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satisfactory study of its kind with adults, and is probably more satisfactory than other similar investigations with children. The results seem to substantiate the author's belief that tests such as these may well be used to distinguish at least the grosser differences in mental ability.

FRANK N. FREEMAN UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

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Prehistoric Man. By W. L. H. DUCKWORTH, M.A., M.D., Sc.D.

Cambridge, 1912. Pp. vii+156. With 28 illustrations, an index, and an excellent bibliography. Dr. Duckworth divides his book into six chapters.

Chap. i is "The Precursors of Palaeolithic Man.” In these 16 pages Pithecanthropus erectus and Homo heidelbergensis are discussed.

Chap. ii deals with “Palaeolithic Man” and is 42 pages in extent. This is an exceptionally able chapter. Successively the data concerning the following palaeolithic human remains are presented, and discussed: Taubach, Krapina, Jersey, La Chapelle-aux-Saints, Homo mousterensis hauseri, La Ferrassie, Forbes Quarry, Serrania de Ronda, Grimaldi, Baradero, Monte Hermoso, Combe Capelle, and Galley Hill. Nowhere else will one find such a study of the outstanding characteristics of all these palaeolithic remains. It is not possible to do Dr. Duckworth justice in the few words allowed for review of this chapter; but earlier, historically, is noted the type having tall, heavy physique, and small flattened brain-box; then followed one of lower stature, less bulk and weight, but with larger though still flattened brain-box; and last appeared the man with more slender and straighter legs, and with increased stature, but with the new characteristic of enlarged, elevated brain-box, developing chin and jaw-both the latter reduced in size.

Chap. iii, entitled “Alhnial Deposits and Caves,” is 21 pages in length. The data presented are the geological setting of the important finds discussed in the first chapters.

Chap. iv, of 26 pages, is entitled "Associated Animals and Implements” and presents the artifacts and the animal remains found associated with the fossil remains discussed in the first two chapters. It is not possible to gain a clear idea of the great duration of man on earth from evidence the author presents in this chapter; so after presenting analytically the evidence pro and con he leaves the reader to come to his own conclusions in the matter. Diagrammatic schemes are presented which greatly assist by visualizing many relevant data.

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In chap. V, 14 pages, entitled “Human Fossils and Geological Chronology," the author presents a comparison between the mammalian remains and stone artifacts. The chapter is misnamed.

Chap. vi, “Human Evolution in the Light of Recent Discoveries,” is the last chapter, and occupies 21 pages. In this very interesting chapter the author presents his own view that the Neanderthal type of man became extinct. He presents Klaatsch's diphyletic theory that there was an ancestor common to the orang-utan and Aurignac man, and another ancestor common to the gorilla and Neanderthal man. He also suggests Schliz' polyphyletic scheme with its four human stocksas Neanderthal, Cro-Magnon, Engis, and Truchère-Grenelle types.

It is certain that no one has written a better book covering this field; and it is believed a better one could not be written in so small a compass; there is not one word of padding in it. As highly as I know how, I recommend the little book.

ALBERT ERNEST JENKS UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA

New Zealand. By Hon. SIR ROBERT STOUT, K.C.M.G., LL.D.,

Chief Justice, and Formerly Premier, of New Zealand; and
J. LOGAN STOUT, LL.B., Barrister of the Supreme Court
New Zealand. Cambridge, 1911. Pp. 185; 19 illustrations,
and an index.

This little book brings nothing new to the careful student of New Zealand, but it is an excellent summary for the lay reader.

There are six chapters. The first one, unentitled, presents in 25 pages the essential geographic, physiographic, and climatic factors. A few paragraphs are given to the agricultural, zoöcultural, and forest resources, and a few pages to the white people of New Zealand.

Chap. ii is 46 pages long, and is given to "Early History.” The very interesting statement is there made that recent researches in the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris have shown that at the time the Britisher, Captain James Cook, was at anchor on the east coast of New Zealand taking possession of the islands on behalf of His Majesty, a French vessel under command of De Surville was at anchor on the west coast. The long warfare between the natives and the British is presented in what seems to me an exceptionally fair manner; and the man who loves the savage because of his manhood feels just pride in the heroism of the Maori who, when asked to surrender in the face of sure defeat, replied: “We will fight on, forever, and ever, and ever."

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The third chapter, “The Maori,” has 24 pages. Much emphasis s laid on the Aryanization aspect of the natives—they are either Aryans ethnically or were early Aryanized by culture. Mr. Percy Smith's theory of oceanic migrations is accepted by the authors.

Chap. iv, of 34 pages, deals with the government. First the historical development of government is briefly sketched, then the general government, local government, and judiciary follow; while a succinct sketch of education completes the chapter.

Fifty pages are all too short for the summary of social, labor, and land legislation published as chap. v. The historic growth of much of New Zealand's famous “new” legislation is sketched.

