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service guns, including turrets; handling and firing torpedoes, mines, and countermines; laying and picking up mines and countermines; exercise with sabers, foils, and canes; the preparation, inspection, care, and preservation of ordnance material.
DEPARTMENT OF NAVIGATION.
Astronomy.-The celestial sphere; spherical and rectangular coordinates; use of instruments, especially those for determining latitudes and longitudes; refraction; dip; parallax; the earth, sun, planets, and solar system in general; different units of time and calendars; laws of universal gravitation, precession, mutation, and aberration; the moon; eclipses and occultations; tides; comets and meteoric bodies; fixed stars; nebulæ; motion of the solar system; solutions of the astronomical triangle; use of the Nautical Almanac.
The theory and practice of navigation.—Including instruction in the duties of a navigator; description, use, and adjustment of the various navigational instruments and machines; the method of construction and general use of the polyconic, gnomonic, and mercator charts; advantages and disadvantages of each system of projection; the conventional notation and hydrographic signs on charts, the correction of charts and stowage of same on board ships; pilotage and the various methods of locating a ship's position near land; danger angles and danger bearings, aerial and submarine fog signals; the corrections to compass courses and bearings; the various sailings; the ecliptic, equinoctial, and horizon systems of coordinates with correlated terms; description, use, and care of chronometers and torpedoboat watches, with a consideration of Hartnup's law and temperature curves; the different kinds of time used in navigation, the relation of same, and the conversion of time; the relation of siderial time, hour angle, and right ascension; the general solution of the astronomical triangle and determination of an astronomical bearing; effect of errors in data and a consideration of the best times to observe for latitude, time, or azimuth; chronometer error and rate by transits, time signals, and by the navigator's own observations; the various direct methods of finding latitude, longitude, and lines of position; the "new navigation," or the finding of lines of position by the method of Marcq Saint-Hilaire; the day's work; tidal waves, tidal
currents, and finding times of high water; identification of heavenly bodies; use of tables; solution of practical problems. Hydrographic surveying.-The instruments used; description and construction of signals; selection and measurement of bases; determination of azimuth of base; triangulation; determination of heights; leveling; plotting a survey; hydrographic surveying; tidal observations; current observations; sailing directions; the form of the earth, with special reference to the construction of charts; projections; running surveys.
Theory of the deviation of the compass.-Including a description of the earth's magnetism and the relation between the elements of that magnetism; definitions of variation and deviation, with rules for naming and applying each; description and use of charts of the earth's magnetic elements; different methods of finding deviation and use of the Napier diagram; the magnetic forces acting on a compass needle in an iron or steel ship and the effect, in producing deviation, of each disturbing force; the subdivisions of the deviation, ship upright or heeled; the nature and causes of the several parts of the deviation and the changes that take place in each part upon a change in geographic position; deduction and transformation of the fundamental equations; deduction of equations for determining the vertical and horizontal forces of earth and ship and for the determination of the deviation; analysis of deviations and computation of exact coefficients, and determination of mean force to north," determination of exact coefficients from observations in one quadrant, in one semicircle, from observations and vibrations on one or two headings; mechanical correction of the deviation and heeling error; construction and use of the dygogram; solution of problems.
Chart-room work.-Consisting of frequent use by each midshipman of the charts furnished a navigator so as to give familiarity with the projection, scale, detail and reliability, notation, hydrographic signs, contour lines, buoys, lights, currents, dangers, etc., as indicated on the chart used; laying down and measuring courses and distances; plotting and taking off positions; plotting lines of position and using the same; the use of contour lines; measuring great circle courses and distances on
a gnomonic chart, and transferring the great circle track to a mercator chart; plotting a ship's run at sea or when coasting; entering or leaving port and applying the general rules of pilotage, with a consideration of the time of high water or state of the tide; using danger angles and danger bearings; use of sounding data on soundings in foggy weather; use of charts in connection with sailing directions, tide tables, light and buoy lists; the correction of charts, sailing directions, and light and buoy lists on receipt of "Notices to Mariners."
Surveying and constructing a chart of a portion
of the Severn River.
Practical navigation.-Consisting of exercises at least once a week for the solution of practical problems by the whole class; rating chronometers by telegraphic and wireless time signals; original observations, with sextant and artificial horizon, for longitude, chronometer correction, latitude, and azimuth.
Compass deviations.-Swinging the model ship installed in the department of navigation and observing the deviation of its compass; construction of the curve on a Napier diagram; determination of all coefficients and the "mean force to north," compensation of the compass, using a Navy compensating binnacle; determination of the exact coefficients, both by computation and by construction, from the deviation of the compass, and the vibrations of a horizontal needle observed on one heading; also on two headings; compensation of the compass on one heading; tentative correction of the heeling error; repetition of all of the above practical work on board a practice vessel in Chesapeake Bay during the spring drill periods.
