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than on the self-enumeration forms. Furthermore, the direct-interview forms omit many of the instructions given on the self-enumeration forms. The differences, however, probably do not contribute in any important way to a lack of comparability of the data obtained from the two types of enumeration. Through the use of the self-enumeration forms, respondents were given more uniform explanations to some of the questions than would have been possible in direct interview. On the other hand, the less detailed wording on the direct-interview forms was supplemented by the instructions given to the enumerator.
The wording of the questions and response categories used in self-enumeration compared with those used by the enumerator in direct interview are exhibited in the sections which follow. A general explanation appeared on the self-enumeration forms to the effect that the term "house" or "apartment" covered the house or part of the house the respondents occupied, or the apartment, flat, or rooms in which they lived. The explanation also pointed out that items on year built, sewage disposal, basement, and elevator in structure pertained to the whole building in which the respondents lived. In using the direct-interview forms, the enumerator was instructed to substitute an appropriate term for the word “unit,” such as “house,” “apartment," "flat," or "rooms." The procedural instructions and the arrangement and sequence of the questions as they appeared on the forms are illustrated in the United States Summary part of 1960 Census of Housing, Volume I, States and Small Areas.
The definitions that follow conform to those provided in the Enumerator's Reference Manual. They indicate the concept that was intended, whether the information was provided through self-enumeration or obtained by direct interview. Definitions from the 1950 and earlier censuses also indicate the concepts that were intended, with direct interview as the method of enumeration.
Some of the definitions used in 1960 differ from those used in earlier censuses, as indicated in the explanations of the items. These changes were made after consultation with users of housing census data to improve the statistics even though it was recognized that comparability would be affected.
As in all surveys, there were some failures to execute the instructions exactly, regardless of the enumeration procedures applied, and some erroneous interpretations have undoubtedly gone undetected.
Living quarters were enumerated as housing units or group quarters. Usually a housing unit is a house, apartment, or flat. However, it may be a trailer or a room in a hotel. A structure intended primarily for business or other nonresidential use may also contain a housing unit; for example, the rooms in a warehouse where the watchman lives, or the living quarters of a merchant in back of his shop. Group quarters are found in institutions, dormitories, barracks, rooming houses, and other places where the occupants do not have separate living arrangements.
Housing unit.-A house, an apartment or other group of rooms, or a single room is regarded as a housing unit when it is occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters, that is, when the occupants do not live and eat with any other persons in the structure and there is either (1) direct access from the outside or through a common hall, or (2) a kitchen or cooking equipment for the exclusive use of the occupants of the unit. The occupants of a housing unit may be a family or other group of persons, or a person living alone.
Trailers, tents, boats, and railroad cars are included in
They are excluded if they are vacant, used only for extra sleeping space or vacations, or used only for business. Hotel accommodations are housing units if they are the usual residence of the occupants.
Both vacant and occupied housing units are included in the housing inventory. Vacant quarters are excluded, however, if they are still under construction, being used for nonresidential purposes, unfit for human habitation, condemned, or scheduled for demolition (see section on "Vacant housing unit").
Determination of housing unit. --Occupied living quarters were classified as housing units on the basis of information supplied by household members on the Advance Census Report (ACR) and questions asked by the enumerator where necessary. Identification of vacant housing units was determined by the enumerator, through observation and questions asked of the owners, landlords, or neighbors.
In filling the ACR, the respondent made the initial determination of the housing unit. The final determination was made by the enumerator as he followed the procedure outlined on the FOSDIC schedule.
Some of the questions on the FOSDIC schedule parallel those on the self-enumeration form (ACR) as indicated below. For these questions, the enumerator referred to the ACR for the answers. If only one family lived in the house, the enumerator regarded the quarters as one housing unit and no further probing was necessary to determine whether the quarters were "separate" quarters. (In such cases, direct access and separate cooking facilities were regarded as characteristics of the housing unit rather than criteria of separateness.) On the other hand, if there was evidence of additional separate quarters, such as a second mailbox or doorbell, or the presence of other relatives or nonrelatives, the enumerator was to determine whether there were additional housing units on the basis of either direct access or separate cooking facilities. Quarters that did not meet either criterion were not considered sufficiently separate to qualify as housing units. Quarters whose occupants shared living arrangements were combined into one housing unit (unless the combined quarters contained five or more persons unrelated to the head, in which case the quarters were considered group quarters).
As a final step in the determination of separate housing units, the enumerator was instructed to take account of the respondent's answers to questions about other quarters on the property.
Living quarters are regarded as having direct access if the entrance is direct from the outside of the structure, or through a common hall, lobby, or vestibule used by the occupants of more than one unit. The hall, lobby, or vestibule must not be part of any unit, but must be clearly separate from all units in the structure. Living quarters have access through another unit when the only entrance to the room or rooms is through a room or hall which is part of another unit.
A kitchen is defined as a room used primarily for cooking and the preparation of meals. Cooking equipment is defined as (1) a range or stove, whether or not it is regularly used, or (2) other equipment such as a hotplate or electrical appliance if it is used for the regular preparation of meals. Equipment is for exclusive use if it is used only by the occupants of one unit (see also section on "Exclusive or shared use"). Vacant units are considered to have cooking equipment if the last occupants had such equipment.
Hotel, motel.--Occupied rooms or suites of rooms in hotels, motels, and similar places are classified as housing units only when occupied by usual residents, i.e., persons who consider the hotel as their usual place of residence or have
suites of rooms are classified as housing units only in those hotels in which 75 percent or more of the accommodations are occupied by usual residents. The 75-percent limit is an arbitrary rule, the intent being to exclude from the housing inventory those quarters usually occupied by transient guests.
The distinction between hotels and rooming houses in the 1960 Census was made by the enumerator presumably on the basis of local usage.
