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Army Register

to be furnished


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431. That the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the annually to the Navy be requested to furnish annually, on the first of JanSen. res. Dec. uary, each member of the Senate with a copy of the Register of the officers of the Army and Navy of the United States. Senate resolution, December 13, 1815.

13, 1815.

The same to be furnished annu

of Representa

432. That the Secretary of War cause to be annually laid ally to the House before this House a number of copies of the printed army list, equal to the number of members of the House. House resolution, February 1, 1830.


House Feb. 1, 1830.


revised under the direction of General Scott and a new edition was issued on March 1, 1825, which continued in force until 1835.

A volume of General Regulations, compiled under the direction of Major-General Macomb, was printed and prepared for issue on September 1, 1835, but was not formally approved and promulgated until December 31, 1836. A second edition of this work, with some modifications, was issued in 1841, and a third edition, containing alterations and amendments, which had been promulgated in orders or taken from former volumes of regulations, was issued to the Army on May 1, 1847.

On January 1, 1857, a volume of Army Regulations, containing a number of impor tant modifications, together with a general rearrangement of paragraphs and subject matter, was prepared under the direction of Secretary Davis, and published with the approval of the President on January 1, 1857. This volume continued in force until August 10, 1861, when it was replaced by a revised edition; a second edition of this work was issued on June 25, 1863, containing the "changes and laws affecting Army Regulations and Articles of War."

The thirty-seventh section of the act of July 28, 1866 (14 Stat. L., 337), directed the Secretary of War "to have prepared and to report to Congress at its next ses sion a code of regulations for the government of the Army and of the militia in actual service, which shall embrace all necessary orders and forms of a general character for the performance of all duties incumbent on officers and men in the mili tary service, including rules for the government of courts-martial; the existing regulations to remain in force until Congress shall have acted on said report." No code of regulations having been submitted, Congress provided, in section 20 of the act of July 15, 1870 (16 Stat. L., 319), that "the Secretary of War shall prepare a system of general regulations for the administration of the affairs of the Army, which, when approved by Congress, shall be in force and obeyed until altered or revoked by the same authority, and said regulations shall be reported to Congress at its next session: Provided, That the said regulations shall not be inconsistent with the laws of the United States.'


In conformity to this legislation a code of regulations, which had been prepared by a board of oflicers of which Inspector-General Marey was the president, was submitted to the House of Representatives on February 17, 1873, and was by that body referred to the Committee on Military Affairs and ordered to be printed. No steps fooking to their adoption were taken during the remainder of the session, and the Fifty-second Congress adjourned without action. The question was taken up by the Military Committee of the House of Representatives in the Forty-third Congress, and the proposition of adopting a code of Army Regulations was carefully considered. The conclusion reached by the committee was that the power to make and amend or alter regulations had best be left to Executive discretion. To that end a recommendation was submitted, which was adopted by Congress and approved by the President on March 1, 1875 (18 Stat. L., 337). This enactment repealed section 20 of the act of July 15, 1870, and authorized the President to make and publish regulations for the gov ernment of the Army in accordance with existing laws."

Section 2 of the act of June 23, 1879 (21 Stat. L., 34), authorized and directed the Secretary of War "to cause all the regulations now in force to be codified and published to the Army," and provided that the expense attending the publication of the work should be defrayed from the appropriation for the contingent expenses of the Army for the current fiscal year. Under the authority thus conferred the Regu lations of 1881 were prepared and issued to the Army, the order of promulgation bearing date February 17, 1881. A revision and condensation of this volume was issued by the Secretary of War on February 9, 1889. The Regulations now in force became effective on October 31, 1895, having received Executive approval on that date.

433. That there be annexed annually hereafter to the Army Register an accurate schedule of the pay and emoluments, with the commutation value thereof, to which the various officers of the Army of each grade are entitled. House resolution, August 30, 1842.

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rank, etc.

434. The highest volunteer rank which has been held by Volunteer officers of the Regular Army shall be entered, with their names, respectively, upon the Army Register.

435. That in every Official Army Register hereafter issued the lineal rank of all officers of the line of the Army shall be given separately for the different arms of the service; and if the officer be promoted from the ranks, or shall have served in the volunteer army, either as an enlisted man or officer, his service as a private and noncommissioned officer shall be given, and in addition thereto the record of his service as volunteer. Sec. 2, act of June 18, 1878 (20 Stat. L., 149).

Sec. 1226, R. S.

