Reactive Halogen Compounds in the Atmosphere, Volume 4
Benign substances such as CFCs - nontoxic, noncorrosive, nonflammable and nonreactive with most other substances and considered ideal compounds for many purposes threaten our life protective shield, the atmospheric ozone layer. These "wonder compounds", drifting intact up to the stratosphere, are photolyzed there by the Sun's UV radiation releasing millions of tons of chlorine atoms each one capable of catalytically destroying thousands of ozone molecules. Scientific evidence clearly shows that chlorine and bromine compounds, such as CFCs, released into the atmosphere are responsible for continuous and progressing global ozone losses superimposed by dramatic seasonal ozone depletions over Antarctica and Arctic regions as well.
Substitutes are produced and emitted today, partly halogenated hydrocarbons, some of which are highly reactive in the troposphere. Along with reactive substances of natural origin, they have opened a new dimension of atmospheric photochemistry. This handbook volume deals with these reactive halogen compounds and their interactions.It provides a review of the present knowledge of their properties, applications, sources, sinks as well as international regulations.
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Reactive Chlorine Compounds in the Atmosphere
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abundance aerosol AFEAS amount annual anthropogenic applications assessment Atmos atmospheric average calculated carbon carbon tetrachloride CFCs chemical chemistry chlorine climate compared compounds concentrations consumption contribution countries cycle developed distribution effect emissions emitted Environ Environmental estimated et al expected fluorine foams future gases Geophys Res Geophys Res Lett global halocarbons halogen halons HCFCs hemisphere HFCs higher important included increase industrial inorganic iodine Khalil layer less levels lifetime limited loss manufacture material McCulloch measurements methyl bromide methyl chloroform mixing Montreal Protocol natural observed oceans organic ozone depletion potential pptv present processes production radiative forcing radicals range Rasmussen ratio reaction reactive recent refrigeration regions relatively release removal reported result significant soil sources species stratosphere studies substances surface Table tion trends troposphere UNEP values volume