Page images
PDF
EPUB

1978 ERDA AUTHORIZATION
(Conservation, High Energy Physics, and
Basic Energy Sciences)

TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 22, 1977

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, SUBCOMMITTEE ON ADVANCED
ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, AND ENERGY CONSERVATION RE-
SEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE COM-
MITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Washington, D.C.

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 2:25 p.m., in room 334, Cannon House Office Building, Hon. Mike McCormack (chairman of the subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Representatives Mike McCormack (presiding), R. L. Ottinger, Tom Harkin, Jerome A. Ambro, Stephen L. Neal, Dan Glickman, Gary A. Myers and Robert S. Walker.

Mr. McCORMACK. The meeting will come to order.

This afternoon we will hear from the Acting Assistant Administrator for Conservation of Energy Research and Development (ERDA) and his division directors on the subject of fiscal year 1978 requested authorizations.

For many years I have been speaking on energy and have emphasized that there is much we can do with regard to our energy future through conservation. In spite of the fact that we are running out of petroleum and natural gas we must continue to rely on these resources. This along with stringent energy conservation is the only short-range energy policy option available to us at this time.

[Opening statement of Hon. Mike McCormack follows:]

The winter of 1977 merely reaffirms what the oil embargo of 1973 told us so clearly; America's era of energy abundance had come to an end with resounding finality. In the 4 years between these two ominous indicators, many Americans had speculated and vacillated as to whether this was really true or perhaps just the invention of energy magnates. This winter has left few Americans in doubt. Today, we are faced with a reality that our long history of abundance has heretofore denied; that the energy resources on which we depend are finite. We are also faced with the important questions of what energy sources will adequately replace our dwindling supplies of oil, and natural gas and how do we best conserve and use most efficiently that energy that still remains in these United States.

All of this makes today's consideration of ERDA's fiscal year 1978 authorization for conservation of critical importance. But its very nature and necessity our conservation effort must be comprehensive. We cannot expect appreciable results if we utilize heat pumps in our homes but still continue to drive automobiles whose engines drink great quantities of gasoline, draining our precious petroleum reserves.

Because of the importance of developing a national conscience for conserving, scientists, educators, politicians and parents must create a climate for conservation to rescue what remains of our resources and use them to our greatest (1)

advantage. For this reason, the ERDA conservation directors are advocating major budgetary increases for their programs to step-up the momentum in near term conservation research, development and demonstration.

In fiscal year 1978, ERDA's conservation program in transportation will support the three phases of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Act. Today, the power needed for our highway vehicles accounts for more than 50 percent of our petroleum usage.

In studying the patterns of American driving habits, we know that at least half of our automobile trips are 5 miles or less. A 1974 EPA study indicated that nearly 98 percent of daily driving of second cars could be met by a present technology, electric vehicles with a single daily battery charge. ERDA's work to support the Electric Vehicle Act seeks to increase the storage capacity of presently available batteries and adapt other automobile components to develop an efficient and market-acceptable electric car which will serve the Nation's driving needs and safeguard the country's supply of petroleum.

To implement more energy efficient methods and technologies in commercial businesses, industry, and residential complexes, funds have been earmarked for the continuation of the energy extension service pilot program. All the new methods and materials that research can develop to conserve energy are only useful if information on their availability and utilization is disseminated to energy users. It is envisioned that the Energy Extension Service will form the basis for an energy information network funnelling through State and local governmental mechanisms.

The industrial sector in the U.S. consumes 42 percent of all America's energy. Seventy percent of that 42 percent is used by six energy intensive industries-all critical to the Nation's economy. The potential for increasing industrial energy efficiency, just as in other sectors, is very large.

The buildings sector consumes 20% of our energy, but here the conservation program cannot follow the industrial energy conservation approach. A more diverse program is required to achieve optimum energy use in buildings. To do this the program must have a broad range for example, it needs to run from the efficiency of insulation materials to the development of second generation heat pumps, etc.

Conservation is directly related to the survival and stability of the American system. We, as Americans, can no longer luxuriate in yesterday's abundance; we can no longer choose what to conserve and what to waste; we can no longer be casual about our nation's natural endowments. Today conservation must be the by-word of each and every one of us. It must be woven into the present and future fabric of American society.

Today we are going to hear from Dr. Gene G. Mannella, Acting Assistant Administrator for Conservation, Energy Research and Development Administration. Dr. Mannella is accompanied by James McKeown, Assistant Director for Budget; F. F. Parry, Director of the Division of Electrical Energy Systems; Dr. George F. Pezdirtz, Director of the Division of Energy Storage Systems; Dr. John A. Belding, Director of the Division of Conservation Research and Technology; Dr. Maxine Savitz, Director of the Division of Building and Community Systems; Mr. Vincent Esposito, Director of the Division of Transportation Energy Conservation; and Mr. Douglas Harvey, Director of the Division of Industrial Energy Conservation. Dr. Mannella, please proceed.

