Page images
PDF
EPUB

CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS
LAWRENCE ALTMAN, M.D.

Donald S. FREDRICKSON, M.D.
Reporter

Director
New York Times

National Institutes of Health
STTART AUERBACH

WILLARD GAYLIN, M.D.
Reporter

President
Washington Post

Institute of Society, Ethics and the DAVID BALTIMORE, M.D.

Life Sciences
Professor of Biology

WILLIAM GOLDEN
Massachusetts Institute of Tech Vice President
nology

American Museum of Natural HisPATRICIA BAUMAN

tory
Subcommittee on Health of the HAROLD P. GREEN, J.D.

Committee on Labor and Public Professor of Law
Welfare

The National Law Center
United States Senate

George Washington University
ROBERT W. BERLINER, M.D.

DANIEL GREENBERG
Dean

Publisher
Yale University School of Medicine Science and Government Report
WILLIAM A. BLANPIED, Ph. D.

PHILIP HANDLER, Ph. D.
Head, Division of Public Sector President
Programs

National Academy of Sciences
American Association for the Ad- RUTH S. HANFT
vancement of Science

Senior Research Associate and BERTRAM S. BROWN, M.D.

Study Director
Director

Institute of Medicine
National Institute of Mental Health National Academy of Sciences
ROBERT A, BURT, LL.B.

ANDRÉ E. HELLEGERS, M.D.
Professor of Law in Psychiatry

Director University of Michigan Law School The Joseph and Rose Kennedy In. DANIEL CALLAHAN, Ph. D.

stitute for the Study of Human Director

Reproduction and Bioethics
Institute of Society, Ethics and the HOWARD H. HIATT, M.D.
Life Sciences

Dean
ALEXANDER M. CAPRON, LL.B.

School of Public Health Associate Professor of Law

Harvard Medical School University of Pennsylvania Law HALSTED R. HOLMAN, M.D. School

Professor of Medicine ELOISE E. CLARK, Ph. D.

Stanford University School of Acting Assistant Director

Medicine
Biological, Behavioral and Social LAWRENCE HOROWITZ, M.D.
Sciences Division

Subcommittee on Health of the National Science Foundation

Committee on Labor and Public BARBARA J. CULLITON

Welfare Reporter

United States Senate Science

PETER BARTON HUTT, LL.M. JAY CUTLER

Attorney
Subcommittee on Health of the

Covington & Burley
Committee on Labor and Public
Welfare

FRANZ J. INGELFINGER, M.D.
United States Senate

Editor EMILIO DADDARIO

New England Journal of Medicine Director

JACOB K. JAVITS Office of Technology Assessment

United States Senate HAROLD EDGAR, LL.B.

ANITA JOHNSON Associate Professor of Law

Staff Attorney Columbia Law School

Health Research Group (3)

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

HANS JONAS, Ph. D.

GERARD PIEL Alvin Johnson Professsor of Philo Publisher sophy

Scientific American Graduate Faculty

JUDITH RANDAL New School for Social Research

Washington Science Editor STANLEY JONES

New York Daily News
Subcommittee on Health of the FREDERICK C. ROBBINS, M.D.

Committee on Labor and Public Dean
Welfare

Case Western Reserve University United States Senate

Medical School EDWARD M. KENNEDY

MICHAEL ROGERS United States Senate

Associate Editor SEYMOUR S. KETY, M.D.

Rolling Stone Professor of Psychiatry

ALBERT ROSENFELD Harvard Medical School

Science Editor
JONATHAN KING

Saturday Review
Associate Professor of Biology KENNETH J. RYAN, M.D.
Massachusetts Institute of Tech Kate Macy Ladd Professor of
nology ;

Obstetrics and Gynecology
Member, Genetics and Society Harvard Medical School;
Group

Chairman, Commission for the ProScience for the People

tection of Human Subjects of BioGERALD L. KLERMAN, M.D.

medical and Behavioral Research Professor of Psychiatry

BELDING H. SCRIBNER, M.D.
Harvard Medical School

Professor of Medicine
SAMUEL L. KOUNTZ, M.D.