DEPARTMENT OF MARINE ENGINEERING AND NAVAL CONSTRUCTION.
Mechanical drawing.-Use of instruments. Profile drawings; general arrangements; working drawings. Views plan, front, and side elevations; projections. Straight and curved lines; center, dimension, and shade lines; sections, breaks, and hatching; screw threads. Lettering; line shading; tinting. Tracing, blueprinting; sketching. Exercises in full, broken, and heavy straight lines; in circles, tangents, arcs meeting arcs, irregular curves, shading arcs and fillets. Sketches and working drawings from divided models. Instruction in quickly and
accurately making a correct dimensioned sketch of any piece of mechanism, and from the sketch making a working drawing so that the mechanism may be reproduced with certainty. Working drawings of naval engine, ordnance, and ship details. Instruction in carefully and accurately making tracings and blueprints from working drawings; in quickly and accurately reading drawings; in the special methods used in the drawing rooms of the Bureaus of Steam Engineering, Ordnance, and Construction and Repair.
Principles of mechanism.—The practical application of theoretical mechanical principles to machines. Elements of mechanism, including the primary mechanical powers; the motion and velocity of a point; conversion and transfer of motion in the simple primary forms; conversion of circular into reciprocating motion; harmonic and intermittent motions; reversing and quick-return motions; link work; parallel and straight-line motions; conversion of reciprocating into circular motion; feed motions; teeth of wheels; wheels in trains; aggregate motion; truth of surface and power of measurement; miscellaneous contrivances; problems in mechanism.
Mechanical processes.-Molding and casting, including varieties of cast iron; the cupola; methods of molding in green sand, dry sand, and loam; machine molding; chilled castings; malleable castings; mixtures of iron; brass founding. Patternmaking and casting design, including pattern building, core boxes, and prints; striking boards, templates, and sweeps; contraction allowance; plate molding; stopping-off; crystallization; warping and shrinkage of castings. Smithing and forg
ing, including forges, hearths, and furnaces; tools, steam hammers, and hydraulic presses; heating, forging, welding, dropforging, and stamping; casehardening; tempering. Machine tools, including the various lathes, boring, drilling, planing, shaping, slotting, and milling machines, with tools, cutters, tool holders, and chucks. Marking-off, machining, fitting, and erecting, including tools of marker-off, machinist, fitter, and erector; hand processes; application of the various tools and machines in the processes of building machines and engines. Plate-working tools, including hand tools and hand processes; punching and shearing machines; plate-edge planing machines; bending rolls; flanging presses and furnaces; drilling machines;
riveting machines; hydraulic and pneumatic tools; application of the various hand and machine tools in the processes of building marine boilers.
Marine engines.-History and progress of marine engineering; general description, uses, and nomenclature of parts of a typical naval engine; theory of the steam, air, and gas engines; heat and its effects on water; efficiency of the steam; expansion of steam; cylinder condensation; clearance; methods of increasing the expansive efficiency. Stage expansion engines; arrangements of cylinders and cranks; regulating and expansion valves and gear; slide valves, fittings, and gear; valve diagrams; starting and reversing engines; details of cylinders, pistons, and valves; steam and exhaust piping and valves; rotary motion; details of connecting rods, crossheads, guides, framing, and foundations; shafting and bearings; steam turbine. Condensers; air and circulating pumps; various auxiliary pumps; feed-water fittings; under-water valves. Propulsion; coefficients and curves of performance; propellers. Auxiliary machinery—steam, hydraulic, and pneumatic; turret machinery; distillers and evaporators; refrigerating machinery; general pumping, drainage, water-tight, and fire arrangements. Indicators; theoretical and actual diagrams; instruments and computations for power and water; combined diagrams; United States Navy Regulations for management and care of machinery; examinations, adjustments, and repair; laying up machinery and care in ordinary; stores and spare parts. Bureau of Steam Engineering specifications; inspection, fitting, erection, and tests while building; weight sheets; inspection and tests of material; preliminary steam trials; progressive and full-speed trials; duties of observers and reports. Engine tests; engine friction and dynamometers; efficiency tests of pumps; standardization of indicators, gauges, and instruments.
Metals.-Coal; coke; gaseous fuel; theory and use of gas producers; regenerative gas furnaces; utilization of blastfurnace gases. Refractory materials; basic, acid, and neutral linings; fluxes; properties of metals; ores of iron. Blast furnace; manufacture of pig iron; puddling processes; cementation process; crucible steel; open-hearth steel making; Bessemer processes; special steels; copper ores and smelting; tin ores and smelting; zinc cres and smelting; alloys; brasses and bronzes.