Lineal rank,


Sec. 2. June 18, 1878, v. 20. p. 149.


The national


1898, v 30.






436. All able-bodied male citizens of the United States, S. 1. Apr. 22, and persons of foreign birth who shall have declared their intention to become citizens of the United States under and in pursuance of the laws thereof, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, are hereby declared to constitute the national forces, and, with such exceptions and under such conditions as may be prescribed by law, shall be liable to perform military duty in the service of the United States. Sec. 1, act of April 22, 1898.

S. 2, Apr. 22, 1898, v. 30.

Composition. The organized and active land forces of the United States shall consist of the Army of the United States and of the militia of the several States when called into the service of the United States: Provided, That in time of war the Army shall consist of two branches which shall be designated, respectively, as the Regular Army and the Volunteer Army of the United States. Sec. 2, ibid.

The Regular Army.

The Regular Army is the permanent military establishS. 3, Apr. 22, ment, which is maintained both in peace and war accordto law. Sec. 3, ibid.

1898, v. 30.

The Volunteer


The Volunteer Army shall be maintained only during S. 4, Apr. 22, the existence of war, or while war is imminent, and shall be raised and organized, as in this act provided, only after Congress has or shall have authorized the President to

1898, v. 30.

For statutes respecting the militia, including its organization and discipline. together with the method provided for calling it forth, see Chapter XXXIV post. *For composition, etc., of the Regular Army see paragraphi 437 post. See, also, the chapters relating to the several staff departments and the troops of the line. For the war organization of the Regular Army see paragraph 441 post.

raise such a force or to call into the actual service of the United States the militia of the several States: Provided, That all enlistments for the Volunteer Army shall be for a Enlistments. term of two years, unless sooner terminated, and that all

officers and men composing said army shall be discharged Disbandment. from the service of the United States when the purposes

for which they were called into service shall have been accomplished, or on the conclusion of hostilities. Sec. 4,

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437. The Army of the United States shall consist of—

One General.2

One Lieutenant-General.3

Three major-generals.

Six brigadier-generals.

Seven regiments of artillery.*

Ten regiments of cavalry.

Twenty-five regiments of infantry.

An Adjutant-General's Department.
An Inspector-General's Department.

For organization, composition, etc., of the Volunteer Army see paragraph 442 post This grade ceased to exist at the death of Gen. P. H. Sheridan on August 5, 1888. This grade ceased to exist, as a grade of rank on the active list of the Army, at the retirement of Lieutenant-General Schofield on September 29, 1895.

4 Two regiments of artillery added to the military establishment by the act March 8, 1898. (30 Stat. L.)

Composition of the Army of the United States.

Mar. 3, 1799, v. 1, p. 752; July 25, 1866, v. 14, p. 223; July 28, 1866, v. 14, p. 332; Mar. 3, 1869, v. 15, p. 318; July 15, 1870, v. 16, p. 318, ch. 131; Mar. 3, 1875, v. 18, p. 419, ch. 142; Mar. 3, 1875, v. 18, p. 478; June 26, 1876, v. 19, p. 61; Aug. 12, 1876, v. 19, p.131; Feb. 27, 1877, v. 19, p. 241; July 24. 1876, v. 19, p. 97.

July 5, 1884, v. 23.p.109: July 29, 1886, v. 24, p. 167; of Mar. 1, 1887, v. 24.p.435: June 20, 1890, v. 26, p. 167; May 9, 1892, v.

a This office was created by section 9 of the act of March 3, 1799 (1 Stat. L, 752), which provided that a commander of the Army of the United States shall be appointed and commissioned by the style of 'General of the armies of the United States. No appointment was made to the office thus created, and, the grade was abolished, by implication, by section 3 of the act of March 16, 1802 (2 Stat. L., 133). It was revived by the act of July 25, 1866 (14 Stat L., 223), and recognized and continued by section 9 of the act of July 28, 1866 (14 Stat. L., 333). Section 6 of the act of July 15, 1870 (16 Stat. L., 318), contained a provision, however, that "the offices of General and Lieutenant-General shall continue until a vacancy shall exist in the same, and no longer; and when such vacancy shall occur in either of said offices, immediately thereupon all laws and parts of laws creating said office shall become inoperative, and shall by virtue of this act from thenceforward be held to be repealed." (The office ceased to exist, as a grade of military rank, at the death of Gen. W. T. Sherman, on February 14, 1891. The act of March 3, 1885 (23 Stat. L.. 434), authorized the appointment of a “Güneral of the Army on the retired list,' which was conferred upon Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and expired at the death of that officer on July 23, 1885. By the act of June 1, 1888 (25 Stat. L., 165), the grade of Lieutenant-General was discontinued and merged in that of General of the Army, which was to continue during the lifetime of the Lieutenant-General then in office, when it was to cease. See note 1, supra.