University of Washington
Professor and Chairman

DANIEL M. SINGER
Department of Surgery

Attorney
State University of New York Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver &
Downstate Medical Center

Kampelman MATHILDE KRIM, Ph.D.

MAXINE F. SINGER, Ph. D Associate Member

National Cancer Institute Sloan-Kettering Institute for Can- ROBERT L. SINSHEIMER, Ph. D. cer Research

Professor of Biophysics
M. NEIL MACINTYRE, Ph. D.

California Institute of Technology
Professor of Anatomy and Human JEREMY STONE, Ph. D.
Genetics

Director
Case Western Reserve University

The Federation of American
School of Medicine

Scientists
ROBERT Q. MARSTON, M.D.

STEPHEN P. STRICKLAND, Ph. D.
President

Washington Study Group, Health.
University of Florida

Policy Program
ALAN MCGOWAN

University of California, San
President

Francisco School of Medicine
Scientists' Institute for Public In-

CARL TAYLOR formation

Health Program Manager ROBERT S. MORISON, M.D.

Office of Technology Assessment Class of 1949 Visiting Professor

STEPHEN TOULMIN, Ph. D.

Professor of Social Thought and Massachusetts Institute of Tech

Philosophy nology

University of Chicago
ARNO G. MOTULSKY, M.D.

JAMES D. WATSON, Ph. D.
Professor of Medicine and Genetics

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
University of Washington

SAMUEL WHITMAN
LAURA NADER, Ph. D.

Associate Dean
Professor of Anthropology

Case Western Reserve University
University of California, Berkeley

School of Medicine

Press Arrangements : Tabitha M. Powledge.
Rapporteur: Peter Steinfels.
Research : Leslie Dach.
Institute of Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences.

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

THURSDAY, APRIL 1 3:00 pm-3:30 pm

Introduction to Conference. Willard Gaylin-Institute of Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences. 3:30 pm-4:10 pm

The Congress and Biomedical Research: The Changing Relationship. Chairman: Daniel Callahan, Institute of Society, Ethics and the Life Sciences. Speaker: Stephen P. Strickland, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine. Respondents: Robert Q. Marston, University of Florida ; André Hellegers, The Joseph and Rose Kennedy Institute for the Study of Human Reproduction and Bioethics. 4:10 pm-4:40 pm

Open discussion. 4:40 pm-5:05 pm

Decisionmaking :Biomedical Research and the Public. Speaker: Ruth S. Hanft, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. 5:05 pm-5:30 pm

Open discussion. 8:00 pm-8:50 pm

Freedom of Scientific Inquiry and the Public. Chairman: Robert S. Morison, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Speaker Hans Jonas, The New School for Social Research. Respondents: Alexander M. Capron, University of Pennsylvania Law School; Gerard Piel, Scientific American; Robert Sinsheimer, California Institute of Technology. 8:50 pm-9:45 pm Open discussion.

FRIDAY, APRIL 2 9:00 am-10:30 am

Legislative Perspectives. Chairman: Willard Gaylin. Speaker: Edward M. Kennedy, United States Senate. 10:45 am-11:45 am

Sources of Tension. Chairman: Willard Gaylin. Panelists: Howard H. Hiatt, Harvard School of Public Health ; Stanley Jones, United States Senate Health Subcommittee; Jonathan King, Science for the People. 11:45 am12:30 pm

Open discussion. 12:30 pm-2:00 pm

Luncheon. Speaker: Jacob K. Javits, United States Senate. 2:00 pm-5:00 pm

Mechanisms for Public Participation and Decisionmaking. Chairman: Frederick C. Robbins, Case Western Reserve University Medical School. 2:00 pm-2:45 pm

General Mechanisms. Available Governmental Procedures. Bertram S. Brown,
National Institute of Mental Health.