STATEMENT OF DR. GENE MANNELLA, ACTING ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR CONSERVATION, ERDA, ACCOMPANIED BY DR. F. F. PARRY, DIRECTOR, DIVISION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS; DR. GEORGE F. PEZDIRTZ, DIRECTOR, DIVISION OF ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS; DR. JOHN A. BELDING, DIRECTOR, DIVISION OF CONSERVATION RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY; DR. MAXINE SAVITZ, DIRECTOR, DIVISION OF BUILDING AND COMMUNITY SYSTEMS; VINCENT ESPOSITO, DIRECTOR, DIVISION OF TRANSPORTATION ENERGY CONSERVATION; AND DOUGLAS HARVEY, DIRECTOR, DIVISION OF INDUSTRIAL ENERGY CONSERVATION

Dr. MANNELLA. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. Chairman and members of the committee: I am appearing here before you today to provide an overview of the conservation programs of the Energy Research and Development Administration.

For fiscal year 1978 we are requesting authorization for $311.3 million in budget authority for operating expenses. This represents an increase of $158.4 million over fiscal year 1977. In addition, we are also requesting $7 million in budget authority for plan and capital equipment.

In fiscal year 1978, emphasis on near-term conservation research, development, and demonstration has been increased. For example, the revised fiscal year 1978 request for transportation will support research and development for the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Act, Public Law 94-413. Funds are also included for the continuation of the energy extension service program. Importantly, the proposed fiscal year 1918 program will increase the effectiveness of our work to improve the efficiency of energy utilization in industrial processes, residential and commercial buildings, and transportation. The request will also permit us to give increased emphasis on working closely with business, industry, universities, as well as Government agencies.

This will insure that the conservation technologies which ERDA develops are practical, economically acceptable, and that they are used. The conservation program is organized into several broad areas with varied missions and methods for achieving goals and milestones. For example, in transportation the main thrust is to work with industry to commercial fuel-efficient heat engines and electric vehicles in the shortest possible time.

In the buildings area, our approach is to develop and demonstrate new energy saving technologies. In the industrial and energy conversion areas, the approach is to complement industry's interest in improved efficiency by supporting high-risk, high-payoff process developments and improvements.

Our technology programs, electric energy system, and energy stor age, are closely coupled to the conservation and end-use programs as well as other ERDA programs, such as the solar program.

I believe the conservation programs have made notable progress this past year. Briefly, I will cite a few examples.

(1) During this period we successfully completed a durability test on the baseline gas turbine engine. The engine accumulated the equivalent of over 150,000 miles under stringent test conditions.

(2) We have completed the design on and broken ground for a pilot scale plant to produce methane from urban wastes by anaerobic digestion.

(3) We have also entered into a joint ERDA/Industry program to develop fuel cells. System design has been completed on a 4.8 megawatt fuel cell powerplant and design confirmation is proceeding. Long leadtime components have been ordered, permitting delivery of a 4.8 megawatt fuel cell in mid-1978 for test and evaluation on a utility system.

These projects reflect the diversity of our development effort. With the revised fiscal year 1978 request, a much more vigorous conservation program will be accelerated in many areas, especially on nearterm energy saving projects. Next I will summarize the revised fiscal year 1978 request for each of the conservation programs.

ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

The fiscal year 1978 program includes accelerated efforts to improve efficiency and conserve energy. This includes higher voltage transmission systems, lower loss transmission and distribution materials and equipment, and improved load management. Increased emphasis will be placed on integration of new electrical supply, storage and use technologies such as solar, fuel cells, batteries, and electric vehicles into an overall efficient system.

ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS

The fiscal year 1978 request will permit the advanced storage battery efforts to progress into the engineering development and hardware testing phase. It will also accelerate the development of hydrogen production and distribution technology and allow us to progress from the study phase to the fabrication and testing of hardware for solarmechanical energy storage systems. Our storage work will also assist the development of electric cars by developing battery and flywheel systems for that program.

Under improved conversion efficiency, the fiscal year 1978 program includes a significant effort in the development of fuel cells leading to delivery of a 4.8 megawatt fuel cell for evaluation on a utility grid.

The fiscal year 1978 request also includes prototype development of several heat cycle concepts which could permit higher efficiency and increased cost effectiveness. New projects will be initiated in promising, such as cogeneration.

In the industrial energy conservation area, the fiscal year 1978 program includes near-term efforts in waste heat recovery, improved industrial waste reclamation, improved processes for construction materials, and integrated energy utilization in industrial parks.

« PreviousContinue »