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Practical questions based upon the subjects included in the text books which were in use while the midshipmen were under instruction at the Naval Academy.

Practical questions based upon new methods and materials pertaining to ordnance and gunnery introduced into the service and described in general or special orders or circulars, provided such methods and materials shall have been in use long enough for the midshipmen to have had reasonable opportunity to become familiar with them.


The general duties of a navigator and the United States Navy Regulations relating to the same; description, use, and adjustment of the various navigational instruments and machines found on board ship; the list and the use of books usually furnished a navigator; the projection, source of supply, method of storage on board ship, and general use of charts; advantages and disadvantages of each system of projection; conventional notation, hydrographic signs, and correction of charts; plotting positions and lines of position; determination of courses and distances; use of sounding data and precautions to be taken during foggy weather; pilotage; the various methods of locating a ship's position near land; danger angles and danger bearings; aerial and submarine fog signals; the various sailings; the systems of coordinates on the celestial sphere, with definitions and explanations of the same; different units of time; dip; parallax; refraction; use and care of chronometers and torpedo-boat watches; construction and use of temperature curves; the general solution of the astronomical triangle and conclusions as to the best times to observe for time or latitude; chronometer error and rate by transits, time signals, and by the navigator's own observations; the various direct methods of finding latitude, longitude, and lines of position; the "new navigation" or the method of Marcq Saint-Hilaire; the day's work; tidal currents and the determination of the times of high water; identification of heavenly bodies; use of tables, sailing directions, and light lists.

Selection of base line and principal stations for a survey; measurement and azimuth of same; running a coast line; establishment of tide gauge and observations thereon; plane of reference; "bench mark; observations for current, strength of tide, etc.; "running survey; "theodolite and transit instrument, their adjustments and uses.

Theory of deviations of compass; cause of deviation; methods of determining same; computation of the approximate and exact coefficients, etc.; heeling error; graphic representations of deviation; compensation of compasses.

Midshipmen must be prepared for both theoretical and practical work on above subjects.


Mechanical processes.-Molding and casting; pattern making and casting design; smithing and forging; machine tools; marking off, machining, fitting, and erecting; hand tools and processes; application of the various tools and machines in the building of machines and engines; plate-working tools and machines, and their application.

Engineering materials.-Materials used in machine construction; physical properties and strength of materials; straining actions, and resistance of structures.

Marine engines.-Theory of the steam engine; efficiency of the steam; expansion of steam; methods of increasing the expansive efficiency; stage expansion. Regulating and expansion valves and gear; slide valves and fittings; starting and reversing arrangements; arrangements of cylinders and cranks of stage-expansion engines; details of cylinders, valves, and pistons; steam piping and valves; rotary motion; details of connecting rods, crossheads, and guides; framing and foundations; shafting and bearings. Condensers and pumps; feed-water fittings; underwater valves and fittings; auxiliary pumps. pulsion and propellers; coefficients and curves of performance. Auxiliary machinery; steering and turret machinery; distillers and evaporators; refrigerating machinery; pumping, drainage, water-tight, and fire arrangements. Pressure gauges; calibration and correction; indicators, diagrams, and computations; measurement of power; dynamometers; torsionmeters; testing


of lubricants. Operation, management, and care of naval machinery; explosive engines, theory, kinds, management, care, defects, and operation; examinations, adjustments, and repair; tests and trials; United States Navy Regulations and Bureau of Steam Engineering specifications; station bills, and duties of personnel of engineer's force.

Boilers.-Combustion and economy of fuel; heat losses and boiler efficiency; quality of steam; liquid fuel; forced-draft systems. Arrangement of boilers in ship; shell and water-tube boilers; boiler fittings and appurtenances; details of construction of boilers; repairs; corrosion and preservation; United States Navy Regulations for care and management; firing and raising steam; tests and installation; Bureau of Steam Engineering specifications. Boiler tests. Evaporative and fuel tests. Principles and methods of design, and proportioning of parts.

