Page images

For FY 1975, $10,750,000 was appropriated for Title IV-D and of this amount $85,000 went to projects specifically identified with Indians.

Data on numbers of Indians is not available. There is no specific age limitation as the program relates to college students.

There is no inhibitor of service to Indians in the program.

University Community Services, Title I, HEA

Program description.-This program provides grants to the States to strengthen community service programs of colleges and universities for the purpose of assisting in the solution of community problems. The program is administered in each State by a State agency designated by the Governor. The State agency establishes program priorities for its State, and approves institutional proposals to be funded. Funds are provided on a 66% Federal and 33% non-Federal basis. A community service project under this Act means an educational program, activity, or service, including a research program and a university extension or continuing education offering, designed to assist in the solution of community problems.

Section 106, Title I authorizes the Commissioner to reserve 10 percent of sums appropriated in order to make "grants to, and contracts with, institutions of higher education (and combinations thereof) to assist them in carrying out special programs and projects . . . which are designed to seek solutions to national and regional problems relating to technological and social changes and environmental pollution." It has been determined that program activities will be limited to either demonstration projects or experimental efforts. Projects must be based on a design for and the implementation of organized continuing education activity for adults.

Either program is applicable to Indians to the degree eligible institutions of higher education develop proposals consistent with the general requirements. For FY 1975, $14,250,000 was appropriated for Title I and of this amount $150,000 went to projects specifically directed to the Indian population.

Data on numbers of Indians is not available. The program is limited to adults. Specific service to Indians under the State-based program would require such a priority in a State Plan which, by statute, is a State determination. There are no exclusions of Indians in other contexts as, for example, disadvantaged, women, and prison inmates.

Training Programs for Higher Education Personnel, Title V-E, HEA

Program description-Fellowships.-This program assists institutions of higher education in the preparation of education personnel for two-year and four-year colleges and universities.

Each fellowship can be granted for up to Two years consisting of a new stipend level in FY 1974 of $3,000 each year of study. In addition to the stipend, a Fellow receives $500 for each dependent. Educational allowances of $3,000 are provided to the institution per year for each Fellow enrolled in the program.

Under this program, funds may not be used to support fellowships leading to a doctorate which are eligible for support under Title IX-B. Panels of academic consultants review institutional applications and after additional staff review, final recommendations are made to the Commissioner.

The program does not focus on any specific minority or ethnic group. For FY 1975, $530,000 was appropriated for Title V-E Fellowships and of this amount $13,000 was awarded to Indians. FY 1975 was the last year of funding. Two Indians are participating under the program at the present time. There is no specific age limitation as the program is available to graduate students. There is no inhibitor of service to Indians in the program.

Program description-Institutes.-This program assists institutions of higher education in training persons who are serving or preparing to serve as teachers administrators or educational specialists in higher education. To accomplish this, training grants are awarded to institutions to help meet the need for well trained higher education personnel.

Special emphasis is directed toward the training of staff of junior colleges, personnel to work with disadvantaged students and serve in developing institu tions, college administrators, personnel to improve undergraduate instruction, education specialists and student personnel service officers.

Grants may support graduate level institutes, short-term training programs and special projects for training higher education personnel. Awards are made on the basis of approved institutional applications.

For FY 1975. $1,570,000 was appropriated for Title V-E Institutes and of this amount $110,000 went to projects specifically identified with Indians.

Data on numbers of Indians is not available. There is no specific age limitation as the program relates to college students.

There is no inhibitor of service to Indians in the program.

Ethnic Heritage Studies Program

This program is designed to provide for a greater understanding of the contributions of one's own ethnic heritage of others to increase intercultural understanding among the culturally diverse population of the United States. The program authorizes grants and contracts with public and private nonprofit educational agencies, institutions and organizations to assist them in planning, developing and operating ethnic heritage studies programs.

Programs for ethnic heritage studies which are proposed must be planned and carried out in consultation with an advisory committee that is representative of the ethnic group or groups with which the program is concerned. Project activities include curriculum material development, and distribution, teacher training, and cooperation with ethnic groups in the community served by each project. Emphasis will be placed on multiethnic endeavors that draw upon the cultural pluralism of the community.

