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CONTENTS

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Analytic summary --

Chapter I. The general problem and specific issues.

A. Education and our form of government--

B. Federal-State-local relationships in education..

C. Reappraisal of policies in American education.

D. The basis for congressional concern.

E. Gross national product and educational expenditure.

F. Current financing of public education..

G. The controversy over "Federal aid”.

H. Specific issues pending in the 84th Congress..

Chapter II. Federal aid for school construction..

A. Nature of the question.-

B. Historical background.-

C. Developments during the 83d Congress-

D. Relevant considerations-

Chapter III. Public library services in rural areas.

A. Nature of the question.-

B. Historical background

C. Developments during the 83d Congress-

D. Relevant considerations.

Chapter IV. The "oil for education” proposal.

A. Nature of the question.-

B. Historical background.

C. Developments during the 83d Congress.

D. Relevant considerations.

Chapter V. Educational view of universal military training-

A. Nature of the question --

B. Historical background.

C. Developments during the 83d Congress-

D. Relevant considerations..

Chapter VI. Modifications of the vocational education program-

A. Nature of the question.-

B. Historical background.

C. Developments during the 83d Congress -

D. Relevant considerations..

Chapter VII. Other educational matters of congressional concern.

A. Racial segregation in public schools.-

B. Financial aid to students in higher education.

C. State and White House conferences on education --

D. Comprehensive training program for Federal employees.

E. Other educational affairs...

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CONTENTS

Page

[blocks in formation]

Analytic summary -
Chapter I. The general problem and specific issues.

A. Education and our form of government.-
B. Federal-State-local relationships in education.
C. Reappraisal of policies in American education.
D. The basis for congressional concern.
E. Gross national product and educational expenditure.
F. Current financing of public education.-
G. The controversy over "Federal aid”.

H. Specific issues pending in the 84th Congress
Chapter II. Federal aid for school construction

A. Nature of the question.-
B. Historical background..
C. Developments during the 83d Congress.

D. Relevant considerations.-
Chapter III. Public library services in rural areas.

A. Nature of the question.
B. Historical background.
C. Developments during the 83d Congress-

D. Relevant considerations..
Chapter IV. The "oil for education” proposal..

A. Nature of the question..
B. Historical background..
C. Developments during the 83d Congress.

D. Relevant considerations..
Chapter V. Educational view of universal military training-

A. Nature of the question.-
B. Historical background.
C. Developments during the 83d Congress -

D. Relevant considerations...
Chapter VI. Modifications of the vocational education program.

A. Nature of the question..
B. Historical background.--
C. Developments during the 83d Congress -

D. Relevant considerations..
Chapter VII. Other educational matters of congressional concern.

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A. Racial segregation in public schools.
B. Financial aid to students in higher education.
C. State and White House conferences on education --
D. Comprehensive training program for Federal employees..
E. Other educational affairs..

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ANALYTIC SUMMARY

In a country having such great economic resources as those of the United States, the problem of making adequate provisions for public education is mainly one of public policy. The problem involves consideration of a number of factors. This report deals with some of them, along with particular issues pending in Congress.

It was foreseen by the founders of our Nation, and it is far more evident today, that the maintenance of our way of life depends upon the resourcefulness and sound judgment of the people developed through education. This is a concern of our local, State and Federal Governments. There is no thoroughly established policy governing what the several levels of government should or should not do in this field.

This is a time of popular reappraisal of public policies in education. By its action or inaction on pending issues the Congress will inescapably establish or influence formation of major policies affecting education.

It is apparent that, barring catastrophe, the national economy will become increasingly able to support improvements in education. Traditionally most of the support for public elementary and secondary education has been derived from State and local sources of revenue. The Federal contribution to current expenditure varies among the States from about 1 to 15 percent. The current disagreement over the concept of Federal aid points to the more important controversy over what sources should be used for the additional revenue needed to support public education.

A number of specific educational issues have already been raised in the 84th Congress by the introduction of particular bills. Committees are presently considering some of them.

FEDERAL AID FOR SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION

The question of Federal aid for school construction has both longterm and emergency aspects.

In the background of the issue there are: (1) early Federal land and monetary grants for education, which gave impetus to school construction; (2) nationwide aid to school construction during the period of the 1930's; and (3) a limited current program of aid to the provision of school facilities in certain federally affected localities.

Over 50 school-construction bills were introduced in the 83d Congress. The Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare reported out a bill, but the House Committee on Education and Labor did not. In August 1954 a special subcommittee of the Committee on Education and Labor favorably reported a bill to the full committee. In October 1954 the special subcommittee held hearings and afterward recommended legislative action, but no particular bill.

Many considerations regarding the issue of Federal aid to school construction are pointed out in chapter II of this report. The following are especially important: (1) Factual information has been amassed showing grave needs for school facilities in all the States;

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