Legislation. Peter Barton Hutt, Covington & Burling.
Litigation. Robert A. Burt, University of Michigan Law School.

2:45 pm-3:15 pm

Open discussion. 3:30 pm-4:30 pm

Other Mechanisms.

Scientific Organizations. William A. Blanpied, American Association for the Advancement of Science,

Asilomar. Maxine F. Singer, National Cancer Institute; David Baltimore, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Harold P. Green, The National Law Center, George Washington University.

National Commissions. Kenneth J. Ryan, Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. 4:30 pm-5:00 pm

Open discussion. 5:00 pm-5:30 pm

Summary and Synthesis. Gerald L Klerman, Harvard Medical School.

SATURDAY, APRIL 3 9:30 am-11:30 am

Statements, Declarations and Future Options. Chairman: Frederick C. Robbins.

[ocr errors]

BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH AND THE PUBLIC

THURSDAY, APRIL 1

INTRODUCTION TO THE CONFERENCE

WILLARD GAYLIN. I want to briefly go over the planning, the format, and the expectations for this meeting.

In every phase of the planning it seems we ran into some trouble. Originally, the title was "Biomedical Research and the Public Interest.” With the possible exception of the conjunction "and" we had trous ble with every one of those words. Someone wanted to know what we ineant by biomedical research. I tried feebly to explain that I didn't think we should invite metallurgists and astrophysicists.

We wanted representatives of Congress; we hoped we would get 25 percent representation from that group. Then people said, “they're not the public," although in a democracy one tends to think of them as at least representing the public. We also wanted people who were associated with public interest in biomedical research, but perhaps from different disciplines, so we thought about having about 25 percent participation from fields like law and sociology. And then we thought there ought to be 25 percent participation from the research.community. Since we were limited to about 50 people, it became very difficult,

We invited what some people thought was a disproportionately large percentage of people from genetics and molecular biology. That was done purposely, because we felt their experience with Asilomar 1 would be helpful. On the other hand, research did not mean to us just basic laboratory research. Indeed, the problems with the public, the delight of the public, and the anxieties of the public are often most strongly felt at times of application. Because of our work at the Institute, we

1 Asilomar is a conference center on California's Monteres Peninsula, where, from February 24 through 27. 1975, approximately 140 molecular biologists met with a handful of lawyers to hammer out draft guidelines governing the safety of a new line of research on which they were embarking. Known popularly as genetic engineering, the work involves the insertion of genetic material from one organism into another, resulting in the creation of a new organism which does not exist in nature, and is called by the scientists recombinant DNA (for deoxyribonucleic acid, the material from which genes are made). Most of the work has been done with viruses and bacteria, particularly a laboratory version of the bacterium Escherichia coli, a normal resident of the human intestinal tract. Esceptional safety precautions were deemed desirable by many molecular biologists because ther thought there might be a chance that the new organism (carrying, for instance, a Dewly inserted tumor virus or a gene for resistance to antibiotics) might infect laboratory Workers or even the world outside the lab. The word "Asilomar" has come to refer not to the meeting itself, but to the entire process leading up to the meeting and still going on, in which scientists for the first time in history-attempted to anticipate a possible ili effect from their work and make provision for it ahead of time. In addition, a voluntary moratorium on this work--whose theoretical and practical ramifications are thought to be of immense importance was requested by a small group of prestigious molecular biologists and has apparently been largely complied with throughout the world. The process has received wide coverage in both the lay and scientitic press. and figure bearily in the discussions at this meeting on biomedical research and the public, at which a number of Asilomar participants were present. For a description of the Asilomar meeting itself. see Stuart Auerbach. And Man Created Risks. The Washington Post, March 9, 1975. p. B1. For a positive view of recombinant DNA research, see Joshua Lederberg, DNA Splicing : Will Fear Rob Us of Its Benefits? Prism, November 1975, p. 33. For a negative Fiew, see Liebe F, Cavalieri. New Strains of Life-or Death. The New York Times Magazine, August 22, 1976, D. 8.

« PreviousContinue »