Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change

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Springer Science & Business Media, 2003 M09 24 - 368 pages
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Professor Kondratyev and his team consider the concept of global warming due to the greenhouse effect and put forward a new approach to the problem of assessing the impact of anthropogenic processes. Considering data on both sources and sinks for atmospheric carbon and various conceptual schemes of the global carbon dioxide cycle, they suggest a new approach to studies of the problem of the greenhouse effect. They assess the role of different types of soil and vegetation in the assimilation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and discuss models of the atmosphere ocean gas exchange and its role in the carbon dioxide cycle, paying special attention to the role of the Arctic Basin. The authors also consider models of other global atmospheric cycles for a range of atmospheric constituents, and conclude by drawing together a range of scenarios on modelling the global carbon cycle.

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Contents

Global climate and carbon cycle
1
112 Carbon cycle
6
113 Carbon cycle and climate
18
114 Conclusion
22
12 PRESENTDAY TRENDS OF CIVILIZATION DEVELOPMENT
23
122 Contemporary global ecodynamics
26
13 THE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE KYOTO PROTOCOL
38
131 Atmospheric temperature
40
312 GLOBAL CARBON DIOXIDE MODEL TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LAND BIOMASS
165
Carbon cycle in the ocean
167
42 ATMOSPHEREOCEAN EXCHANGE PROCESSES
170
43 THE ZONAL MODEL OF THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE ATMOSPHEREOCEAN SYSTEM
178
44 THE 3D MODEL OF THE CARBON CYCLE IN THE WORLD OCEAN
180
45 MODELLING THE ORGANIC CARBON CYCLE IN THE WORLD OCEAN
183
452 Equations of the World Ocean ecosystems dynamics
186
453 Analysis of the vertical structure of the ocean ecosystem
190

133 Surface level and heat content of the upper layer of the ocean
41
135 Concentration of GHGs and anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere
42
14 THE ATMOSPHERIC GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE
46
15 MODELLING THE ANTHROPOGENIC PROCESSES
50
152 Modelling the demographic processes
60
153 Parameterization of anthropogenic processes
65
154 Modelling natural and anthropogenic processes in a megalopolis
70
16 SCENARIOS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMICS
74
161 Fishery scenario
75
163 Investment scenario
76
17 THE MAJOR SUDDEN STRATOSPHERIC WARMING AND THE OZONE HOLE SPLIT OVER ANTARCTICA IN 2002
79
172 The role of the tropospheric dynamics
80
173 The role of the planetary waves
81
174 The role of the polar stratospheric vortex
82
175 What do the models show?
84
The biogeochemical carbon cycle in nature
87
22 ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES OF CARBON
93
23 CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAMS OF THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE
97
24 RESOURCES OF THE BIOSPHERE AND CARBON CYCLE
104
Surface ecosystems and carbon cycle
107
311 Characteristics of the anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems
108
312 The present state of individual ecosystems and the trends of their variability
109
32 THE ROLE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS
121
321 The greenhouse effect and forest ecosystems
122
322 Global cycles of GHGs
125
323 Afforestation and deforestation
128
33 THE IMPACT OF CARBON DIOXIDE ON PRIMARY PRODUCTION
129
34 CARBON EXCHANGE PROCESSES ON THE LANDATMOSPHERE BORDER
132
35 SOME ASPECTS OF BIOCOENOLOGY IN CONNECTION WITH THE ATMOSPHERIC GREENHOUSE EFFECT
138
36 THE SYSTEM APPROACH IN BIOCOENOLOGY
141
37 MODELS IN BIOCOENOLOGY
143
38 MODELLING THE FOREST ECOSYSTEMS
146
382 Modelling the water regime of plants
148
39 MODELLING THE ENERGY FLUXES IN THE ATMOSPHERE PLANTSOIL SYSTEM
150
391 The model of photosynthesis of leaf canopy
153
392 A dynamic photosynthesisconductivity model
157
310 MODELLING THE PRODUCTION PROCESSES IN THE CONIFEROUS FOREST
158
3101 Photosynthesis
159
3102 Distribution of enzymes
160
3103 Respiration and dyingoff
161
311 MODELLING THE SUCCESSION PROCESSES IN THE TUNDRA TAIGA SYSTEM
162
454 The organic carbon cycle in the ecosystem of the Peruvian current
194
455 The organic carbon cycle in the ecosystem of upwelling
198
456 The organic carbon cycle in conditions of freezing seas
203
457 The organic carbon cycle in the Okhotsk Sea
209
Modelling the interactive cycles of carbon and other chemicals
213
52 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES
214
53 MODEL OF THE GLOBAL SULPHUR CYCLE
216
54 MODEL OF THE GLOBAL PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
224
55 MODEL OF THE GLOBAL NITROGEN CYCLE MGNC
227
551 Conceptual schemes of the nitrogen cycle in nature
228
553 Atmospheric components of the nitrogen cycle
231
554 The surface part of the nitrogen cycle in the biosphere
232
555 The hydrospheric constituent of the global nitrogen cycle
235
556 Anthropogenic factors of nitrogen oxide in the biosphere
236
56 BIOSPHERIC BUDGET OF OXYGEN AND OZONE
239
561 Oxygen sources
241
562 Processes of oxygen assimilation
242
564 Anthropogenic impact on the oxygen cycle
243
565 The model blockscheme of the oxygen budget in the biosphere
247
57 AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF AVIATION IN THE OZONE LAYER DYNAMICS
249
58 THE ROLE OF PRECIPITATION IN THE GLOBAL CYCLE OF CARBON DIOXIDE
256
581 Modelling the global water cycle
258
582 Modelling the water cycle on the atmosphereland border
261
583 Modelling the water cycle on the atmospherewater surface border
265
584 Simulation of water fluxes in the atmosphere
266
585 Simulation of water fluxes in the World Ocean
267
586 The model of the hydrological regime of a territory
270
59 METHANE AND THE CARBON CYCLE
275
Modelling the global carbon cycle
285
62 THE GLOBAL MODEL OF THE NATURESOCIETY SYSTEM DYNAMICS
287
63 THE ROLE OF LAND BIOTA IN CO2 ASSIMILATION FROM THE ATMOSPHERE
294
64 THE ROLE OF THE WORLD OCEAN IN THE ASSIMILATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE
298
65 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE MODEL
300
651 The international programme on studies of the carbon cycle in the environment
301
652 Structure of the global model of the naturesociety system
306
653 Evolution and survivability of the naturesociety system
309
654 Modelling the climatic processes
311
655 Some estimates of global midynamics
317
References
321
Index
353
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Page 342 - Orr, JC, E. Maier-Reimer, U. Mikolajewicz, P. Monfray, JL Sarmiento, JR Toggweiler, NK Taylor, J. Palmer, N. Gruber, CL Sabine, CL Le Quere, RM Key, and J.
Page 328 - Fan, S., Gloor, M., Mahlman, J., Pacala, S., Sarmiento, J., Takahashi, T. and Tans, P. (1998) A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models. Science, 282, 442-446. Fearnside, PM (1995) Hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon as sources of "greenhouse
Page 323 - RA 2000. Offset of the potential carbon sink from boreal forestation by decreases in surface albedo.

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