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agencies operate the program and allocate funds in accordance with a State plan which includes assurances of administration under the relative need selection criteria, equitable treatment of private schools, and maintenance of effort.
In FY 75 under consolidation, ESEA IV-B will provide approximately $530,000 for this program. ESEA-IV-B and NDEA Title III programs will provide American Indian children school instruction in science, mathematics, and modern foreign language including Indian language.
Library Career Training (HEA II–B)
Total fiscal year 1975 Appropriation: $2,000,000.
Fiscal year 1975 Appropriation for Indian children: $88,047.00.
This program authorizes the Commissioner to make discretionary grants to institutions of higher education and other library agencies to support training in library science and information science at all levels through fellowships, trainee grants and institutes.
In FY 75, $88,047 was allocated to the Library Career Training Program, in two grants and allowed 15 American Indians (average age of 21) to participate in these programs.
Library Research and Demonstration (HEA II–B)
Total fiscal year 1975 Appropriation: $1,000,000.
Fiscal year 1975 Appropriation for Indian children: $170,422.00.
This program enables the Commissioner to make discretionary grants and contracts to public and private organizations and agencies. Program priorities are determined on the basis of legislation, regulations, and published criteria.
The $170,422, FY 75 funds were allotted to the Library Research and Demonstration Program for two grants which served an estimate of 24,000 Indians, of all ages, on nine reservations. Recipient tribes were Apache, Navaho, and Pueblo. In addition, technical assistance provided by the National Indian Education Association for the national Indian community.
Library Services-Grants to Public Libraries (LSCA I) (Library Services and Construction Act)
Total fiscal year 1975 Appropriation: $49,155,000.
Fiscal year 1975 Appropriation for Indian children: $250,000.00.
LSCA, Title I, provides grants to States to provide public library services to areas without services or with inadequate services; strengthens services to specialized groups such as disadvantaged, handicapped, institutionalized, and limited English-speaking ability; strengthens administration at the State level; and strengthens metropolitan and regional resource centers. Authorized activities run the gamut required for developing and operating public library services.
In FY 1975 services were available for an estimated 300,000 Indian children. This program is funded at a level of $250,000 Federal dollars under LSCA, Title I. Services are available both on and off the reservationand includes culture, bookmobile services and special library services to blind and physically handicapped Indians.
One problem in the current program structure which inhibits library services to Indians is the availability of LSCA, Title I funds for Indian reservations. LSCA funds are allotted to the States which in turn fund public library services. Since Indian reservations are Federal property, the States do not have to expand their funds for these library services. Not all States have been able to negotiate for public library services on the reservations, generally as a branch library, but do provide these services in communities adjacent to the Indian reservations.
The purpose of the Teacher Corps "is to strengthen the educational opportunities available to children in areas having concentrations of low-income families and to encourage colleges and universities to broaden their programs of teacher preparation and to encourage institutions of higher education and local educational agencies to improve programs of training and retraining for teachers and teacher aides." It is not a program designed to assist Indians per se, although since the first group of projects began in 1966, 38 Teacher Corps projects have provided educational services to Indian children. During this same period 2 total of some 415 projects were funded. The 415 figure includes the 38 projects which provided educational services to Indians.
Projects which have worked with Indians range from a target population of nearly 100 percent Indian children—e.g., Alaska, North Dakota, South Dakota
to projects in which at least one team worked with a substantially Indian population. In addition to working with a target population of elementary age school children, such Teacher Corps projects have attempted to enroll as many Indians as possible as interns. Some 450 Indians have (or will) become certified teachers and have obtained (or will obtain) a Bachelors or Masters Degree depending on entrance level.
The funding level for Teacher Corps for FY '75 is $37.5 million. Of this $4,963,941 have been expended for service to Indians.
No exact records have been maintained; however, assuming that each of the 38 projects which provided educational opportunities to Indian children had an average of 60 Indian children who received direct or indirect benefits from Teacher Corps interns, a total of some 2,300 Indian children received educational services which would not otherwise have been available to them. Virtually all of these would be elementary school level, ages 6-12.
New legislation (1974) shifted Teacher Corps program focus toward a greater emphasis on retraining existing staff. This has resulted in a reduction of the number of interns and also a need for projects to offer graduate level programs. Many people in the field interpreted these changes as inhibiting services to Indians since there would be fewer interns in projects and most of the established teachers in schools serving Indian children are not Indians. Teacher Corps has confronted this problem directly with those who raised these issues and we believe that satisfactory agreements exist that allow projects to remain true to our legislative mandate while also helping those who are working to bring more Indians into instructional roles in schools serving their children.
