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SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934'
[PUBLIC NO. 291-73D CONGRESS]
[H. R. 9323]
To provide for the regulation of securities exchanges and of over-the-counter markets operating in interstate and foreign commerce and through the mails. to prevent inequitable and unfair practices on such exchanges and markets, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,
TITLE I-REGULATION OF SECURITIES EXCHANGES
SECTION 1. This act may be cited as the "Securities Exchange Act of 1934."
NECESSITY FOR REGULATION AS PROVIDED IN THIS TITLE
SEC. 2. For the reasons hereinafter enumerated, transactions in securities as commonly conducted upon securities exchanges and over-the-counter markets are affected with a national public interest which makes it necessary to provide for regulation and control of such transactions and of practices and matters related thereto, including transactions by officers, directors, and principal security holders, to require appropriate reports, and to impose requirements necessary to make such regulation and control reasonably complete and effective, in order to protect interstate commerce, the national credit, the Federal taxing power, to protect and make more effective the national banking system and Federal Reserve System, and to insure the maintenance of fair and honest markets in such transactions:
(1) Such transactions (a) are carried on in large volume by the public generally and in large part originate outside the States in which the exchanges and over-the-counter markets are located and/or are effected by means of the mails and instrumentalities of interstate commerce; (b) constitute an important part of the current of interstate commerce; (c) involve in large part the securities of issuers
1 The matter appearing in bold-face type with footnote references represents sections, subsections, and subparagraphs as amended by Public, No. 621, 74th Cong., approved May 27, 1936.
The matter appearing in italic type_with_footnote references represents sections, subsections, and subparagraphs as amended by Public, No. 719, 75th Cong., approved June 25,
Footnotes contain the text prior to amendments. Bold-face type without footnote references indicates provisions added by Public, No. 621, 74th Corg. Italic type without footnote references indicates provisions added by Public, No. 719, 75th Cong. (1)
engaged in interstate commerce; (d) involve the use of credit, A57 directly affect the financing of trade, industry, and transportation in interstate commerce, and directly affect and influence the volume 1938 of interstate commerce; and affect the national credit.
(2) The prices established and offered in such transactions are generally disseminated and quoted throughout the United States and foreign countries and constitute a basis for determining and establishing the prices at which securities are bought and sold, the amount of certain taxes owing to the United States and to the several States by owners, buyers, and sellers of securities, and the value of collateral for bank loans.
(3) Frequently the prices of securities on such exchanges and markets are susceptible to manipulation and control, and the dissemination of such prices gives rise to excessive speculation, resulting in sudden and unreasonable fluctuations in the prices of securities which (a) cause alternately unreasonable expansion and unreasonable contraction of the volume of credit available for trade, transportation, and industry in interstate commerce, (b) hinder the proper appraisal of the value of securities and thus prevent a fair calculation of taxes owing to the United States and to the several States by owners, buyers, and sellers of securities, and (c) prevent the fair valuation of collateral for bank loans and/or obstruct the effective operation of the national banking system and Federal Reserve System.
(4) National emergencies, which produce widespread unemployment and the dislocation of trade, transportation, and industry, and which burden interstate commerce and adversely affect the general welfare, are precipitated, intensified, and prolonged by manipulation and sudden and unreasonable fluctuations of security prices and by excessive speculation on such exchanges and markets, and to meet such emergencies the Federal Government is put to such great expense as to burden the national credit.
DEFINITIONS AND APPLICATION OF TITLE
SEC. 3. (a) When used in this title, unless the context otherwise requires
(1) The term "exchange" means any organization, association, or group of persons, whether incorporated or unincorporated, which constitutes, maintains, or provides a market place or facilities for bringing together purchasers and sellers of securities or for otherwise performing with respect to securities the functions commonly performed by a stock exchange as that term is generally understood, and includes the market place and the market facilities maintained by such exchange.
(2) The term "facility" when used with respect to an exchange includes its premises, tangible or intangible property whether on the premises or not, any right to the use of such premises or property or any service thereof for the purpose of effecting or reporting a transaction on an exchange (including, among other things, any system of communication to or from the exchange, by ticker or otherwise, maintained by or with the consent of the exchange), and any right of the exchange to the use of any property or service.