Naval construction.-Principles of naval architecture; application of Simpson's rules; displacement; curves and coefficients; centers of gravity and buoyancy; sheer drawing; displacement sheet; conditions of equilibrium; transverse metacenter and BM; inclining experiment; longitudinal metacenter and BM; change of trim; statistical stability; curves of stability; dynamical stability; calculations of weights; resistance of ships; powering ships. Strains experienced by ships; oscillations in still water and among waves; deep-sea waves; observations of rolling and pitching.

Steel-ship building.-Classification; ship plans and reproduction in mold loft; materials and modes of fastening; tests of materials; keels and framing; stems and sternposts; plating and planking; sheathing; decks and bulkheads; water-tight subdivision; protection against gun attack; drainage, pumping, flooding, flushing, and ventilating systems; system of numbering compartments; corrosion; United States Navy Regulations for care and preservation of steel ships. In general, examinations are to be as practical as possible, dealing with information and experiences acquired on board ship.


The principles, use, description, and care of primary batteries; care and operation of storage batteries, method of charging, discharging, etc., including precautions to be taken; the gen

eral principles of magnetism and electromagnetism, including magnetic and electromagnetic circuits; Ohm's law and its application to simple and divided circuits; the general principles of the electric generator, including all devices for its 'control; the general principles of the electric motor, including all devices for its control and regulation; description and use of different types of controllers, rheostats, resistances, safety devices, starting panels, etc.; description of dynamo room switchboards, distribution boards, panels, and the like; different kinds of wiring, including all forms of wiring appliances and fixtures; care, operation, and manipulation of searchlights and all electrical signals; care and operation of the motive power for generators; the general care, operation, and manipulation of generators, motors, motor generators, dynamotors, rotary compensators, rotary converters, etc., with problems inviting the resistance and currents in the various circuits of their windings; tests for faults of all kinds and the method of correcting them; description of all measuring instruments and care necessary in handling them; description of a gun turret's electrical equipment, including the different methods of turret training control, loading and elevating equipment, and ammunition hoist equipment; description and operation of all deck-winch equipment and boat-crane equipment; description and uses of all means of electrical interior communication, including the telephone equipment and the equipment of the fire-control system; the general elementary principles of alternating currents; the principles of wireless telegraphy and telephoning with the use of all wave meters and the method of determining wave lengths and the coupling and turning of the different circuits; the general care of a ship's electric plant, including the required daily, weekly, monthly, and quarterly tests; the care bestowed on dynamo rooms and storerooms; the description of the electrical journal, both dynamo room and wireless room; the making out of a station and cleaning bill for the dynamo-room force.

As far as possible the examination shall be of a practical character and a familiarity with actual working apparatus of all kinds shall be required.


Written translation into good English of an article on a pro fessional or technical subject in French or Spanish, midship

men to elect between the languages named. The use of a dictionary shall be allowed.


Midshipmen who while at the Naval Academy took a prescribed course (not "elective" nor advanced") in both French and Spanish shall be required to pass an examination, as above defined, in both languages, preliminary to final graduation.


The mark for "cruise reports" shall be determined from the "quarterly reports on fitness," and shall be computed in the following manner:


The words excellent," etc., as recorded by commanding officers on the prescribed forms, shall be estimated according to the following scale, viz: Excellent, 4; very good, 3.5; good, 3; tolerable, 2.5; indifferent, 2; bad, 1; complete failure, 0.

The marks thus assigned under the various headings embraced in the report shall be combined, in accordance with their relative weights, as specified by the academic board and approved by the Navy Department, to determine the final mark for "cruise report" for the period covered by the "report on fitness" in question.


The class report on "cruise report" and the 'deficiency sheet" (one copy) will be prepared under the immediate supervision of the senior member of the committee on final graduation, who will also bring to the attention of the academic board any reports of fitness" or other matter which, in his opinion, require special consideration.

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The final mark for "cruise reports" for the two years' cruise shall be determined in each case by combining the marks on all reports of fitness" that are dated prior to the date of the beginning of the regular final graduation examination, assigning to each mark a weight proportional to the period covered, on the basis of full weight for an entire quarter.

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169. The scale of marks shall range from 4 to 0. A mark of 4 shall indicate thoroughness; 0, a total failure; and the intermediate numbers shall, as far as possible, represent absolute values.

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