The Office of Career Education seeks to demonstrate the most effective methods and techniques in career education and to develop exemplary career education models. As one of the five categories specified, activities designed to demonstrate the most effective methods in career education for special segments of the population as handicapped, minority, low income, or female youth included service to Indians.
Under this category one project was funded, the University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota, OEG-007502313 in the amount of $98,395. The project proposes ultimately to benefit a population of 350 students in South Dakota. The primary target population affected will be in the Marty Indian School. Indians involved are as follows:
Demonstration of the effectiveness of this project will be disseminated to Indians throughout South Dakota.
Education Professional Development
The Education Professions Development Act (EPDA) was amended by the Education Amendments Act of 192, Title IV, Part E. That amendment added Section 32 to Part D of EPDA and reads as follows:
"SEC. 532. Of the sums made available for the purposes of this part, not less than 5 per centum shall be used for grants to, and contracts with, institutions of higher education and other public and private nonprofit agencies to serve as teachers of children living on reservations serviced by elementary and secondary schools for Indian children operated or supported by the Department of the Interior, including public and private schools operated by Indian tribes and by nonprofit institutions and organizations of Indian tribes. In carrying out the provisions of this section preference shall be given to the training of Indians."
It should be noted that the Office of Education has never requested funds for this program and the program has thus never been a line item in the budget. In the joint committee report on the FY 1975 budget, the Congress pointed out that it expected the full five percent set-aside to be honored.
In FY 1975, five percent of Part D totaled $406,950. These funds were awarded in June to enable eight existing projects to continue for one more year (Academic Year 1975-76) at reduced levels of support. Seven of the projects support a total of 334 participants who are undergoing either full or part-time training toward eventual teacher certification. The eighth project supports five full-time graduate students in the area of guidance and counseling. All participants are Indian.
Five of the grants were made to Indian tribes or organizations. The other three are to universities. Some of the training takes place on site (in the communities) and some is on college campuses. The eight projects, their level of funding, and a brief description of each follows:
Funding level Description
$50,022 30 full-time undergraduate students (15 each semester) work as teaching interns in rural schools having a large percentage of Indian students.
50,000 79, 471 53,056 50,000
11 participants work a half day as teacher aides and attend
time. This project supplements a grant under the Indian
Basic Educational Opportunity Grant Program
Description of program.—This program provides direct grants to help quali fied undergraduate students finance their postsecondary education. At full-funding, the program provides grants to students of $1,400, less expected family contribution, but not to exceed one-half the cost of attendance. Also, at full-funding, no grant of less than $200 will be paid. In the event that full-funding is not achieved, reduction factors are applied to pro-rate the students' entitlement downward based on the existing appropriation.
Basic Grant applications are placed in locations easily accessible to students, who, upon completion, submit the forms to an OE contractor for determination of expected family contribution. After the calculation is made, the contractor will send a multi-copy certification of the student's family contribution. The student can then apply to the institution of his choice for admission and financial assistance. Institutions will be provided with OE criteria for determining cost of attendance and a payment schedule based on the appropriation. With this information, institutions will be able to determine the student's basic grant and begin development of his total student aid package.
No preference is given to students from a specific ethno-racial background.
Note. These estimates were derived by determining the percent of Indians receiving SEOG grants (.9 percent) and multiplying the total obligation and total number of recipients by this percentage.
The Division of Student Support and Special Programs administers three college-based programs:
1. The National Direct Student Loan Program which is a low-cost, deferred repayment loan program funded in ninety (90) percent with Federal monies, and ten (10) percent with institutional monies.
FY 75 Total funding level : $300,200,000.
2. The College Work-Study Program through which an institution provides work on or off-campus for students, which is funded eighty (80) percent with Federal monies, and twenty (20) percent with institutional monies. FY 75 Total funding level : $321,000,000.
3. The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants Program which is a grant program for students, which is funded one hundred (100) percent with Federal monies.
FY 75 Total funding level : $242,385,000.
The most essential condition of an applicant's eligibility for aid under these three programs is that he or she be in need of the requested assistance to pursue his or her course of study. These programs are administered in their entirety by participating postsecondary institutions for their needy students who are enrolled for at least a half-time course of study. The work and loan programs are available to undergraduate or graduate students. The grant program is limited to undergraduate students. Indian students meeting the test of eligibility may receive funds from these programs to pursue their course of study just as any other needy enrolled student. The monies are not earmarked for any particuler ethnic group. Rather, institutions are funded under these programs through a statutory formula. The level of funding, therefore, bears no real relationship to the number of Indian students aided. In Fiscal Year 1974 (latest year for which data is available) the unduplicated number of Indian students aided under these programs was 8,563 in the amount of $6,509,849. All students aided were of college age.
