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We believe that the most opportune time within the R&D cycle to maximize domestic technology transfer is in the basic research and exploratory phases of the overall RDT&E program. This is where we are thus focussing our attention.

The Air Force basic and exploratory development programs are conducted primarily by universities and commercial firms. We believe this relationship significantly contributes to the domestic technology transfer program. This is particularly true for the larger firms that have both national security and commercial business bases. In this case, it is in the firms' best interests to get clearance from the Air Force for specific technologies that can be commercialized without adversely affecting national security. Larger firms also have, for the most part, local representatives at the different R&D locations. These representatives can identify R&D efforts that may have commercial potential. Such large firms also usually have ready access to available technical data bases such as those maintained by the National Technical Information service (NTIS).

In contrast to the case of the larger firms, however, smaller, less established firms typically do not have the laboratory representatives or easy access to available data bases such as those of NTIS. Therefore, it is in this segment of American industry where domestic technology transfer activities can have a relatively high payoff for the Air Force resources invested.

The "bottom line" is that the transfusion of new and emerging military technologies into commercialized technology and products can be a significant factor in keeping the United States apace with other nations in the ever increasing competitiveness of the international market place.

Because of this, the Air Force requires all scientific and ongineering activities to initiate and undertake technology transfer endeavors, including entry into appropriate cooperative research and development agreements (CRDAs), establishment and use of offices of Research and Technology Applications (ORTAs), and negotiation of patent licenses or other types of licenses as determined appropriate to enhance the transfer of unclassified technology from the Air Force to society and the marketplace.

The Air Force strongly supports the technology transfer initiatives set forth in the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986, and EXecutive Order 12591, "Facilitating Access to Science and Technology." The Air Force has been successful in providing and disseminating information on federally-owned or originated products, processes, and services having potential application to state and local governments, and commercial industry.

By allowing for explicit recognition of developments stemming from individual labs or staff members, technology transfer

programs also can be a positive influence in recruiting and retaining qualified science and engineering personnel.

In addition, the Air Force regards university research as a viable mechanism for technology transfer by using university research personnel and capabilities in Air Force-related research.

More specifically, the Air Force is fulfilling its responsibilities for domestic technology transfer in a variety of ways, including:

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I would now like to give you some details on the Air Force's use of each of these technology transfer approaches.

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The Air Force is performing its oversight function of PL 99-502 via the offices of Research and Technology Applications (ORTA), established at each laboratory as specified in the legislation. The functions of the ORTA include preparing technical assessments for selected research and development projects that may have commercial potential, disseminating information on technology that has potential commercial application to the private sector and to state and local governments, and assisting government and business organizations in the transfer of technology.

To provide assistance to United States industry, the Air Force has established a domestic technology transfer functional office within the office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition. This office provides assistance to laboratories as required to ensure that efforts to transfer technology are responsive and consistent with Statute and Executive order, makes reports to Congress, promulgates regulations and operating procedures, transfers funds to the National Institute for Standards and Technology, supports the Federal Laboratory Consortium for Technology Transfer, and develops a cash awards program and a plan for its implementation.

Authority to enter into Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRDAs) has been delegated to the laboratories through Headquarters Air Force Systems Command. Twenty-four Air Force

than half of the CRDA's in place or pending within DOD. These CRDAs have been negotiated with state and local governments, academia, and private industry. We anticipate that the number of CRDAS will grow as our labs become more familiar with the legislation.

Air Force funds were transferred to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 1987 and 1988 to support the Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) for Technology Transfer. Air Force will continue to actively support and participate in the FLC by transferring 0.008 percent of its laboratory budget to carry out the activities of the Consortium.


The Air Force's Human System's Division (HSD) has recently developed a Technology Transfer Handbook, containing an overview of the technology transfer process, the relevant statutes and executive orders, and additional information on CRDAs, licenses and patents, and the NIST and FLC. We are investigating development of an Air Force wide Technology Transfer Handbook for Air Forcewide use that would serve to educate scientific and engineering personnel on the opportunities, responsibilities, and potential rewards for furthering technology transfer and about the benefits of patent licensing. This Air Force handbook will provide a firm foundation for developing an Air Force universal handbook. Such a comprehensive handbook will also help impart a consistency to the Air Force technology transfer efforts.

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