Following is a listing and description of the projects under Title IX funding that have served, or are serving Native Americans. For FY 1974, two of the 42 projects exclusively served Native Americans, for roughly 5 percent of the total appropriation of funds for ethnic heritage studies ($115,000). One of the 42 programs last year partially served Native Americans: the Cuba Schools project which was funded at $11,000. For FY 1975, five of the 49 grants are serving Native Americans for roughly 10 percent of the funds ($175,000 out of the total appropriation of $1.8 million). A grant of $12,000 is also being made to East Los Angeles College which includes Native Americans among several other ethnic groups being served by their program. The 1975 programs are just getting started, and there appear to be no problems with them as yet. The two 1974 projects have gone relatively smoothly, although the Alaska program got started very late, and they are only now accomplishing anything of significance with the development of a film on the culture of Alaska Natives. The South Dakota project last year appears to have produced some very good materials for use essentially in social studies classes (6th grade level) throughout the State.

In FY 1975, five grants were awarded to Indian communities for a total of $175,000.


Major contact

Mid-American All
Indian Center
Wichita, Kans.
University of Ne-
braska, Lincoln,
College of Great
Falls, Great Falls,

University of Utah,
Salt Lake City

University of

Nevada, Reno,

[blocks in formation]

and their heritage.

of Native Americans in Nebraska. EHS program: TV program on Culture and Tradition of Indians.

Paiute and American Len L. Trout...... Training........ Elementary 550 Paiute... 35,000

Indian under

standing through

Education for the Handicapped-Part B

The Education for the Handicapped Program is a national effort to assist the States and outlying areas in the initiation, expansion, and improvement of programs and projects for handicapped children at the preschool, elementary, and secondary levels, and to serve as a catalyst to promote increased programming for children on a comprehensive basis involving various Federal programs and local resources, so that full educational opportunities may be provided to all handicapped children.

Funds are allocated and distributed to the States in proportion to their age (3-12) in the population (minimum $300,000). A portion of these allocations may be used for the administration of educational programs for handicapped children. In Fiscal Year 1975 only, funds are allocated to the States on the basis of the number of children in each State aged 3 to 21, multiplied by $8.75.

Specifically as it relates to Indians, "the Commissioner is authorized for the Fiscal Year ending June 30, 1975, to make payments to the Secretary of the Interior according to the need for such assistance for the education of handicapped children on reservations serviced by elementary and secondary schools operated for Indian children by the Department of the Interior, and the terms upon which payments for such purposes shall be made to the Secretary of the Interior shall be determined pursuant to such criteria as the Commissioner determines will best carry out the purposes of this part. The amount of such payment for any fiscal year shall not exceed 1 per centum of the aggregate amounts to which States are entitled under subsection (b) of this section for that fiscal year."

Revelant programs serving handicapped Indian children in Part B are BIA and Public Schools.

BIA school funds are awarded by the Education of the Handicapped Act as amended by P.L. 93-380. The increased amount for FY 75 funding of $970,950 was a one time only formula based upon congressional legislation. The entire allotment is spent on programs for Indian children.

The Special Education section of BIA makes frequent appraisals of programs for handicapped children and develops needs assessment and establishes priorities for projects to be funded. Area offices are informed of the priorities and reservation schools are encouraged to submit proposals. The Advisory Council then makes recommendations and selections of the projects to be funded together with budget alterations, if necessary. Schools submitting proposals are then informed of the Council's decisions.

According to BIA statistics, about 55,000 Indian children attend BIA administered schools or boarding schools. Approximately 19,500 children of the 55,000 are classified as handicapped. This is approximately 35 percent of the school age population as compared to 12 percent for the national average. This higher than average percentage of handicapped children is attributed to the isolation of families on reservations and the higher incidence of poverty levels. Health department records also indicate a higher incidence of Otitis Media (inflammation of middle ear) due to inadequate treatment.

Special education services have been made available to 4,500 of the 19,500 handicapped children in BIA schools.

Children in BIA schools range from 6 to 18 years of age. In line with the Bureau of Indian Affairs policy of supporting public school attendance, Indian children often are encouraged to attend public schools when they reach the sixth grade and have acquired some facility in the use of the English language. Part B-Public Schools

Many Indian children in the western States attend public schools. These children participate in programs for the handicapped on a qualifying basis of having a handicap.

Part B money is awarded to the State. The Special Education Department usually appoints a coordinator for Part B, EHA funds. Local education agencies are encouraged to submit proposals for projects based on the State's assessment of needs and priorities. Any handicapped children in the public schools is eligible to participate in the project. Selection of projects are made by the States according to the States' procedures.

