Page images




for fiscal 1966 Title 1-Education of Children of Low-Income Families-- $1,000,000,000 Title 11-School Library Resources and Instructional Materials--

100, 000, 000 Title III—Supplementary Educational Centers and Services --- 100,000,000 Title IV-Educational Research and Training, Cooperative Research Act.--.

45,000,000 Title V-State Department of Education.-



1, 255, 000, 000


FAMILIES Background

"Every child must have the best education our Nation can provide," the President said in his 1965 state of the Union address.

Poverty paralyzes efforts to bring proper educational services and facilities within the reach of all the Nation's children. Left unchecked, poverty's adverse effects become chronic and contagious, often leading to delinquency and crime.

Two-thirds of the families whose head has fewer than 9 years of education are in poverty. Of those youths, aged 18 to 24 with an eighthgrade education or less, 20 percent are unemployed. In the Nation as a whole in 1960, there were 2.3 million school-age children living in families earning less than $1,000 annually; 5 million children living in families earning less than $2,000 a year.

In the slums, the schools are overcrowded; many are obsolete and unsafe. At least 30 percent of our schoolchildren go to school in classes averaging 30 or more pupils. In remote rural areas, schools often offer inadequate programs in inadequate facilities.

Of the 1.7 million classrooms now operating, nearly one-third were opened prior to 1930 and have since fallen far below acceptable standards. In some of our city slums, about half of all classrooms are at least 50 years old; many are still not fireproof.

Despite a massive effort on the part of our major cities, they generally spend only two-thirds as much per pupil as their suburbs. Up to onethird of the children in these cities are culturally and economically deprived, and from their number stem about 80 percent of all dropouts.

The disadvantaged child is a year behind in mastering schoolwork by the time he reaches the third grade and up to 3 years behind if he reaches the eighth. Research shows that culturally disadvantaged children have only 1 chance in 1,000 to acquire effective learning habits without the benefit of special preschool orientation. This points to the need for services and facilities in behalf of deprived youngsters.

Over the 1963–73 period, public elementary school enrollments are expected to climb from 29.4 to 32.1 million, an increase of 9 percent. meanwhile, in nonpublic elementary schools, the estimated rise is from 5.4 to 5.9 million, also a 9-percent increase. Public secondary school enrollments will go from 10.9 million to an anticipated 14.2 million, up 30 percent; and the nonpublic secondary school enrollments are expected to rise by 38 percent, from 1.3 to 1.8 million.

Since 1946, State and local bonded indebtedness has risen approximately 450 percent, while Federal debt has increased approximately 14 percent. During the same period, State and local taxes have increased approximately 340 percent, while Federal taxes increased approximately 140 percent–before the 1964 Federal tax cut. Quality education requires increased Federal aid.

Few educational agencies have the resources to rehabilitate the victims of poverty or to provide educational programs that will adequately meet the needs of the greatly increased school age population. Proposal

Title I adds a 3-year program to Public Law 874 (school assistance for local educational agencies in areas affected by Federal activity) which is designed to encourage and support the establishment, expansion, and improvement of special programs, including the construction of minimum school facilities where needed, to meet the special needs of educationally deprived children of low-income families.

Public schools would be eligible for payments for programs designed to meet the special educational needs of children in school attendance areas having high concentrations of disadvantaged children. In these areas, the school district would design special educational services and arrangements, including those in which all children in need of such services could participate without full-time public school attendance. These special programs might include dual enrollment (shared services) arrangements, educational radio and television, mobile educational services, remedial education, preschool or afterschool programs, additional instructional personnel, equipment and facilities, and others judged necessary for improving the education of disadvantaged children.

Local educational agencies in a given county would be eligible for payments equal to one-half the average per pupil expenditure in that State multiplied by the number of children in that county (aged 5 to 17) in families having an annual income of less than $2,000.

Children in lowo-income families in selected States and counties

State and county

(aged 5-17) in
families with
less than $2,000
annual income

Percentage of
total children

(aged 6-17)

Federal payment





[ocr errors]



Cleburne.. California..

Los Angeles Florida..

Dade (Miami) Illinois.

Cook (Chicago) Kentucky

Metcalfe. Maryland...

Baltimore City Mississippi..

Tunica.. New Mexico.--

Sierra. New York

Erie (Buffalo) Oregon...

Multnomah (Portland)Tennessee..

Hancock. Texas.



8,311 139,702

1,176 227,007

80,545 143,795

22,519 155,694

57,054 188, 101

1,132 56,202 20,902 232,603

2,965 37,998

622 213,201

12, 432 25,399

6,291 213,694

1,155 386,599


7 5 24 56

7 10 37 54 14 50 6 5 6 5 23 51


1,163,540 21,095,002

177,576 60,137,510 21,344,425 27,896,230

4,368, 686 37,288,765 13,664,433 28, 215, 150

169,800 13,741,401

5,110,540 28,028,704

357,283 8,351,640

136,840 75,127,295 4,382, 280 6,853, 177 1,726,880 31,092,525

168,053 74,580,048


The State educational agency would be responsible for distribution of the allotments within the State based on its approval of plans for special programs submitted by the local school districts. However, upon approval of their plans, the school districts in any given county would receive the total amount for which that county would be eligible under the distribution. In multidistrict counties, the total amount for the county would be allocated by the State agency among the districts.

