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NBS MONOGRAPH 147

STANDARDS

BUREAU

OF

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE / National Bureau of Standards

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

LIBRARIES

MAY 6 1975

DEPOSITED BY THE

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The National Bureau of Standards' was established by an act of Congress March 3, 1901. The Bureau's overall goal is to strengthen and advance the Nation's science and technology and facilitate their effective application for public benefit. To this end, the Bureau conducts research and provides: (1) a basis for the Nation's physical measurement system, (2) scientific and technological services for industry and government, (3) a technical basis for equity in trade, and (4) technical services to promote public safety. The Bureau consists of the Institute for Basic Standards, the Institute for Materials Research, the Institute for Applied Technology, the Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology, and the Office for Information Programs.

THE INSTITUTE FOR BASIC STANDARDS provides the central basis within the United
States of a complete and consistent system of physical measurement; coordinates that system
with measurement systems of other nations; and furnishes essential services leading to accurate
and uniform physical measurements throughout the Nation's scientific community, industry,
and commerce. The Institute consists of a Center for Radiation Research, an Office of Meas-
urement Services and the following divisions:
Applied Mathematics

Electricity Mechanics Heat Optical Physics Nuclear Sciences ? Applied Radiation - Quantum Electronics? Electromagnetics? – Time and Frequency Laboratory Astrophysics" — Cryogenics“.

THE INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS RESEARCH conducts materials research leading to
improved methods of measurement, standards, and data on the properties of well-characterized
materials needed by industry, commerce, educational institutions, and Government; provides
advisory and research services to other Government agencies; and develops, produces, and
distributes standard reference materials. The Institute consists of the Office of Standard
Reference Materials and the following divisions:

Analytical Chemistry Polymers Metallurgy Inorganic Materials Reactor
Radiation Physical Chemistry.

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THE INSTITUTE FOR APPLIED TECHNOLOGY provides technical services to promote the use of available technology and to facilitate technological innovation in industry and Government; cooperates with public and private organizations leading to the development of technological standards (including mandatory safety standards), codes and methods of test; and provides technical advice and services to Government agencies upon request. The Institute consists of a Center for Building Technology and the following divisions and offices:

Engineering and Product Standards Weights and Measures Invention and Innovation Product Evaluation Technology Electronic Technology Technical Analysis

Measurement Engineering - Structures, Materials, and Life Safety Building Environment Technical Evaluation and Application Fire Technology.

THE INSTITUTE FOR COMPUTER SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY conducts research and provides technical services designed to aid Government agencies in improving cost effectiveness in the conduct of their programs through the selection, acquisition, and effective utilization of automatic data processing equipment; and serves as the principal focus within the executive branch for the development of Federal standards for automatic data processing equipment, techniques, and computer languages. The Institute consists of the following divisions:

Computer Services — Systems and Software - Computer Systems Engineering Information Technology.

THE OFFICE FOR INFORMATION PROGRAMS promotes optimum dissemination and accessibility of scientific information generated within NBS and other agencies of the Federal Government; promotes the development of the National Standard Reference Data System and a system of information analysis centers dealing with the broader aspects of the National Measurement System; provides appropriate services to ensure that the NBS staff has optimum accessibility to the scientific information of the world. The Office consists of the following organizational units:

Office of Standard Reference Data Office of Information Activities Office of Technical Publications – Library - Office of International Relations.

? Headquarters and Laboratories at Gaithersburg, Maryland, unless otherwise noted; mailing address Washington, D.C. 20234.

2 Part of the Center for Radiation Research.
* Located at Boulder. Colorado 80302.
* Part of the Center for Building Technology.

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For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402

(Order by SD Catalog No. C13.44:147).

Price $2.15

When Yukawa introduced the mesons in order to explain the short range character of the nuclear forces, the field of nuclear physics split into two parts: nuclear structure and nuclear forces. Nuclear structure developed into non-relativistic nuclear physics and led to the creation of various models to describe the emerging wealth of nuclear data. The field of nuclear forces developed into high energy particle physics with its own immense body of phenomena and data.

For most nuclear phenomena the non-relativistic framework is fully adequate. However, this framework is too narrow in phenomena associated with exchange currents and with high momentum transfers. In such cases the presence of particles other than protrons and neutrons in the nuclei must be explicitly accounted for, and one must take recourse to the field of high energy physics. This monograph is devoted to the merger of nuclear and high energy physics, and to the formulation of the quantum field theory of nuclei. The main emphasis in this work is on providing the mathematical tools needed to obtain solutions to specific problems in a fully relativistic, consistent manner and up to a known, predetermined accuracy. I expect that this pioneering work should be of value to all who are involved in calculations of nuclear structure.

Richard W. Roberts
Director

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