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The Tramp Problem.—The causes of vagrancy are in general the same as the causes of poverty, plus, often, a strong desire to wander. A reduction of vagrancy may be effected through farm colonies for tramps and vagrants, the reduction of railway trespass, disuse of almshouses for housing tramps, establishing the “tramp house" with work-test, having state officials to arrest and prosecute vagrants, abolition of the short sentence and the idle jail, prosecution of public begging. The states, not localities, must handle the problem, which is one of national scope; there should be, also, a national vagrancy committee working systematically. Some form of free employment bureaus should be established, and temporary lodgings furnished the unemployed who meet the work-test. Systematic education is a fundamental aid in preventing vagrancy.-0. F. Lewis, Annals of the American Academy, March, 1912. A. H. W.

Workmen's Compensation in Michigan.—The movement for workmen's compensation is of recent origin in the United States but has rapidly advanced. New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Illinois, New Hampshire, Ohio, Nevada, California, Washington, and Wisconsin have passed acts. They are of several types: the elective, the supplemental, the compulsory, and that involving state insurance. The elective system is often condemned as a makeshift between employers' liability and pure compulsory compensation; but it is a distinct advance upon employers' liability in that it recognizes the principle of payment for accidents that occur without the fault of the injured. The Michigan Commission act is compulsory for the state and its subdivisions, and elective for all other employers except in agricultural and domestic service. It provides a reasonable compensation, certain in amount, of assured payment, and readily collectible. The scheme aims to promote prevention.—Hal H. Smith, Michigan Law Review, February, 1912.

A. H. W. Rural Recreation, a Socializing Factor. The play movement has not yet fully penetrated the rural districts, where there is great need of suitable recreational activities for developing and socializing purposes. Church, school, rural Y.M.C.A., grange, and other organizations must co-operate in securing play facilities. An ade quate program includes pleasurable occupations for all these organizations, in all seasons and for both sexes at all ages.—Myron T. Scudder, Annals of the American Academy, March, 1912.

A. H. W. Die Frau als Konsumentin.—The entrance of women into production as a means of maintaining the family standard of living has not proved efficient. The present problem of the housewife and the means of maintaining the standard of living is her ability to direct consumption economically and her ability as a purchaser. Her education has not fitted her for this work; schools for training women in these duties are now organized; societies of purchasers and of consumers have been formed, which, in addition to organizing the direct efforts in these lines, are using the economic power of the purchasers to solve ethical and aesthetic questions, such as the conditions under which production is carried on, and the artistic characteristics of articles.—Irma Wolff, Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik, May, 1912.

E. H. S.

Ueber Kulturaufgaben der Arbeiterschaft in Oesterreich.—The legislation of 1867-68 first made possible the labor movement in Austria. The first effort of these organizations of laborers was to secure education and culture, and efforts in these directions have never been so strong and persistent elsewhere as in Austria. The unions have been foremost in fighting for public education, democracy, woman suffrage, and general health, and against clericalism.-Engelbert Pernerstorfer, Dokumente des Fortschritts, May, 1912.

E. H. S.

Profit-sharing and Labor Co-Partnership.—The question of how much wealth shall be produced is of more importance to the community than the question of the shares that shall go to employers and employees. The amount of wealth produced is being greatly reduced by industrial disputes and enmity, for production depends on co-operation of capital and labor. The capitalists by some initial self-sacrifice can relieve this situation by systems of profit-sharing and labor co-partnership; there are in England many cases of successful working of these means to the benefit of both employers and employees.-T. C. Taylor, Contemporary Review, May, 1912.

E. H. S.

The Living Wage in the Australian Arbitration Court.—The compulsory submission of industrial disputes to Courts of Arbitration in Australia has incidentally required those courts to accept some principle of determining a just wage, for the court has been left without guidance from the legislature in this. From the first the court decided to reject the "market value of services” as the determinant of wages, and substituted the normal needs of the average employee, regarded as a human being living in a civilized country. It was adjudged to be better that industries which could not pay such wages should cease. Injurious, disagreeable, or degrading conditions of work, which were preventable, were not considered as cause for an increase in the minimum wage, but as cause for special legislation.—Harrison Moore, Journal of the Society of Comparative Legislation, N.S. No. 26, May, 1912.

E. H. S.

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German Social Insurance and Poor Relief.-German insurance laws were first advocated because they were expected to reduce the necessity for poor relief; it was regarded as a matter of arithmetic so many more people insured, so many fewer paupers, so'much more insurance benefit, so much less poor relief. But at the present time the poor-law authorities, with the full approval of public opinion, are doing a larger and more important work than ever before. The social insurance awakened a social spirit that led to a greater development of the poor-law system, based on extensive preventive work. Also, the social insurance raised the standard of living of the ordinary worker, and this rise has been reflected in the larger grants to those who need aid. The insurance legislation did not decrease poor relief, but widened and deepened the entire system of public care for the poor.-W. H. Dawson, Contemporary Review, May, 1912.

E. H. S. Individualism and Socialism. Socialism in its more precise sense indicates the various orderly measures that are taken by groups of individuals to provide collectively for the definite needs of the individuals composing the group. Individualism maintains that it is the individual that counts, and that for good or ill the individual brought his fate with bim at birth. Both theories are absolutely right, for they are not opposed. There is a division of labor between them; no one needs individualism in his water supply and no one needs socialism in his religion. All human affairs at any given time sort themselves out as coming within the province of socialism or of individualism. Each is indispensable to the other. The key to the situation is found in the counterbalancing tendency of individualism and the eugenic guardianship of the race.Havelock Ellis, Contemporary Review, April, 1912.

E. H. S.

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