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In addition, we work cooperatively with organizations and Federal agenc involved in Indian education to obtain the best possible educational legislatio and programs for Indian people. We commend the National Indian Educ Association, the Coalition of Indian Controlled School Boards, the Institute fat the Development of Indian Law and the American Indian Higher Educati Consortium for their dedication and perserverance in this field. The Nati Congress of American Indians supports the statements submitted by the NIE and the IDIL and wishes to re-emphasize the need for a thorough review of the responsibility of the U.S. Office of Education and the policies of the Office d Indian Education. We also recommend an evaluation of the role of the Nation Advisory Council on Indian Education and the goals, priorities and authority of the Council.

On January 4, 1975 President Ford signed the Indian Self-Determinatis and Education Assistance Act (PL 93-638). NCAI was instrumental in the deve opment of that legislation and has continually supported the concepts and pro sions as set forth in that act. The implications that the act holds for the futur of Indian people are crucial in terms of actualization of the philosophy of determination," especially in the areas of Indian education. The 1974 amendment to the Johnson O'Malley Act advocates this viewpoint by authorizing and s tioning the participation of Indian parent education committees in the des and approval of JOM programs. However, this philosophy must be reinformed and the substance of the 1974 amendments maintained by the Public Law title II regulations to fully ensure the implementation of this important piece legislation in Indian education.

The Self-Determination Act contains tremendous potential opportunities for the Indian community. Yet, how has the BIA Education Division commence the enormous preparations necessary to meet the demands outlined in the The BIA Education Division received $226,495,000.00 in funding for FX 78 approximately one-third of the total budget of the Bureau of Indian Affair Obviously, Congress has recognized the importance of providing a meaning education system for American Indians by allocating this percentage of fundi during the past three years. Why, then, do the "alarming statistics" concerning the illiteracy and drop-out rates of Indian students seem to increase as, ironically the money spent in Indian education also increases? Why did the BIA find i necessary to turn back three million dollars in title I alone last year, vital Off of Education monies which provide services to disadvantaged children, whe teachers of Indian students can't conduct a classroom adequately simply for want of supplies? What steps must be taken to secure quality educational stand

ards for Indian students?

In any bureaucratic system, educational or otherwise, there are basic expects tions which must be met in order for that system to efficiently serve its consti uency. Goals and priorities should be established, standard procedure and policy formulated, systematic planning maintained and communication sustained so that the structure is basically operative. Over the past three years, BIA education has been outstandingly deficient in any of the basic criteria mentioned above. It is unfortunate that my testimony must address such general areas of concer but basic problems in the structure and organization of the BIA Education Division must be resolved before the more specific issues may be confronted. Two recent instances may be cited as symtomatic of this perpetual state of BIA chaos. The rationale behind the decentralization of the Central Office of Education Division to Albuquerque remains a mystery. How does this move facili tate the much-needed cooperation and coordination between BIA education and the Washington, D.C.-based U.S. Office of Indian Education. In a system which is inherently complex in its organizational structure anyway, this move servei only to enhance confusion on the part of Indian people and inefficiency, on the part of the BIA in serving the educational needs of Indians, as well as addi to administration costs and further depriving Indian children of a sufficien

education.

The distribution formula for Johnson O'Malley Fund, those moneys specifically allocated to provide special educational programs for Indian children, is anothe enigma. This controversy is so ancient that the original regulations may be fo in the form of Navajo rock paintings. The present formula, which was devised in response to the 1974 amendment in an attempt to equate the moneys spent drastically cuts funding in several States affecting planning and programs.