Funds for the States are based on population of children ages 3 to 21 years with a minimum allocation of $300,000.

In the public schools records have not been maintained on the number of children, ages, and dollars expended for Indian children.

Discretionary Programs are funded for a period of 3-4 years. The following are examples of Discretionary Programs which provide services to Indians.

Early Childhood Programs include Indian children as part of the total population. Each demonstration model includes the following ocmponents; (a) parent participation, to demonstrate meeting the needs of parents and family members for counseling and emotional support, information, opportunity for observation, practice, home carry-over, and involvement in project planning and evaluation; (b) developing and demonstrating procedures for assessment of child progress and program evaluation; (c) provision of inservice training to increase volunteer

paraprofessional and professional staff effectiveness; (d) coordination with other agencies, especially the public school; and (e) dissemination of information to professionals and to the general public concerning comprehensive programming for young children with handicaps.

Total funding for Early Childhood for FY 75 was $346,861.

The Learning Disabilities Program is a program to stimulate State and local provision for comprehensive identification, diagnostic, prescripitive and educational services for all children with specific learning disabilities. Ths forwardfunded program, authorized by Part G of the Education of the Handicapped Act, support model programs and supportive technical assistance, research, and training activities. It also provides for early screening programs to identify these children, and for dissemination of information about the learning disabilities programs. Recognition of this discrete type of handicap has been relatively recent and Federal activities are designed to help define the nature of the disorders, to stimulate adoption of early screening procedures, find approaches to treatment, and to stimulate an increased supply of teachers trained to handle the problems of the affected populations.

Grants and contracts are awarded annually at the Commissioner's discretion through a national competition. Eligible grantees are institutions of higher education, State and local education agencies, and other public and private educational and research agencies or organizations.

The Learning Disability Program involving Cherokee Indians in North Carolina was the sole Indian children program for BIA administered schools. This was a 3 year program-funded for its last year in FY 1975 in the amount $110,000. Problems in Education of the Handicapped Program Structure Which Inhibits Service to Indians

Independent Tribes-In recent years there has been an increasing request from independent tribes for funds for programs for handicapped children. These independent tribes may no longer be eligible for BIA funds because the schools are no longer administered by BIA. They may not be eligible for the State Part B, EHA funds because they are located on Indian reservations.

BIA personnel restrictions and ceilings have militated against the use of Part B, EHA Administrative funds for the proper administration and expansion of programs. There is now only one staff person assigned to Part B programs for the handicapped. The BIA administers education programs from Alaska to Florida. Vocational Education-By Congressional mandate, 10 percent of vocational education money to the States is earmarked for the handicapped. BIA is not included in this program for handicapped children. Consideration should be given for inclusion of BIA in vocational education programs for handicapped children.

Because of its status as a Federal agency the BIA is often excluded from the list of State agencies which may derive educational benefits from Federal programs. Inasmuch as Indian children on reservation school's are thereby denied benefits accorded like children in other schools, this discrimination by lack of recognition should be corrected. Within BEH, the BIA has been denied training grants pertaining to the training of teachers because BIA is specifically not mentioned as a beneficiary of Part D, EHA funds.

Similarly, in an announcement to States in requesting proposals or dissemination of information, the BIA is often forgotten. Indian children are thereby denied benefits accruing to other children because of the lack of inclusion of the BIA as an agency with responsibility for an educational system.

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]


Dr. DEMMERT. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Before I start, let me introduce the members of the staff accompanying me. To my right is my planning officer, Mr. Herb Jacobsen. who is not on the list. To my left, on the far side, Dr. Albert L. Alford, Assistant Commissioner for Legislation, Office of Education; and Mr. Richard A. Hastings, Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Legislation (Education).

Mr. MEEDS. Please proceed.

Dr. DEMMERT. I am very pleased to have this opportunity to speak to you about some of the issues and problems in Indian education today. The problem of providing quality education through federally supported activities is extremely complex.

In the statement that I presented, we have listed three kinds of programs, and I think that it is very important to identify what those three kinds of programs are.

First, we have special legislation for Indians under the special relationship that we hear so much about in the Indian Education Act Second, we have some set-asides in title I, ESEA, bilingual education, and others. Programs in this category, like Public Law 81-874 and Public Law 81-815, are very easy to monitor and identify. Third, we have a substantial number of programs in the Office of Education that Indians participate in as citizens, and not as a result of the special

« PreviousContinue »