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neglected indoor amusement. The field is open especially to the public-house and the café, to the evening paper, the little theater, the music halls, and the church. John Garrett Leigh, The Economic Review, July 15, 1912.

G. T. J. The Voluntary Social Worker and the State.—England has more voluntary service than any other country. There is a great awakening of social interest and sympathy, resulting in legislative measures of social reform. The social volunteer has proved his worth with private concerns. Experience seems to indicate (1) that for the highest success in certain departments of public work voluntary service is necessary; (2) that volunteers will respond in a remarkable degree to the call of the state; (3) that the movement has many pit-falls before it. The fields offering the largest opportunities are those of the public health, of the poor law, of the juvenile labor exchange, and of education.-Ronald C. Davidson, The Economic Review, July 15, 1912.

G. T. J. A Study of Australian Vital Statistics. Has the British race settled in Australia shown signs of decreasing vigor and vitality? Vital statistics seem to indicate (1) that the birth-rates are equal to those of Great Britain; (2) that the death-rates are lower; (3) that the rates of infant mortality are the lowest in the world; (4) that Colonialborn lives exhibit greater vitality than those of European nativity; (5) that longevity is greater than in most countries; (6) that the answer to the above question should be made in the negative.-A. Duckworth, The Economic Journal, September, 1912.

G. T. J. The Psychological Aspects of the Culture-Environment Relation.-Culture traits can be regarded neither as the immediate result of the physical environment, nor solely as the conscious constructs of associated individuals. Moreover, the analogy from psychological reaction does not sufficiently explain cultural differences, since the fundamentally uniform pattern of mental life in man would refer all such differences either to differences in the physical environment, as furnishing the raw materials of culture, or to psychic accident. The American school of anthropologists adopt the latter position, assuming a conscious constructive origin for cultures as opposed to a sociologic-evolutionary interpretation. While environment does influence technology, its elements are too objective to be available in the construction of the psychological culture values. What is significant, however, is the force of the cultural environment supplied by other social groups. Through imitation and suggestion culture elements are spread and transplanted, and produce new combinations on a new soil.—Clark Wissler, American Anthropologist, April-June, 1912.

P. W.

History-making Forces. The forces concerned in history-making are more numerous and more complex than those involved in physical processes. The first law of social change is that social formation and deformation take place gradually. The revolution is a mere surface manifestation. Nevertheless, governmental structures may retard or modify the course of social change. Similarly, environmental conditions, such as the frontier in American history, the mixture of races and nationalities, social customs, tradition, religious, political, and ethical ideals and principles, exert a profound influence on national life and character. Education may be either a conservative or a progressive social force, according as a broad social or a narrow technical or class standard is applied to it. The social scientist is the future maker of history.-Dr. Frank T. Carlton, Popular Science Monthly, October, 1912.

P. W. On the Principle of Convergence in Ethnology.-The application of the formcriterion supplemented by the quantitative test, as proposed by Graebner, in the determination of genetic relationships among similar cultural phenomena, is not entirely sound methodologically. The form-criterion of resemblance is liable to fanciful subjective interpretations, while the criterion of quantity is dependent for its significant use upon this, thereby surrendering its "unconditional objectivity.” The comparison of form can never do more than establish the identity of forms. To explain such identity by a genetic relationship, it is necessary not merely to discover a

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number of other resemblances or identical phenomena accompanying it, but to show a common psychological or cultural context within which these phenomena occur. Objective resemblances are meaningless for ethnology unless demonstrated as true homologies. For simple ethnological phenomena even of this type, provided the principle of psychic unity cannot be applied nor paths of diffusion definitely indicated, the hypothesis of independent origin or “convergent evolution" is as valid as that of historical connection. Robert H. Lowie, Journal of American Folklore, JanuaryMarch, 1912.

P. W. Intensity of Natural Selection in Man.-Natural selection applies very intensely, even to man in civilized conditions. When correction is made for differences in environment, English life-tables show that, as infant mortality increases, child mortality decreases; bad environment does not result in death for infants and children alike; the stronger survive, thus decreasing the death-rate in the later period.Karl Pearson, Proceedings of the Royal Statistical Society, August 24, 1912.

E. H. S. Les institutions d'assistance publique en Angleterre et en Allemagne.-In view of the increase of assistance granted in France to the aged, infirm, and incurable since the legislation of 1905, and ascribed by some to that legislation, it is important to compare the conditions in England and Germany with those of France. Such a comparison shows that the increase in expense increases more rapidly than the number assisted; the average cost has increased, due to the increased cost of living and to the change in humanitarian ideas. In England pauperism has been reduced by decreasing out-of-door assistance; in Germany it has been reduced by insurance. -L. Duge de Bernonville, Journal de la Société de statistique de Paris, July, 1912.

E. H. S.



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