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equip the student with an accurate general knowledge of the whole field. And since the solution of new questions must be sought, not alone in the application of precedents, but also in the settled rules and the accepted canons of interpretation, and since the mind is often best prepared for the investigation of a specific problem by a rapid synoptical review of the results already worked out by the courts in that department to which it belongs, it is hoped that general practitioners may find the book to possess a special value for themselves. It would have been undesirable, even if it were possi. ble, to discuss in these pages all the thousands of reported cases which bear upon the subject of constitutional law. Such an accumulation of authorities would have cumbered the work to the. point of destroying its utility. But a very considerable number of the more important and valuable decisions have been suitably referred to, and more, perhaps, than any student would have time or occasion to read. But it was thought that both student and practitioner would appreciate the advantage of being directed to the principal authorities, especially as they may have occasion to study certain special topics with more detail and particularity than the handbook itself could undertake.

The subject of constitutional law is not free from disputed and unsettled questions. In respect to these, the author has invariably stated what he conceives to be the sound rule or the best principle for their interpretation. If his disposition of such topics should at times appear summary, or even dogmatic, it must be ascribed to the necessity for condensation, not to any failure to appreciate the possible arguments on both sides of the question.

H. C. B. Washington, D.. January, 1895.

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Natural Justice

44.

Partial Unconstitutionality

45. Preamble

46. Effect of Decision..

47. Construction of Constitutions-Method....

48-49, Intent to be sought.....

58

58-59

59-60

60

60

61

61

62

62-63

63-64

64-65

66

66-67

67-68

68-71

CHAPTER V.

THE THREE DEPARTMENTS OF GOVERNMENT.

50. Olassification of Governmental Powers.

51. Separation of Governmental Powers.

52-53. The Separation not Absolute.....

54. Limitations on the Three Departments of Government.

55. Political Questions

56. Advisory Opinions by the Courts..

72–73

73-76

76-78

78-84

85-87

87-88

CHAPTER VI.

THE FEDERAL EXECUTIVE.

57. The President

58. The Vice-President

89

89

Section

Page

85-87. Courts of the United States.....

88. Judicial Power of the United States.

8. United States as a Party.

90. States as Parties....

91-92. Jurisdiction of Supreme Court....

93-96. Powers and Procedure of Federal Courts.

'97. Removal of Causes...

.123-128

128-142

..142-143

.143-148

.148-153

. 153–162

.163-166

CHAPTER VIII.

THE POWERS OF CONGRESS.

98. Constitution of Congress...

99-100. Organization and Government of Congress.

101. Powers of Congress Delegated. ...

102–106. Exclusive and Concurrent Powers..

104. Enumerated Powers of Congress.

105. Implied Powers

106. Limitations on Powers of Congress.

.167-169

.169-172

173

..174-176

.177-235

.235-239

.239-243
LEGISLATIVE POWER IN THE STATES.

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135. Organization and Government of Legislature.

136. Legislative Power of States in General. ...

137-139. Limitations Imposed by the Federal Constitution.

140. Implied Limitations in State Constitu ions.

291-300

.300_301

.301-311

.311-317

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