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of inquiries by numerous committees into various aspects of the boy problem.

The book does not deal with important boy problems, such as that of recreation, physical condition, and moral standards, and therefore is not an inclusive discussion of the subject. However, it does give a clear idea of the industrial difficulties of the boy in England, and has in it many suggestions for the American reader. The book, being a compilation, is not pervaded with a uniform style, but on the whole is written in interesting English. The American reader regrets that it does not cover more completely the various aspects of boy life.


Études Bakango. Notes de sociologie coloniale. Par A. de CALONNE

BEAUFAICT. Liége: Mathieu Thone, Imprimeur-Éditeur, 1912. Pp. 152.

. In this handsomely illustrated volume, M. de Calonne has collected some notes of travel among the Bakango, an African people who occupy the islands and banks of the Uelé River in Belgian Congo. He writes no detailed and exhaustive monograph; he gives us instead an intimate, sympathetic account of an African community as seen from within and from the native standpoint. The author is less concerned with the description of specific customs than with the explanation of the conditions under which Bakango folkways have originated and developed. His book, charmingly written in limpid French, merits the attention of the sociologist equally with that of the ethnographer. Professor E. Waxweiler of the University of Brussels contributes to the volume an appreciative postscript.


Social Aspects of Education. By IRVING KING. New York:

Macmillan, 1912. Pp. 425. $1.60.

The growing realization of the social possibilities of our public schools and the recent widespread experimentation in this hitherto neglected field have resulted in an extensive literature dealing with the social aspects of education. This literature is to be found, however, scattered through innumerable books, periodicals of every kind, miscellaneous addresses, government bulletins, the reports of commissions, of clubs, of civic, industrial, and educational organizations of every type, general and local. Much of it is descriptive of special movements, without giving social or educational background, perspective, or coherency; and it is tediously repetitious.

Professor King, in this source-book, has taken the inchoate mass in hand, assorting it and sifting it. He presents the best articles in each field, giving to each an interpretative setting that shows each movement in educational and sociological relationship and perspective. The book gives one a good general survey of the entire field without repetition and waste of time.

Each article is written by a man who is in intimate contact with the movement which he treats. Some of the names are: Dewey, Leipziger, Mero, Dean, Cooley, Royce, Burnham, Reeder, Kerschensteiner, Butterfield, E. J. Ward, Louise M. Greene, Colin A. Scott, Franklin W. Johnson, and George H. Mead.

The book is divided into two parts. The first discusses the school as a social institution in its relations to society in general and to the various other social institutions which it is expected to serve. The second part treats of the social life within the school in its bearing on the socialization of the pupils, the studies, methods, and school government.

In addition to presenting an excellent introduction to the field, the book points the way for more intensive study. Each chapter is followed by a list of topics and problems for further research, and by a full and carefully selected bibliography.


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The History and Problems of Organized Labor. By FRANK TRACY

CARLTON. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co., 1911. Pp. xi+483.

Though it is not indicated by the title—The History and Problems of Organized Labor-or by the preface, the book under review deals with the whole range of "labor problems.” An introductory chapter on “The Significance of Organized Labor” is followed by four on the history of the labor movement in the United States, and these, in turn, by two on "The Government and Policies of Labor Organizations” and “Coercive Methods." Approximately three hundred pages (three-fifths of the book) are then devoted to the methods of industrial remuneration, methods of promoting industrial peace, labor legislation, immigration,

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the sweated industries, child labor, woman labor, prison labor, unemployment, and industrial and trade education. Following each chapter is a list of "References for Further Reading."

As a text for the use of college classes where only one course is offered in labor problems, Carlton's book is the best available. It has been prepared with care, good judgment has been displayed in dealing with debatable subjects, and the reading-lists have been, on the whole, well selected. In places, e.g., in the chapter on the government and policies of labor organizations, the organization of the material might be improved; in some cases, as in the discussion of the “standard rate" (pp. 118–22), there seems to be confusion of ideas; a few statements, e.g., when he says (p. 129), “certain regulations relating to the use of machines also aim at restriction of output," and when he says (p. 132) the trade unionists still cling to the lump-of-work fallacy, may mislead the student; the theory of wages presented (pp. 5-6) is weak. The reader will wonder why many of the court decisions cited are not indicated specifically and references made to the reports rather than to such secondary sources as the Bulletin of Labor or the Survey, and why many of the magazine articles which find place in the reading-lists were not more definitely indicated and why they were not all entered according to a uniform plan, so that they might be found with the least inconvenience. In spite of such shortcomings, however, Carlton's The History and Problems of Organized Labor is more than an acceptable text.