Typically, the policy for awarding JOM moneys was never standardized according to specific criteria other than perpetual cost expenditure based on State education expenditures. The number of Indian students served in each BIA area, absurdedly enough, has not been a factor in making this determination. Furthermore, the States are very often the parties responsible for receiving and for the administration of these programs. Title II of Public Law 638 mandates an analysis of the distribution and application of these special education funds, taking into consideration the myriad complex factors such as the actual need for basic support by the States, prorata requirements, etc. NCAI requests support of the definitive study of JOM currently in process under the auspices of NIEA, acting as an independent contractor, so that tribes will finally have a consistent, predictable procedure through which to implement their education programs. Finally, NCAI, recommends that the subcommittee review the overall organization of the BIA Education Division. How is that agency structured to deal efficiently with the specialized areas of educational programs and problems confronting a minority groups as unique and diverse as the American Indian Community? These basic organizational issues should also be analyzed in relation to the efforts that have made by BIA to determine exactly what the educational needs and desires of Indian people are and, if and when this assessment has been made, their accessibility and willingness to work cooperatively with Indian people to provide those services requested. NCAI recommends that, in conducting its investigation, the subcommittee review the mechanism within this division for approaching specialized aspects of education. Are these offices amply equipped to deal solely with areas of critical concern such as early childhood, curriculum development, teacher training, bilingual education, emotionally disturbed children, gifted children, etc.

In April, 1975, Commissioner Thompson signed the charter for the Institute of American Indian Arts authorizing that institution of higher education to seek accreditation as a junior college. NCAI applauds this action but feels that a special division for higher education located in the Washington office should be created which will be responsible for the three BIA junior colleges, the institute, Haskell and Southwest Indian Polytechnic Institute, and the particular focus Overall that American Indian higher education should take. The joint council of regents of those institutions have been advocating the creation of this special division for the past five years, meeting only opposition within the BIA. Reservation boarding schools, day schools, and off-reservation day schools represents another issue which warrants closer examination. Although potentially an avenue for educational innovation and emphasis on the goals of the Indian community, these schools have degenerated into grey institutions offering little in programs to motivate their students. These schools have, moreover, become drop-off centers for Indian students with emotional problems who often shuttle between schools because no attempt is made to keep track of their activities. Their condition becomes only aggravated in this worthless environment. Gentlemen, your trip to Alaska will give you the opportunity to investigate, in particular, the situation of these students. Many of these Indian students reside in foster homes, homes that has been selected indiscriminately, following no criteria or set standards except that the families will be subsidized for their cooperation. Does this attitude reflect a sensitive approach to Indian students and their problems?

Finally, in looking towards implementation of Public Law 638, how does the present contracting or grant award procedure assist the efforts of tribes who wish to develop their own programs in education? For that matter, what is the policy and criteria established to coordinate these efforts? NCAI requests an investigation of and report on the practices and procedures of the BIA education office, especially in light of the obligations set forth in Public Law 638. Furthermore, we request that the subcommittee issue directive creating a task force of Indian educators and BIA education staff which would work together for a specified period to ensure that comprehensive planning and restructuring of BIA education takes place and that PL 638 is enacted as fully intended. It is important as Public Law 638 moves forward, to begin immediately developing a specialized planning effort for education within the tribal structure. That vital piece of legislation must not become another victim of BIA in-house incompetency.

Thank you very much.

62-746-76- -13

NCAI 31ST ANNUAL NATIONAL CONVENTION, OCTOBER 21-25, 1974, SAN DIE

CALIF.

EDUCATION RESOLUTIONS

RESOLUTION No. NCAI-74-14-EMPLOYMENT POLICY AT INTERMOUNTAIN Whereas, concerns of Indian parents expressed on the floor of the educati committee workshop at the 1974 National Congress of American Indians 24dressed the issue of staffing at Intermountain Indian School; and

Whereas, that concern was related to recent incidents and disturbance betwe students, faculty and staff as reflected in the seven-point report made by th Task Force to Commissioner Thompson on October 5, 1974; and

Whereas, the Bureau of Indian Affairs at said meeting has implied that setrity may be maintained by the addition of local police; and

Whereas, Indian parents and educators recognize the need for more effecti counseling and a more realistic ratio of service personnel;

Now therefore, be it resolved, that the Bureau of Indian Affairs Administra tion take immediate steps to improve said ratio by involving through employe or reassignment, personnel who can respond culturally and humanistically *« serve the safety and welfare of the student body of Intermountain School.

RESOLUTION No. NCAI-74-15-RESTRUCTURING INTERMOUNTAIN SCHOOL ADVISORY BOARD

Whereas, the composition of the student body of Intermountain School is changing as a result of the Navajo Nation's self-imposed phaseout of particije. tion; and

Whereas, Intermountain School admissions have been opened for eligie Indian students from all tribes throughout the United States for the prese and future academic years; and

Whereas, the composition of the advisory board has not reflected this ne inter-tribal profile;

Now therefore be it resolved, that immediate steps be taken to restructure said advisory board and staff personnel to represent the broad service area.