Federal funds made available under this title would be used essentially for improving the education of educationally deprived students, not for the general educational programs of the schools. State and local educational effort must also be maintained and, if possible, increased as a condition of receiving these funds.

Special educational efforts directed to those at the lower end of the economic spectrum will have a salutory effect on the entire educational system and will broaden the range of educational opportunity available to all children. School districts in approximately 95 percent of the Nation's 3,100 counties would be eligible for these poverty-linked funds.

First-year authorization would be approximately $1 billion.


will grow.



At all levels of education, teaching programs have become increasingly dependent upon a well-stocked library, the services of a professional librarian, and up-to-date textbooks. Basic courses in nearly all academic subjects, as well as the most advanced courses, are dependent on libraries and instructional materials. That dependence

The great majority of our public schools do not have adequate library resources. In many schools, there is an average of less than one-half book per child and some cities spend less than 15 cents a year per child for library books. Today more than 2 out of every 3 public elementary schools have no libraries at all and more than 8 out of 10 lack trained librarians. The current public school levels of 6.2 library books per pupil and $2.28 annual expenditure for books per pupil are well below the recommended professional standards of 10 books and $4 to $6 annual expenditure for books per pupil.

To meet the accepted minimum standards for cities with populations above 500,000, there is a need for a fourfold increase in current expenditures for school library materials. The cost of books is up 82 percent since 1948. Using the base period 1957–59, the cost of books has risen more than a third while wholesale prices remained constant and consumer prices rose less than 7 percent. This naturally works the greatest hardship on poor school districts.

Textbook sales in the Nation in 1963 amounted to $293 million, or only $6.11 per student. In some States, as much as $12.32 was spent per student; in others as little as $4.76. A single, modern, hardbound textbook in many subjects often costs as much or more than the entire year's budget for new instructional books. Moreover, a fourth of all the Nation's public high school systems do not provide free textbooks and it has been stated that high textbook fees are one of the reasons for the school dropout problem.

A new instructional development is the increased use of programed learning textbooks. From 1962 to 1963, programed texts increased from 122 to 352, over half in science and mathematics. But these new materials are expensive; they average $10 to $15 each, thus constituting a barrier to their adoption in all but the wealthier school districts. Proposal

Title II provides for a 5-year program to make available for the use of schoolchildren school library resources and other printed and published instructional materials including textbooks essential to improved educational quality in the schools of the Nation.

A State plan would provide for a method of making available books, periodicals, documents, magnetic tapes, phonograph records, and other printed and published materials for the use of all schoolchildren in the State.

Materials purchased with Federal funds would not be used for sectarian instruction or religious worship and when made available for the use of students in nonpublic schools would be the same as those used or approved for use in the public schools of the State. In those States legally unable to provide materials for students in nonpublic schools, the Commissioner of Education would make available to such children those materials used in the public schools of the State.

Funds would be allotted to the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands on the basis of the number of children enrolled in public and nonprofit private elementary, and secondary schools in each State or territory. The previous level of non-Federal support for these materials would be maintained and, if possible, increased.

First-year authorization would be $100 million.



While the problems existing in school districts impacted by poverty are particularly acute, there are also chronic limitations in elementary and secondary schools throughout the Nation regardless of the level of community wealth. A fundamental weakness is the uneven distribution and inconsistent quality of educational, scientific, and cultural resources presently available.

Among the variety of supplementary services that make the difference between a poor school and a good school are special instruction in science, languages, music, and the arts; counseling and guidance; health and social work; and access to such resources as technical institutes, museums, art galleries, and theaters. In these respects there are many unmet needs.

Today, less than one-quarter of our elementary schools have the services of a guidance counselor 1 or more days a week. More than 3 million elementary school children are estimated to be in need of social work or psychological services. At present, however, there are only about 3,000 school social workers on the staffs of the public schools; most school systems cannot afford to hire them. Although surveys show that today 7 to 14 percent of schoolchildren have significant emotional problems, more than 9 out of 10 school systems have no special programs for these children and are unable to deal with them effectively through their regular programs.

Reforms and improvements in science and language instruction appear in uneven quality throughout the country. In only 10 States do all secondary schools have science laboratory facilities. Science specialists generally agree that modern science cannot be taught properly without laboratories for teacher and students experimentations. Moreover, less than 30 percent of public secondary schools now have language laboratories available.

By 1968 at least 25.000 additional science laboratories will be needed in elementary schools to meet increases in enrollments—a 500-percent increase. At least 40,000 additional labs will be needed in the high schools, almost a 100-percent increase. Just to keep pace with growth, by 1968 elementary schools will need 8,000 additional language laboratories and high schools will need at least 20,000 more such labs. Centralized laboratory facilities serving a number of schools and systems are one of the answers to meeting this need where individual labs cannot be provided.

Although educational research is demonstrating the increased capability and advantages of early school experiences, about one-half of


[blocks in formation]
« PreviousContinue »