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(i) A retroactive adjustment in the periodic rate of annuity or any deduction taken from annuity when the adjustment is a result of the annuitant's election of different entitlements under law, if the adjustment is made within 120 days of the effective date of the election; or

(ii) interim estimated payments made before the formal determination of entitlement to annuity, if the amount is recouped from the total annuity payable on the first day of the month following the later of

(A) The last interim payment or

(B) The date the formal determination is made.

(f) Collection of delinquent debts. (1) Debts delinquent over 180 days. The Benefits Administrator must refer all overpayment debts that are over 180 days delinquent to the Secretary for collection pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3711(g) and 3716, and 31 CFR part 901.

(2) Debts delinquent less than 180 days. Once an overpayment debt becomes delinquent, the Benefits Administrator should refer it to the Secretary for collection by centralized administrative offset pursuant to 31 CFR 901.3, unless collection of the debt by some other means is likely to occur in a more timely and efficient manner.

(3) Once a debt is referred under this subsection, the Benefits Administrator has no further obligation to collect the debt.

§ 29.517 Collection by offset.

(a) Offset from retirement payments. An overpayment may be collected in whole or in part from any refund payment or recurring Federal Benefit Payments.

(b) Offset from other payments—(1) Administrative offset. When offset under subsection (a) is not available, an overpayment may be offset from other Federal payments due the debtor from other agencies under the procedures set forth in 31 CFR part 5 and 31 CFR 901.3(c).

(2) Salary offset. When the debtor is an employee of the Federal Government, the Department may effect collection of an overpayment by offset of the debtor's pay in accordance with regulations published to implement such offsets under 5 U.S.C. 5514 (see 5 CFR part 550, subpart K; 31 CFR 285.7;

and 31 CFR Part 5). Due process described in the federal salary offset regulations of 31 CFR part 5 will apply. When the debtor did not receive a hearing under those regulations and requests such a hearing, one will be conducted in accordance with 5 CFR part 550, subpart K and 31 CFR part 5.

(3) Tax refund offset. The Department may effect collection of an overpayment by offset of the debtor's tax refund in accordance with the Department's tax refund offset regulations found at 31 CFR part 5.

$29.518 Reporting delinquent debts to credit bureaus.

(a) Notice. If a debtor's response to the demand letter does not result in payment in full, payment by offset, or payment in accordance with a voluntary repayment agreement or other repayment schedule acceptable to the Benefits Administrator, and the debtor's rights under § 29.512 through § 29.514 have been exhausted, the Benefits Administrator must report the debtor to a credit bureau. In addition, a debtor's failure to make subsequent payments in accordance with a repayment schedule must result in a report to a credit bureau. Before making a report to a credit bureau, the Benefits Administrator must notify the debtor in writing that

(1) The payment is overdue;

(2) The Benefits Administrator intends, after 60 days, to make a report as described in paragraph (b) of this section to a credit bureau;

(3) The debtor's right to dispute the liability has been exhausted under § 29.512 through §29.514; and

(4) The debtor may avoid having the Benefits Administrator report the debtor to a credit bureau by paying the debt in one lump sum or making payments current under a repayment schedule.

(b) Report. If, after being sent the notice described in paragraph (a) of this section, the debtor does not pay the overpayment debt or make payments current under a repayment schedule or fails to respond to the notice, and 60 days have elapsed since the notice was mailed, the Benefits Administrator will report to a credit bureau that the

debtor is responsible for an unpaid debt and provide the following information:

(1) The debtor's name, address, taxpayer identification number, and any other information necessary to establish the identity of the individual;

(2) The amount, status, and history of the debt; and

(3) The fact that the debt arose in connection with the administration of Federal Benefit Payments under a District Retirement Fund.

(c) Subsequent reports. The Benefits Administrator must update its report to the credit bureau whenever it has knowledge of events that substantially change the status or the amount of the liability.

(d) Other reporting of delinquent debts. Pursuant to 31 CFR 901.4, delinquent overpayment debts should be reported to the Department of Housing and Urban Development's Credit Alert Interactive Voice Response System (CAIVRS).

(e) Privacy Act considerations. A delinquent debt may not be reported under this section unless a notice issued pursuant to the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(4), authorizes the disclosure of information about the debtor to a credit bureau or CAIVRS.

§ 29.519 Referral to a collection agen


(a) The Department retains the responsibility for resolving disputes, compromising debts, referring overpayment debts for litigation, and suspending or terminating collection action.

(b) The Department may not refer overpayment debts to commercial collection agencies until all procedures required by or requested under §29.511 through § 29.514 have been completed.

§ 29.520 Referral for litigation.

The Department may refer to the Justice Department for litigation overpayment debts which cannot be compromised or waived, or on which collection activity cannot be suspended or terminated, and which the Department has been unable to recover pursuant to the collection activity described in § 29.511 through $29.519. (See 31 CFR part 904.) Such debts should be referred to the Justice Department as early as

possible, but at least within 1 year of the date such debts last became delinquent. In the case of overpayments arising from fraud, misrepresentation, or the presentation of a false claim, referral should be made to the Justice Department immediately. (See 31 CFR 900.3(a).) Referral of a debt to the Justice Department will suspend processing under § 29.511 through §29.519 of this subpart.