Total funds to aid Indians, $6,509,849.
Total number of Indians aided, 8,563.
As stated before, the most essential condition for eligibility under these programs is need. Recently a regulation (Federal Register, Vol. 40, No. 46, 3/7/75) was proposed which, if adopted, would insure that a BIA grantee would receive no fewer dollars in Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant funds than would be the case if he were not to receive a BIA grant. The proposed rule would require that the aid package for a BIA grant recipient be consistent in types and amounts with the aid packages for students who are most eligible for BIA grants. Then, if the aid package exceeds the student's need when the amount of his BIA grant is included, the reduction to the level of his need shall be accomplished by first removing the excess from any amount awarded as loans. If any excess remains after all loan awards have been deducted, awards in the form of WorkStudy shall be reduced unless an excess above need still remained after the entire Work-Study award had been deducted.
The Special Programs for Students from Disadvantaged Backgrounds consists of four programs designed to equalize educational opportunities for persons of deprived economic, educational, or cultural backgrounds or with physical handicaps. The programs specifically are:
1. The Talent Search Program which provides secondary school students with assistance in preparing admissions and application forms for postsecondary education, encourages secondary and postsecondary school dropouts to return to appropriate educational programs, and disseminates information on all sources of available aid that can be applied toward postsecondary educational pursuits.
2. The Upward Bound Program which is designed to provide secondary school students with the academic skills necessary to complete secondary schools and enter postsecondary education. Students during the academic year receive tutoring and personal, career, and academic counseling. During the summer, students live on the campus of the host institution and participate in an intensive academic program for 6-8 weeks. During this time students also participate in cultural activities or undertake field trips over the weekends.
3. The Special Services for Disadvantaged Students Program which is designed to enable students who are enrolled in institutions to complete their educational programs. Students are provided tutoring, academic, career and personal counseling and guidance, remedial and special classes. Other supportive services that will enable students to remain in school are provided with adequate financial aid.
4. The Educational Opportunity Centers which are located in areas with major concentrations of low-income residents. The centers provide assistance to all
residents in the area. Some services provide assistance in obtaining financial aid from colleges and universities. Centers provide tutoring to residents who are currently enrolled in postsecondary education. Centers serve as recruiting sites for all institutions seeking to enroll disadvantaged students as well as serving as a clearinghouse on counseling and tutoring techniques that have been successful with disadvantaged students.
There is no prohibition against Indians being served by these programs. For the first three programs participants must be citizens or nationals of the U.S., low-income, and in need of program services. Any person, residing in an area where an EOC is located can be served by the center.
SPECIAL PROGRAMS: TALENT SEARCH, UPWARD BOUND, SPECIAL SERVICES, EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY CENTERS
[Estimated 1 level of program support for American Indian participants during fiscal year 1975 (fiscal year 1974 funds)]
Description.-The SSIG program is designed to encourage States to develop or expand programs of grant aid to students in "substantial financial need" attending eligible institutions of postsecondary education. States are responsible for the selection of grant recipients. However, selection criteria is subject to review by the Commissioner. Individual students' grants are limited to $1,500 per academic year.
SSIGP is a 50/50 cost-sharing (State/Federal) program under which Federal funds are allotted/reallotted to the States based on a formula reflecting current student attendance patterns. Reallotment is permitted if a State does not use its current allotment. Disbursements are made directly from the Federal government to the States and from the States to postsecondary institutions on behalf of students. Since there is no prescribed aid allocation procedure, a State may employ any distribution procedure that falls within the overall scope of the statute.
States are required to administer the funds through a single State agency to maintain effort. New initial grants under SSIGP must be in excess of the amounts provided by the State two fiscal years prior to the year the State initially receives aid under the SSIG program.
Data on number of participants by ethnic-racial background is not available. OE forms clearance has restricted SSIG from requesting such data from participants.
Developing Institutions Programs
Program purpose and operations. This is a program of special assistance to strengthen the academic quality of developing institutions. As stipulated by law, developing institutions are defined as: (1) those providing an educational program which awards B.A. or A.A. degrees, (2) those accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association or making reasonable progress toward accreditation, (3) satisfying both of the above stipulations during the five academic years preceding the academic year for which assistance is sought (waivers may be made for institutions which serve to increase higher education for Indians and Spanish-speaking people), (4) being public or non-profit, and (5) meeting such other requirements as the Commissioner shall prescribe by regu