Chief of staff to the General of the Army-The office of chief of staff to the Lieu. tenant General was created by the act of March 3, 1865 (13 Stat. L.. 500), which anthorized the President to appoint a chief of staff to the Lieutenant-General of the Army with the rank, pay, and emoluments of a brigadier-general in the Army. Section 2 of the act of July 25, 1866 (14 Stat. L., 223), provided for the transfer of the office to the staff of the General of the Army. The office was abolished by the act. of April 3, 1869 (16 Stat. L., 6).

27, p.


Sec. 1094, R.S.

Commissions not vacated.

299, s. 31, v. 14, p.


A Quartermaster's Department.'

[A corps of Army service men.]2

A Subsistence Department.3
A Corps of Engineers.

A battalion of engineer soldiers.

An Ordnance Department.

The enlisted men of the Ordnance Department.

A Pay Department.

A Medical Department.

[A Hospital Corps.]*

A Signal Corps.]

[A Judge Advocate-General's Department.]

[A Chief of the Record and Pension Office.]"
Thirty post-chaplains. Four regimental chaplains.
One band, stationed at the Military Academy."

A force of Indian scouts, not exceeding one thousand, and the professors and corps of cadets of the United States Military Academy.

Provided, That when a vacancy occurs in the office of General or Lieutenant-General' such office shall cease and all enactments creating or regulating such offices shall, respectively, be held to be repealed.

None of the provisions of this Title, relating to the July 28, 1866, c. organization of the Army, shall be construed to vacate the commission of any officer now properly in the service, or Sec. 1217, R. S. borne on the Army Register as an officer retired from active service, or to require new appointments to fill the grades mentioned herein, which are now properly filled according to said provisions.

Number of enlisted men.

438. There shall not be in the Army at one time more than [twenty-six thousand six hundred and ten] enlisted men.10 294, s. 2. V. 16. 1. Act of March 8, 1898.

July 15, 1870, c.

317: June 16, 1874,

c. 285, v. 18, p. 72: Mar. 3, 1875, c. 133, v. 18. p. 452; July 24,

1876, c. 226, v. 19,

p. 97; Aug. 15, 1876, c. 301, v. 19, p. 204; Mar. 8. 1898, v. 30. Sec. 1115, R. S.

The corps of quartermaster-sergeants added by the act of July 5, 1884. a
The corps of Army service men added by the act of June 20, 1890. a

A force of post commissary-sergeants (b) added by section 1142, Rev. Stat.

4 The Hospital Corps added by the act of March 1, 1887, the hospital stewards previously authorized being merged in the corps so created.c

5 The Signal Corps reorganized by act of October 1, 1890 (26 Stat. L., 653). The Record and Pension Office created by the act of May 9, 1892 (27 Stat. L., 27). 7 Fifteen bands were authorized by section 7 of the act of July 28, 1866 (14 Stat. L., 332). By the act of March 3, 1889 (15 Stat. L., 318), they were required to be honorably discharged without delay, with the exception of the band stationed at the Military Academy.

*This grade ceased to exist at the death of Gen. P. H. Sheridan on August 5, 1888. This grade ceased to exist, as a grade of rank on the active list of the Army, at the retirement of Lieutenant-General Schofield on September 29, 1895.

10 The acts of June 16, 1874 (18 Stat. L., 72), March 3, 1875 (18 Stat. L., 452), July 24, 1876 (19 Stat. L., 97), November 21, 1877 (20 Stat. L., 2), and June 18, 1878 (20 Stat L.. 146), contained a provision limiting the number of enlisted men in the Army to 25,000, including hospital stewards and Indian scouts. The act of June 23, 1879 (21 Stat. L.. 30), contained the requirement that "no money appropriated by this act shall be paid for recruiting the Army beyond the number of twenty-five thousand enlisted men, including Indian scouts and hospital stewards; and thereafter there shall be no more than twenty-five thousand enlisted men in the Army at any one time, unless

a See the chapter entitled THE QUARTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT.
See the chapter entitled THE SUBSISTENCE DEPARTMENT.

e See the chapter entitled THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.

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