RESOLUTION No. NCAI-74-16-HIRING OF POTENTIAL INDIAN TEACHERS IN EPDA PROGRAMS

Whereas, thirty-two programs of the Teachers of Indian Children Division of Education and Professions Development Act (EPDA) are funded and operationa) during this Fiscal Year; and

Whereas, approximately 1500 people mostly Indian are being prepared for professional education careers under these programs which are administered ind vidually by the apparent institution or agency; and

Whereas, there exists a disproportionate ratio of non-Indian to Indian certified (credentialled) personnel in Bureau of Indian Affairs and public schools serving a significant number of Indian students;

Now therefore be it resolved, that the Bureau of Indian Affairs establish official liaison between the personnel recruitment office in all Bureau of Indian Affairs areas and the directors of those existing EPDA programs so that availabie potential teachers who are Indian may be considered by employment in the Bureau of Indian Affairs system;

Be it further resolved, that Area Education Officers assist EPDA projects in potential field placement of Indian teacher trainees as student teachers in Burea schools.

RESOLUTION No. NCAI-74-23-SUPPORT OF INDIAN CONTROLLED COLLEGES

Whereas, the various Indian communities recognize and desire to control and direct their own destiny in education form themselves and their children through the Treaties and Agreements and Federal legislation such as the Indian Education Act of 1972; and

Whereas, there are various communities which have begun a concerted effort to provide post secondary education through the establishment of community based colleges and similarly locally controlled learning centers; and

Whereas, the Federal Government through the Bureau of Indian Affairs had indicated that no mechanism exists to authorize, account, and fund Indian con

trolled community colleges or similar centers on a short or long term basis; and Whereas, the Federal Department of Health, Education and Welfare, via the Higher Education Act of 1965 As Amended, has made only 1.4% of a total $100 million available for Fiscal Year 1974 to such community colleges;

Whereas, the following ten (10) tribes are currently engaged in the community college function: 1) Turtle Mountain, 2) Sisseton-Wahpeton, 3) Fort Berthold, 4) Standing Rock, 5) Pine Ridge, 6) Rosebud, 7) Santee Sioux, 8) Winnebago, 9) Omaha, 10) Navajo; and

Whereas, Tribes in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana are in the process of initiating community colleges.

RESOLUTION No. NCAI-74-25-INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER LEARNING CONSULTATION WITH TRIBES

Whereas, non-Indian institutions of higher education and other organizations have made a practice of applying for federal and foundation grants for programs to serve American Indian Tribes, but have not always consulted the tribes beforehand;

Now therefore be it resolved, that all non-Indian universities and organizations take cognizance of American Indian self-determination by first obtaining tribal resolutions of endorsement and input before they submit grant applications to receive federal, state, and private funds for programs that are designed to serve American Indian tribes.

RESOLUTION No. NCAI-74-27-CONTRACTING OF BIA SERVICES

Whereas, the National Congress of American Indians strongly supports the efforts of Indian tribes and tribal subsidiary organizations to contract for the operation of BIA programs for their members and the policy of the Secretary of the Interior to respond affirmatively to tribes which wish to contract; and Whereas, the Bureau's new policy of local management options for BIA schools is misconceived in that it places authority for moving forward with contracting in the hands of BIA Area Directors, instead of in the hands of federally recognized Indian tribes which is necessary if self-determination in education is to be successful; and

Whereas, under this new policy, Area Directors have selected schools for inclusion in the local management plan without local tribal input or advice, which destroys the possibilities of self to function; and

Whereas, the plan and the description thereof contained in the August 1974 BIA progress report, "Control of Indian Education in BIA Schools," may create distrust and misunderstanding which will lead Indian people to oppose the policy of Indian self-determination;

Now therefore be it resolved, that the National Congress of American Indians hereby urges the Bureau of Indian Affairs to carry out the policy of Indian selfdetermination by contracting BIA programs to those federally recognized Indian tribes which elect self-determination as an approach to improve Indian Education; and

Be it further resolved, that the policy of the Bureau of Indian Affairs should be to facilitate, encourage and support federally recognized Indian tribes to achieve the goals which the Indians select, not to dictate pre-determined solutions, which destroys Indian self-determination; and

Be it further resolved, that the Bureau of Indian Affairs should develop policies for the implementation of Indian self-determination in close consultation and cooperation with elected Indian tribal representatives.

