« PreviousContinue »
The Story of the Zulus. By J. Y. GIBSON. London and New
York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1911. Pp. vii+338.
Mr. Gibson's volume, the first edition of which appeared in 1903, is well printed, well bound, and embellished with eleven illustrations of Zulu scenes and personalities. There is an unusually full index, a "genealogy” of the Zulu royal house, but curiously enough, no table of contents, not even a bare list of chapter headings. So strange an omission ought not to go unnoticed.
The author has enjoyed excellent opportunities for producing a reliable narrative. His boyhood was passed in Natal, at a time when the Zulus furnished one of the principal topics of conversation among both the black and the white races there. Subsequently, he served as a magistrate in Zululand and learned to know the natives at first hand. His book belongs to the small but useful class of works which deal, not with the customs of primitive peoples, but with their history after contact with European culture. The narrative covers about one hundred years of Zulu national life-from the latter part of the eighteenth century to 1888 when Zululand became a British protectorate.
The Zulus, until about 1780, led the uneventful lives of all primitive folk. Though their country was thickly populated by numerous tribes under independent chiefs, there seems to have been little warfare and few efforts on the part of one community to expand over its neighbors. Suddenly all is changed; a great man makes his appearance in the person of Dingiswayo, “the Troubled One.” He goes to Cape Town, witnesses the drilling of European soldiers, and returns to his people fired with the idea of subjecting them to a similar military discipline. The Zulu warriors who formerly fought in unorganized masses he forms into regiments and companies, each with its induna or captain, each with its appointed place on the field of battle. The new system immediately proves its worth; Dingiswayo conquers all his neighbors, and from the chieftainship of a petty tribe, rises to the position of paramount ruler over a wide extent of country (between the Tugela and Pongolo rivers). If native tradition is trustworthy, the new sovereign aimed to be as eminent in peace as in war. He began an extensive trade with Delagoa Bay; encouraged, by liberal rewards, the arts and crafts of his people; and even established a manufactory where a hundred workmen were employed. This Peter the Great of Zululand died about the year 1818, too soon for his radical innovations to take deep root. A few years later, however, the example of Dingiswayo was pursued with greater success by the well-known Tshaka (Chaka), the real founder of the Zulu power during the nineteenth century. The military discipline which Tshaka enforced upon his subjects was worthy of a Lycurgus. Like the Spartans, they had to conquer or die in battle; at the conclusion of each fight the cowards were picked out and promptly dispatched by Tshaka's agents. "The practice,” remarks our authority, "was certainly a strong stimulus to valor.”
The story of the Zulus should thus provide the sociologist with an instructive instance of “nation-making" under the influence of commanding personalities. What Dingiswayo and Tshaka did to create a conquering state was done on a larger scale by those founders of archaic civilizations, Menes, Sargon of Agade, and Hammurabi of Babylon.
HUTTON WEBSTER UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA
A Guide to Reading in Social Ethics and Allied Subjects. Lists
of Books and Articles Selected and Described for the Use of General Readers, by Teachers in Harvard University. Published by Harvard University, 1910. Pp. x+263. $1.25.
Professor Peabody's “prefatory note” explains that the book aims to be something less than a perfect bibliography, “which may justify pride in the compiler, but may provoke despair in the reader." Its aim is rather to guide "not a superficial reader, nor yet a learned scholar, but an intelligent and serious-minded student, who is willing to read substantial literature if it be commended to him as worth his while and is neither too voluminous nor too inaccessible."
The main titles are: I, “Social Philosophy," with nine subdivisions; II, “Social Institutions, including three subtopics'; III, “Social Service,” treated under eleven groupings; IV, “The Ethics of Modern Industry,” considered under fourteen rubrics; V, “Social Aspects of Religion," of which five are distinguished; VI, “Bibliographical References in Social Ethics."
Select bibliographies, and particularly brief characterizations of books, are so largely matters of taste that quarrels over them are barred. One is, of course, tempted, nevertheless, on almost every page. Turning the leaves at random, for example, my eye fell upon the word "mercantilist" on p. 18. Then I read the advice
to consult J. K. Ingram's History of Political Economy for information on that subject. As I have elsewhere shown, it would be better not to read anything at all about mercantilism than to suppose that Ingram was an authority about it. I do not find Professor Cooley's name in the index, and his two books are certainly more important than two-thirds of the titles under the head "Social Psychology” (pp. 24-28). Professor Giddings appears to have been mentioned only on p. 29. The Principles of Sociology is not his only important book. I do not find Professor Simon N. Patten's name in the index, while scores of less stimulating and instructive writers are scheduled. In spite of such omissions and vagaries of judgment, the lists will be useful, and the book should be at the elbow of everyone who is called upon to advise about reading in the social sciences.