La grande loi sociale de l'amour des hommes. Par A. LUGAN. Paris,

1912. Pp. 231.

The two great social laws are brotherly love and justice. In the present volume the author discusses the former, as enunciated and applied by Jesus Christ. Under the heads of the general law of love, the degrees of love, the love of enemies, and the practice of love of the neighbor, he covers the field fairly well, and in a simple and popular style. To the average social student the second and the last chapters will undoubtedly prove the most interesting and practical. Christ's command

love the neighbor as the self means that we are to regard and treat our fellow-man as a being who has the same eternal Father, the same nature, the same needs, the same individual sacredness as ourselves. Hence the neighbor is infinitely superior to anything in the brute creation. From the parable of the Good Samaritan it is clear that the law of brotherly love extends to every human being, regardless of country, race, or sex. Obviously this doctrine is immeasurably above the teaching on the same subject by the Pharisees, the pagans, and Nietzsche. The last chapter deals with the complementary principle of the law of love, namely, the Golden Rule, and shows how Christ himself applied it to the different relations of social life. The author concludes the chapter with a brief but vivid outline of the improvement that would be brought about in society if men practiced these two principles according to the teaching and spirit of Jesus.



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The Modern Household. By M. TALBOT and S. P. BRECKINRIDGE.

Boston: Whitcomb & Barrows, 1912. Pp. 93.

Starting with the conviction that the family group is fundamentally important for the community and that home-making is a significant and responsible career, the authors discuss various aspects of the modern household, such as “The Household as the Center of Consumption," “Shelter," "Food,” “Management,” “The Household and the Community.” The book is well arranged for use as a text in short chapters, with suggestive questions and a bibliography at the end of each.

Now that production in the home has practically ceased, the function of the housekeeper is largely that of spender of the family income. Spending has an important influence upon the lives of the workers who produce what woman buys and upon her own children. But the majority of women have not as yet trained themselves to be wise and efficient spenders. The authors suggest that in addition to acquiring a knowledge of present conditions of productions, women adopt a simple system of cost accounting and carefully compare expenditures for different items to determine the wisest division of income.

It is a virtue in the book that hard-and-fast rules for all environments are not given. The general principles established by investigation are stated, and other possible principles only suggested. Problems are raised, however, and questions asked which, if thoroughly considered, would make of housekeeping an interesting and absorbing occupation. Exception might be taken to the following statements: first, that the present tendency "is to lay less stress than in the past on the environment and more on personal contact as the medium for the spread of disease" (p. 23). In making this statement, the authors have apparently had local conditions in mind, for certainly hookworm and the fly-borne diseases are environmental diseases. Second, the statement that the disposal of garbage is a matter of decency, order, beauty, and cleanliness rather than of health (p. 24) is not true where flies exist.

The suggestions in favor of simplicity of meals and their preparation are to be commended. One is curious to know, however, why, in the light of their advice against the use of high flavoring in foods, the authors advocate the use of harmless coloring matter when the latter makes as artificial an appeal as the former. The lack of standards in clothing and the iniquity of much modern advertising in contributing to this lack are emphasized. There can be no dissent from the authors' statement that the requirements of modesty demand that “the person shall be covered," although in view of the immodesty which modern woman has been able to develop in a dress which still “covers the person,” a more explicit criterion might be demanded. Also, one may be justified in wondering why an exception to this criterion should be made in the case of the formal dinner or ball. Finally, the point of view emphasized in the book that home-making is not exclusively the woman's business, but must be shared by the man of the house also, is important. Men as well as women need some training in household problems, at least, for only through co-operation can these problems be adequately solved.


Anthropology. By R. R. MARETT. New York: Henry Holt &

Co.; London: Williams & Norgate, 1912. Pp. 256.

This book is one in the series of "The Home University Library of Modern Knowledge." It is intended for the man of general culture and not for the specialist. It contains ten chapters dealing with the antiquity of man, race, environment, language, social organization, law, religion, morality, and man the individual. It is a discussion of the problems of anthropology rather than a presentation of the date of the science. In this respect it differs from Tylor's classic work on the same subject. It has the stamp of high scholarship, and its style is clear and vigorous, with a facetious vein and some fine flashes of wit. It seems, therefore, to be admirably adapted to its purpose of introducing the subject and so engaging the reader as to leave him thinking and craving more light.

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