RESOLUTION No. NCAI-74-28-PROGRAMS FOR INDIAN CHILDREN WITH

SPECIAL NEEDS

Whereas, the BIA Education Office has not adequately provided services to American Indian children who are handicapped, gifted and talented even though these special children are entitled by treaty right to receive educational services to meet their needs; and

Whereas, the HEW/OE Bureau for the education of the handicapped and Bureau for the gifted and talented have not adequately provided programs for American Indian children requiring special education; and

Whereas, American Indian children who are tribally, culturally, and linguistically diverse, require programs that are unique to their diverse needs;

Now therefore be it resolved, that BIA and the Office of Education begin to address the Special Education needs of handicapped, gifted and talented childra from the diverse tribes by providing appropriate programs and funding; and

Be it further resolved, that the BIA and OE sponsor meetings for Americat Indian Special Education and other Indian educators so that appropriate criteria for handicapped and gifted categories can be determined and special program can be designed.

RESOLUTION No. NCAI-74-33-PREPARATION OF TEACHERS FOR INDIAN

SCHOOLS

Whereas, Schools of Education in institutions of post secondary education have inadequately prepared teachers to teach Indian children; and

Whereas, the Legislature of the State of Montana passed House Joint Resor tion 60 and House Bill 343; and

Whereas, this legislation directs the State of Montana to establish a master pian for enriching the instructional background of all public school teachers through studies of American Indian cultures; and

Whereas, this legislation establishes credit requirements for primary and seeondary teachers developed with the advice and assistance of Indian people, cos stituting instruction in history, traditions, customs, values, beliefs, ethics, and contemporary affairs of American Indians;

Now therefore be it resolved, that the National Congress of American Indians hereby recommends that all state legislatures with significant Indian popels tions immediately adopt appropriate legislation to direct the development of American Indian culture master study plans for public school teachers, and direct course requirements for teachers in primary and secondary schools that are located on or near Indian reservations.

RESOLUTION No. NCAI-75–35-SUPPORT OF TRIBAL CONTRACTING AND S-1017

Whereas, the National Congress of American Indians strongly supports the efforts of Indian tribes and tribal organizations to contract for the operation of BIA programs for their members and the policy of the Secretary of the Interior to respond affirmatively to tribes which wish to contract; and

Whereas, the Bureau's new policy of local management options for BIA schools is misconceived in that it places authority for moving forward with contracting in the hands of BIA Area Directors, instead of in the hands of Indian tribes and communities, which is necessary if self-determination in education is to be suc cessful; and

Now therefore be it resolved, that the National Congress of American Indians hereby urges the Bureau of Indian Affairs to carry out the policy of Indian selfdetermination by contracting BIA programs to those Indian tribes and communities which elect self-determination as an approach to improve Indian Education: and

Be it further resolved, that the Bureau of Indian Affairs should develop policies for the implementation of Indian self-determination in close consultation and cooperation with elected Indian tribal representatives;

Be it also further resolved, that NCAI does fully support S. 1017 with an aforementioned revision and urges its immediate adoption and implementation.

RESOLUTION No. NCAI-74-38-BIA HIGHER EDUCATION FUNDS

Whereas, the enrollment of Indian students at universities and colleges has increased more rapidly than the funds available; and

Whereas, inflation has forced the increase of education expenses; and Whereas, this lack of secure funding will result in terminated education or no education for some; and

Whereas, the recent failure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to accept the selfdevelopment of the Indian community regarding the immediate need for a minimum of $18,768,000 add-on in the scholarships for higher education will result in many Indian students being unable to complete their education; and

Whereas, the Bureau of Indian Affairs policy of allowing only supplemental funding to Indian college students may result in many Indian college students not receiving any financial aid at all;

Now therefore be it resolved, that the National Congress of American Indians demands that the Bureau of Indian Affairs review its decision to reject the

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