A. W. S.
Socialistic Fallacies. By Yves Guyot. New York: Macmillan,
1910. Pp. xxiii +343. $1.50 net.
This translation of an already well-known impeachment of socialism will be a valuable addition to our equipment for studying the subject. Guyot tries to be judicial, but he has the temper of an advocate, and the socialists will hardly admit that his position is unprejudiced. There can be no question about the force of his attack. Starting with Bentham's definition of "fallacy," i.e., "any argument employed, or topic suggested, for the purpose, or with a probability, of producing the effect of deception of causing some erroneous opinion to be entertained by any person to whose mind such argument may have been presented,” the author proposes "to reduce to their true value the socialistic fallacies with which a number of able, but frequently unscrupulous, men amuse the idle and attract the multitude. They do not even possess the merit of having originated either their arguments or their systems. They are plagiarists, with some variations, of all the communist romances inspired by Plato. Their greatest pundits, Marx and Engels, have built up their theories upon a sentence of Saint Simon and three phrases of Ricardo.” The argument in support of this proposition is divided into nine books, viz.: 1, "Utopias and Communistic Experiments”; II, “Socialistic Theories”; III, “The Postulates of German Socialism”; IV, “The Distribution of Capital”; V, “The Distribution of Industries"; VI, "The Inconsistencies of Scientific
Socialism"; VII, "Collectivist Organization"; VIII, "The Actual Class War”; IX, “Socialism and Democracy."
The animus of the book and the author's estimate of its performance may be gathered from the closing paragraph (p. 343) : “There are three words which Socialism must erase from the façades of our public buildings—the three words of the Republican motto:
“Liberty, because Socialism is a rule of tyranny and of police. "Equality, because it is a rule of class. "Fraternity, because its policy is that of the class war."
A. W. S. The Pittsburgh Survey: Findings in Six Volumes. Edited by
PAUL UNDERWOOD KELLOGG. Homestead, the Households of a Mill Town. By MARGARET F. BYINGTON. The Steel Workers. By JOHN A. FITCH. New York: Charities Publication Committee (Russell Sage Foundation Publications), 1910.
This series will be reviewed in this Journal after Mr. Kellogg's final volume has appeared. It is enough to say at present that no more important single enterprise in the field of social investigation has been undertaken in the United States. The work was done in a way that has demonstrated the wisdom of the plan.
A. W. S.
The Spirit of Social Work. BY EDWARD T. DEVINE. New York:
Charities Publication Committee, 1911. Pp. 231. $1.00.
Dr. Devine has again set forth in this book in a delightful way the spirit of modern social work. In a series of nine addresses he covers a variety of topics, such as “The Conservation of Human Life," "The Tenement House in Modern Cities,” “The Attitude of Society toward the Criminal," "The Religious Treatment of Poverty," and "The Dominant Note of Modern Philanthropy.” In all of these addresses there is the sanity, breadth of vision, and wisdom which we are accustomed to expect in all that Dr. Devine says. There is the emphasis upon prevention, upon the study and removal of the causes of misery, and upon the conservation of the higher values of human life which characterizes modern scientific philanthropy. The book deserves reading, not only by those who are interested in social work, but by all who wish to understand the humanitarian movements of our time.
C. A. ELLWOOD UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI
Barbarous Mexico. By JOHN KENNETH TURNER. Chicago: Charles H.
Kerr & Co., 1911. Pp. 340, with 18 illustrations.
The bulk of the material embodied in this volume was gathered during two trips through Mexico in 1908 and 1909. The author says: "My purpose is to give the reader a correct impression of Diaz and his political and economic system, of the character of the Mexican people, and of the Diaz-American partnership which has helped to enslave the Mexican nation, on the one hand, and kept the American public in ignorance of the real facts of Diaz and Mexico, on the other. .. The term 'barbarous,' which I use in my title, is intended to apply to Mexico's form of government, rather than to its people.” The chapter titles are: I, "The Slaves of Yucatan"; II, “The Extermination of the Yaquis"; III, "Over the Exile Road"; IV, “The Contract Slaves of Valle Nacional”; V, "In the Valley of Death"; VI, “The Country Peons and the City Poor"; VII, “The Diaz System"; VIII, “Repressive Elements of the Diaz Machine”; IX, “The Crushing of Opposition Parties”; X, “The Eighth Unanimous Election of Diaz"; XI, "Four Mexican Strikes"; XII, "Critics and Corroboration"; XIII, "The Diaz-American Press Conspiracy"; XIV, "The American Partners of Diaz"; XV, "American Persecution of the Enemies of Diaz"; XVI, “Diaz Himself"; XVII, “The Mexican People.” We have no means of checking up the alleged evidence. We can merely announce this brief for the prosecution.
Canadian National Economy. The Cause of High Prices and Their Effect
upon the Country. By JAMES J. HARPELL. Toronto: The Macmillan Company of Canada, Ltd., 1911. Pp. 182. 50 cents.
The author says of his monograph: “The material presented in the following pages has grown out of notes and observations made particularly during the last eight or nine years, when, in the course of business, I have had an opportunity to study Canadian authorities at first hand, and in a similar manner of comparing them with those obtaining in other countries. My first attempt to put these notes into constructive form resulted in an article entitled 'Canada and Tariff Reform' that appeared in the 1910 January number of Contemporary Review. The correspondence and comments occasioned by the appearance of this article impressed me with the need for a more comprehensive treatment, such as I have attempted in this volume.” The special topics are: I, “The Manufacturing Industry"; II, “The Preferential Tariff"; III, “The Formation, Workings, and Profits of Combines"; IV, "Canada's Natural Resources and Foreign Trade"; V, "The Farming Industry"; VI, "The Mining Industry''; VII, "The Fishing Industry"; VIII, "The Effect upon the Political and Social Life of the Country"; IX, "The Need for National Economy"; X, “Reciprocity with the United States."