailed story, specifications, and so on which I would like to leave with the committee for use as you desire.

Mr. McCORMACK. All right. Thank you very much.

Dr. VINEYARD. Thank you very much.

Mr. McCORMACK. Before we proceed with Dr. Wilson, Dr. Kane when these witnesses are finished can you give us a little presentation on high energy physics budget request expenditures in 1977 and the administration request for 1978?

Dr. KANE. All right.

Mr. McCORMACK. Just the high energy physics. I'd just like to know what the numbers are, total numbers, operation and construction totals.

Dr. KANE. Yes.

Mr. McCORMACK. Thank you.

Dr. Wilson, would you please proceed?


Dr. WILSON. Thank you.

It is my honor to appear for the first time before this subcommittee. Let me first tell you a little about the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Fermilab, as we call it for short, is a large high energy physics laboratory located just west of Chicago. The site covers 7,000 acres. It is operated under an ERDA contract by the Universities Research Association, which is a nonprofit consortium of 53 major universities throughout America.

Fermilab was established nearly 10 years ago, when funds were made available to build a 200-gigaelectronvolt accelerator. My colleagues at Fermilab are proud that not only did they reach the goal of 200 gigaelectronvolts, but they were able to exceed it. In fact, they

more than doubled that goal when they reached 500 gigaelectronvoltsand they were also able to do that and even returned $6 million of the $250 million of the initial construction funds. Later I will discuss our hopes to double again the 500 gigaelectronvolts, and reach 1,000 gigaelectronvolts.

The accelerator consists essentially of about 1,000 electromagnets which are arranged within a circular tunnel that is 114 miles in diameter, 4 miles around. It is these magnets that guide the protons into circular paths so that they can be accelerated to high energy by many small electrical pushes.

The system was brought into early operation about 5 years ago. Since then, some 1,500 scientists from all over the United States, indeed from all over the world, have completed and have underway hundreds of experiments.

In these experiments we seek to find the simple building blocks of matter, and we want to know about the kinds of force that acts between them. Seeking that knowledge has always led to practical applications in the past. We can anticipate the same to be true for the future, for man must understand the universe if he is to survive in it. But the knowledge is intrinsically important, because it will help us understand the nature of man himself and we all know that man does not live by bread alone.

Although we are a relatively young laboratory, the scientists have already been able to contribute importantly to the discovery of new particles, and they have found evidence to help simplify our notions about force. In particular, their discoveries and their measurements tend to confirm the existence of quarks. Quarks are a hypothetical new kind of particle that may be the simple constituent of the so-called elementary particles, such as the neutron and proton, out of which the nucleus is made.

Although we believe in the existence of these curious particles, the quarks, we have never directly seen one. Instead, we have come to understand that a completely new kind of force appears to operate between the quarks. It seems that the farther apart the quarks are, the greater the force becomes. This is just the opposite as for the force of gravity or the force of electricity.

It seems strange, but it is true, that to explore the very small we need such huge accelerations and such high energies. Partly this is true because we need to strike a harder blow in order to make the smallest piece of matter. A more sophisticated reason is that all matter moves in a wave-like manner and the higher the energy of a particle the smaller is the wave associated with it, and hence the smaller is the bit of matter that we can explore.

In addition to the purely scientific research, we are already seeing some practical application of the building of the accelerators-applications that we did not contemplate when we started the project. For example, a part of the accelerator, the Linac injector, is only used to inject protons in the big accelerator for about 1 second out of 10. Thus, it would rest for about 90 percent of the time.

So we decided to keep it busy instead. Now the Linac is just right for making neutrons at the correct energy for treating cancer. It was learned in England that neutrons are probably superior to X-rays for treating some kinds of cancer. Chicago has an estimated 1,000 cancer

victims each year of the kind that may be suitable for this neutron therapy. We have now treated some 50 patients in a pilot study, and soon we will start to treat a major faction of the others in a scientific study to determine exactly what advantage the neutrons have over X-rays for cancer therapy.

We are also working vigorously at Fermilab on a project related to the conservation of our energy resources. This has to do with superconductors. Much of the electrical energy which is produced is lost uselessly in heating up the copper wire. In a superconductor, that kind of loss is zero.

At Fermilab we have tremendous copper losses in our electromagnets. Our electrical bill is over $7 million a year and would be over $10 million if we ran as much as we could, were there not economic restrictions. If we could replace the copper wire by superconducting wire that is now becoming practical, we should be able to save as much as $5 million per year of electrical energy that is now being lost-not to mention the extreme need to use the $5 million to help run the laboratory.