Only three pages are given to the sixth and last chapter, called “The Outlook.” In those few words there is written again the story of the making of the American pioneer out of the conservative Britisher. I quote a sentence which would be as true of us as of the New Zealander:

New Zealanders. are more readily influenced by new ideals of social duty than those who live under the domination of ancient institutions. Free and untrammeled, they hear the primitive call of brotherhood, learnt in the pioneer fight shoulder to shoulder in a new land. ... They are alert and intelligent. Optimistic and cheerful, they are armed with the sword of hope and the shield of faith.

The authors believe the New Zealanders will found a noble race,

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With the flame of freedom in their souls,
And the light of knowledge in their eyes.

ALBERT ERNEST JENKS UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA

Génie individuel et contrainte sociale. Par LUCIEN ARRÉAT. Paris: :

Giard et Brière, 1912. Pp. 133. Fr. 2. The old question, which is more responsible for social achievement, individual initiative or social control ? is done over anew in this brochure, and the illustrative matter is rather interestingly handled. The outcome of the discussion is not radical. The individual initiates all social changes, but the individual is a social product and social change occurs only in an environment well prepared for it. Indeed, the author's emphasis is rather on the side of the molding and constructive environment. Science is valuable to the individual, not for any view of life it gives but for the control over life which it affords! The "view"

" comes from religion and philosophy, which build the individual but which are themselves social inventions. Religion is historically based-a matter primarily of custom-and therefore necessarily dogmatic. Philosophy draws more immediately from science and is therefore more amenable to reason. Yet the author does not see the absurdity of his view that science is not a formative force.

There is some good characterization of current issues. Especially is the criticism of antisocial tendencies in fiction pertinent. The influence of the stage in molding public opinion is perhaps overestimated. The author sees clearly the hollowness of the cult of individualism. Incidentally he seeks to develop a category of contacts which fits his interpretation of environmental forces better than Tarde's category of imitation. The book makes a pleasant essay of the Cooley type.

L. L. BERNARD UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Doit-elle Mourir ? Étude sur la dégression de la natalité en France.

Par ÉDOUARD HEBERLIN. Avec préface de M. GEORGES
BONJEAN. Paris: Giard et Brière, 1911. Pp. xx+218.

FI. 3.

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In attractive literary form the author discusses with patriotic zeal the problem of the declining birth-rate in France. He finds the causes of her decrease in numbers in the high standard of living among the upper and middle classes, and in the low standard of sanitation among the working population of the cities; the evil is made worse by the spread of bad literature and immoral practices. As palliatives he approves a tax on bachelors and childless couples, with a bounty to parents. But for thoroughgoing remedies he proposes higher wages and salaries—without telling how they are to be raised-improved housing and sanitation, a relaxation of the laws of marriage and divorce, and, above, all, a policy of "back to the land.”'

To bring about the return to the soil the garden-city is advocated, with the allotment of a small plot of land to each family. The drift to the cities is deplored, and as a means of checking it the exclusion of agricultural machinery is urged-a somewhat reactionary proposal. That the work is dedicated to M. Anatole France is but one indication that the author writes as a man of letters rather than as a statistician. He concludes that France will die unless she rallies to meet the emergency.

R. C. CHAPIN BELOIT COLLEGE

Heredity. By J. A. S. WATSON. London: T. C. & E. C. Jack,

1912. Pp. 94. $0.20.

This is one of a series, “The People's Books," designed, like several other similar series, to convey to the general reader the essential findings in the various fields of modern science, philosophy, and history. It. begins by explaining the mechanism of heredity and the difference between pangenesis and the germ-plasm theory and follows with chapters on variation and its causes, on the inheritance of acquired characters, pure-line inheritance, Mendelism, the statistical study of heredity, practical problems in plant and animal breeding, and eugenics.

The book is marvelously comprehensive, considering its brevity. It is very readable, though it will not in some places be fully comprehended by one not already fairly familiar with the field. Thus in chap. ii, in six small pages including four graphs, the author distinguishes continuous from discontinuous variation, explains the normal probability-curve, shows how to find the average deviation, the standard deviation, and the coefficient of variation. The volume throughout is similarly solid, showing rare judgment in the distribution of space and the selection of illustrations. On disputed points the author weighs evidence carefully and avoids dogmatism. He is inclined to think that De Vries's theory of variation by leaps, however small they may be, has wholly supplanted Darwin's theory of gradual evolution by many minute steps. He thinks it most reasonable to regard the affirmation that acquired characters are inherited as not proven; that is, on this point of great interest to social scientists and educators he holds that there is as yet no clear case of inheritance of any character "acquired during the lifetime of the individual,” but some such case may possibly be brought to light. The book closes with a few suggested titles for a course of reading in heredity.

T. H. HANKINS CLARK UNIVERSITY

Social Problems: Their Treatment, Past, Present, and Future.

Questions of the Day and of the Fray. By KARL PEARSON.
London: Dulan & Co., 1912. Pp. 40.

This lecture opens with an appeal for a recognition of the biological basis of our social problems, urges that on account of their complexity they can be studied properly only by mass statistics, illustrates the inadequacy of many conclusions from medico-social statistics by the use

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