Managing a Sea: The Ecological Economics of the Baltic
Marine resources and fish stocks are now high on the international and economic research agendas, and the management of highly complex marine ecosystems is increasingly important. The task is complicated by the number of interlinked factors to be taken into account, such as social impacts, drainage systems, marine currents and the ecosystems involved. This interdisciplinary volume presents a comprehensive blueprint for managing a sea. Focused on the Baltic Sea, it employs a range of methods and techniques, including nutrient budgets and simulation models, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), economic valuation and policy analysis, to arrive at an assessment of causes and consequences of pollution in the sea and the management of its resources. From the analysis of data on land use, population, costs of nutrient reductions and associated impacts, it presents significant and highly practical empirical and policy results. It diagnoses the causes of marine degradation, identifies through the use of simulation models cost-effective strategies for remediation and sets out the policies to be pursued collectively by the countries around the sea to restore and manage their common resource. This is an exemplary study in the application of ecological economics to complex natural resource systems. It will be of interest to students, researchers and professionals working on any aspect of marine ecosystem management.
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State of the Environment
Alternative Policy Options
Land Use Population and Nutrient Loads 17
Wetlands as Nutrient Sinks 28
Costeffective Nutrient Reductions to the Baltic Sea 43
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50 per cent abatement action activities agreements agricultural analysis areas Baltic Proper Baltic Sea benefits Bothnian calculated capacity Chapter climate coastal communities concentration concern conservation Convention cost-effective costs countries decrease Denmark deposition drainage basin economic effects emissions Environment environmental estimates eutrophication example expected export Figure Fiji Finland fisheries fishing forest further given global governments human impacts implementation important improved increase indicate industry issues land less marine means measures million natural nitrogen reduction nutrient loads organic Pacific island particular phosphorus PICs planning plants Poland pollution population presented problems production Programme protection ratios region relatively retention Samoa sector sewage share Solomon Islands sources South Pacific species SPREP strategy sustainable Sweden Table trade transport treatment urban waste wetlands