Now we were originally motivated to use superconductors, not to save energy, but to double our proton energy to 1,000 gigaelectronvolt. We wanted to do that in part because we could see our competing laboratory in Western Europe, CERN, bringing on a slightly larger accelerator than we now have, and with about twice as much operating funds. A superconducting magnet is not only inexpensive to operate, it is inherently better than an iron-copper magnet because it will reach twice the proton energy.

We call this project the energy saver/doubler because of these two benefits. Here is a short sample of the superconducting wire that we plan to use in our magnet [indicating]; and here is a cross-section of the inside of one of these magnets, showing the compactness. In the regular magnet the copper coils would be about 10 times as large as the one I'm holding in my hand, so you can see some of the obvious advantages to this new technique. Around it would be a device to contain the cold, the cryostat, which would be about this large [indicating]; but conventionally built magnets are much larger than that, and much more expensive.

Mr. McCORMACK. Are you using liquid helium in this one?

Dr. WILSON. Yes; the superconducting wire must be cooled to liquid helium temperature before it acquires the magical superconducting property of zero electrical resistance.

Mr. McCORMACK. Could I interrupt just a second? I'd like to just make a point for the record at this time. Last week I went on the floor and objected to the program by both the previous and present. administrations and the Appropriations Committee to terminate our helium conservation program. It has presently been terminated.

This is exactly the sort of thing I was talking about, the fact that superconducting magnets, for instance, will require for the most part helium, and most of our advanced energy technologies depend one way or another upon this. And I want to put this in the record at this point because I may have to use it later on, when we attempt to reinstitute the helium conservation program.

Thank you very much.

Dr. WILSON. I'm glad to hear that. I enthusiastically agree with you. We are particularly sensitive to seeing those resources lost.

Mr. McCORMACK. All right.

Dr. WILSON. It is not practical or even possible to replace the copper conductors in our present magnets by superconductors. What we do propose to do is to build a second ring of superconducting magnets, and place it directly below the present ring of ordinary magnets. We should then be able to transfer the protons from the old ring to the new ring and then carry the energy of the protons to 1,000 gigaelectronvolts. Because the excitation of the old magnets will be much less than now, the energy use in both magnets will be substantially less. As I have already indicated, we anticipate a saving of as much as $5 million per year.

The initial phase of the project has been funded by ERDA as R. & D. work, and our progress has been excellent. We are the largest users of the superconducting wire in the world, and we have developed the capability of several industrial concerns to make superconducting wire at the rate we will need it. We expect to develop the industrial capacity to make complete supermagnets, such as I have shown you.

At present, we have set up a production line to assemble parts that have been fabricated by the industry. Our present production rate is one supermagnet per week and we expect to increase that rate to one supermagnet per day by April. After that, the rate will be determined strictly by the funding of the project. I implore you to recommend a rapid rate of that funding.

Especially in the last 2 years, the superconducting ring project has taken on a new interest, a new importance. This is because we now understand how to use it as a colliding beam facility. The superconducting ring will be an excellent storage ring. Thus, with the superconducting ring full of protons going in one direction, and with the conventional ring full of protons going in the opposite direction, the two beams can be brought together so that head-on collisions occur.

In fact, for the case of our relativistic protons, 30 times more useful energy will be available in the head-on collisions, giving a total useful energy up to about 1,000 billion electronvolts. In that case,our protons in collision will be equivalent to an accelerator that would produce about 1 million billion electronvolts. Such a huge accelerator would require the continent of North America to contain it.

Even more exciting is the possibility that has been opened up by the discovery of a Russian physicist, G. I. Budker, working at Novosibirsk. He has demonstrated a way to stuff negatively charged protons, antiprotons, into an accelerator. This method is more complicated in some aspects, but in other aspects it is simpler and reaches a higher energy. We are pursuing this new method vigorously as, I might say, are our competitors at CERN, where they have a similar accelerator.

I would emphasize that this project, just like the rest of Fermilab, is severely limited by funds. The R. & D. part of the project, which brings us to a circulating beam in the superconducting magnet, was estimated last year to cost $35 million if done rapidly. That meant about $10 million in fiscal year 1977 and about $25 million in fiscal year 1978. We are receiving about $8 million this year, and are designated for $10 million in the Carter budget for fiscal year 1978. I strongly urge an increase of that funding to $20 million in fiscal year 1978.

Why? For one thing, we are ready to go now and are severely limited by funds this year in what we can now do. Costs are going up rapidly.

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