§ 29.521 Conditions for waiver and other adjustments.

(a) General. Overpayments made from the Retirement Funds will be recovered unless there is substantial evidence that the individual from whom recovery is to be made is eligible for waiver.

(b) Waiver. The Department may waive an overpayment from the Retirement Funds (provided there is no indication of fraud, misrepresentation, or lack of good faith on the part of the debtor) under sections 11021(3) or 11251(c)(2)(B) of the Act when it is established by substantial evidence that the individual from whom recovery is to be made

(1) Is not at fault in causing or contributing to the overpayment, and

(2) Recovery would be against equity and good conscience.

(c) Adjustment in the installment schedule. (1)(i) An overpayment will not be waived because of financial hardship if a reasonable installment schedule can be established for repayment of the debt by adjusting the installment schedule originally established.

(ii) For example, if the Department finds that the original installment schedule-24 installments at $125 each-causes the debtor financial hardship, but that repayment in 60 installments at $50 each does not, it may adjust the installments and recover the debt in full.

(2) Where it has been determined that an individual is ineligible for a waiver, but the individual has shown that collection action pursuant to the original installment schedule would cause him or her financial hardship, the Department may

(i) Adjust the installment schedule if the individual shows that it would cause him or her financial hardship to make payments at the rate initially scheduled by the Department; or

(ii) Terminate the collection action under 31 CFR 903.3 if the costs of collecting the debt are anticipated to exceed the amount recoverable.

§ 29.522 Fault.

(a) General rule. A debtor is considered to be at fault if he or she, or any other person having an interest in obtaining a waiver of the claim, caused or contributed to the accrual of the overpayment. The Department considers a debtor or any other person having an interest in obtaining a waiver of the claim to have caused or contributed to the accrual of an overpayment if—

(1) Payment resulted from the individual's incorrect but not fraudulent statement, which the individual knew or should have known to be incorrect;


(2) Payment resulted from the individual's failure to disclose facts in his or her possession which the individual knew or should have known were material, when the Department has identified that the individual has a duty to report and has clearly notified the individual of this reporting requirement.

(3) The following factors may affect the decision as to whether the debtor is or is not at fault where the debtor submitted an incorrect statement, or the debtor failed to disclose material facts in his or her possession

(i) The debtor's age;

(ii) The debtor's physical and/or mental condition; and

(iii) The availability and nature of the information provided to the debtor by the Department.

(b) Knowledge of an overpayment. (1) Individuals who are aware that they are not entitled to a payment or are aware that a payment is higher than the payment to which they are entitled are not considered to have contributed to the overpayment if they promptly contact the Benefits Administrator and question the correctness of the payment and take no further action in reliance of the overpayment.

(2) Any contact made with the Benefits Administrator concerning the over

payment within 60 days of receipt (if the overpayment is a recurring payment, contact must be made within 60 days of the initial payment) will satisfy the prompt notification requirement.

(c) Reasonable person standard. The Department will use a reasonable person standard to determine whether an individual should have known that a statement was incorrect or that material facts in the individual's possession should have been disclosed. The reasonable person standard will take into account the objective factors set forth is paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

§ 29.523 Equity and good conscience.

Recovery is against equity and good conscience when there is substantial evidence that

(a) It would cause financial hardship to the person from whom it is sought no matter what the amount and length of the proposed installment;

(b) The recipient of the overpayment can show (regardless of his or her financial circumstances) that due to the notice that such payment would be made or because of the incorrect payment he or she either has relinquished a valuable right or has changed positions for the worse; or

(c) Recovery would be unconscionable under the circumstances.

§ 29.524 Financial hardship.

Financial hardship may be deemed to exist when the debtor needs substantially all of his or her current and anticipated income and liquid assets to meet current and anticipated ordinary and necessary living expenses during the projected period of collection. Financial hardship will not be found to exist when the debtor merely establishes that the repayment causes a financial burden, i.e., when it is inconvenient to repay the debt. If there are anticipated changes in income or expenses that would allow for the recovery of the overpayment at a later date, the Department may suspend collection action until a future date.

(a) Considerations. Pertinent considerations in determining whether recovery would cause financial hardship include the following:

(1) The debtor's financial ability to pay at the time collection is scheduled to be made, and

(2) Income to other family member(s), if such member's ordinary and necessary living expenses are included in expenses reported by the debtor.

§ 29.525 Ordinary and necessary living


An individual's ordinary and necessary living expenses include rent, mortgage payments, utilities, maintenance, transportation, food, clothing, insurance (life, health, and accident), taxes, installment payments for which the individual is already liable, medical expenses, support expenses for

which the individual is legally responsible, and other miscellaneous expenses that the individual can establish as being ordinary and necessary.

§ 29.526 Waiver precluded.

Waivers will not be offered or granted when

(1) The overpayment was obtained by fraud, misrepresentation, or by improper negotiation of checks or withdrawal of electronic fund transfer payments after the death of the payee; or

(2) The overpayment was made to an estate and a timely demand for repayment is made prior to the final disbursement by the administrator or executor of the estate.

Subtitle B-Regulations Relating to Money and


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