Rooming house, boarding house. --If any of the occupants in a rooming or boarding house have separate quarters and do not share living arrangements with other occupants in the structure, such quarters are considered separate housing units. The remaining quarters are combined. If the combined quarters contain four or fewer roomers unrelated to the head, they are classified as one housing unit; if the combined quarters contain five or more roomers unrelated to the head or person in charge, they are classified as group quarters. In a dormitory, residence hall, nurses' home, or similar place, living quarters of the supervisory staff are separate housing units if they satisfy the housing unit criteria; other living quarters are considered group quarters.
Institution. --Living quarters of staff personnel are separate housing units if they satisfy the housing unit criteria. Other living quarters are considered group quarters (see section on "Group quarters").
Comparability with earlier censuses.--In 1950, the unit of enumeration was the dwelling unit. Although the definition of “housing unit" in 1960 is essentially similar to that of "dwelling unit” in 1950, the housing unit definition was de
dwelling unit definition did not cover all private living accommodations. In 1950, a dwelling unit was defined as (1) a group of rooms occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters and having either separate cooking equipment or separate entrance; or (2) a single room occupied or intended for occupancy as separate quarters if (a) it had separate cooking equipment, (b) it was located in a regular apartment house, or (c) it constituted the only living quarters in the
The main difference between housing units and dwelling units is in the treatment of one-room quarters. In 1960, separate living quarters consisting of one room with direct access but without separate cooking equipment qualify as a housing unit whether in an apartment house, rooming house, or house converted to apartment use; in hotels, a single room qualifies as a housing unit if occupied by a person whose usual residence is the hotel or a person who has no usual residence elsewhere. In 1950, a one-room unit without cooking equipment qualified as a dwelling unit only when located in a regular apartment house or when the room constituted the only living quarters in the structure. In hotels in 1950, occupied and vacant quarters that satisfied the dwelling unit criteria were included in the housing inventory only if more than half the accommodations in the hotel were for permanent guests; if less than half, none of the quarters was included in the housing inventory.
The evidence thus far suggests that the use of the housing unit concept in 1960 instead of the dwelling unit concept as in 1950 had relatively little effect on the counts for large areas and for the Nation. Any effect which the change in concept may have on comparability can be expected to be greatest in statistics for certain census tracts and blocks, shown in other reports. Living quarters classified as housing units in 1960 but which would not have been classified as dwelling units in 1950 tend to be clustered in tracts and blocks where many persons live separately in single rooms in hotels, rooming houses, and other light housekeeping quarters. In such areas, the 1960 housing unit count for an individual tract or block may be higher than the 1950 dwelling unit count even though no units were added by new construction or conversion.
In the 1940 Census, a dwelling unit was defined as the living quarters occupied, or intended for occupancy, by one household. A household consisted of a family or other group of persons living together with common housekeeping arrangements or a person living alone. The instructions to the enumerator did not explicitly define living quarters as separate units on the basis of cooking equipment or access. Furthermore, living quarters with five lodgers or more were included in the 1940 housing inventory but excluded in 1950 and 1960. Even though there were differences in the definitions used in each of the censuses, the overall effect of the change in definition is believed to be small. The difference, if any, would have the greatest effect on data for small areas such as census tracts or blocks.
Group quarters.-Occupied quarters which do not qualify as housing units are considered group quarters. They are located most frequently in institutions, hospitals, nurses' homes, rooming and boarding houses, military and other types of barracks, college dormitories, fraternity and sorority houses, convents, and monasteries. Group quarters are also located in a house or apartment in which the living quarters are shared by the head and five or more persons unrelated to him. Group quarters are not included in the housing inventory. The 1960 concept of group quarters is similar to the 1950 concept of nondwelling-unit quarters.
According to the results of the 1960 Census of Population, approximately 4.9 million people or 2.8 percent of the total population of the United States lived in rooming houses, institutions, transient accommodations, and other quarters not
whose quarters were not included in the housing inventory was 5.7 million or 3.8 percent of the total 1950 population. These figures are not entirely comparable with the 1960 figures. It is probable, due to the change in the definition from "dwelling unit" to "housing unit," that some one-room quarters which are housing units in 1960 would not have been dwelling units according to the 1950 definition.
The questions used to ascertain occupancy characteristics of housing units are shown below. The items on persons, color, and tenure appeared as self-enumeration items on the Advance Census Report; the item on year moved and the questions related to farm-nonfarm residence for occupied units appeared as self-enumeration items on the Household Questionnaire, which was used in two-stage areas. The directinterview questions appeared on the FOSDIC schedule. Vacancy status, duration of vacancy, and the number of acres in the place for vacant units were determined by the enumerator through information obtained from owners, landlords, or neighbors.
Occupied housing unit.-A housing unit is "occupied" if it is the usual place of residence of the person or group of persons living in it at the time of enumeration. Included are units occupied by persons who are only temporarily absent, such as persons on vacation. Units occupied by persons with no usual place of residence are also considered "occupied." For example, a unit occupied by migratory workers who have no usual residence elsewhere is considered occupied; however, if the migrants have a residence elsewhere, the unit in which they are temporarily living is classified as vacant.
A household consists of all the persons who occupy a housing unit. By definition, therefore, the count of occupied housing units is the same as the count of households in the 1960 Census of Population reports. In some cases, however, there are small differences in the counts resulting from processing procedures.
The same definition for classifying a unit as occupied was used in the 1950 and 1940 Housing Censuses. The count of "private families" in the Censuses of Population in 1930 and 1900, and the count of "families" in other earlier censuses of population are roughly comparable with the count of "occupied housing units" in 1960. The count of "families" included the “quasi families" in institutions, rooming houses, and similar quarters.
Population in units. --The "population in housing units, 1960" is the total count of persons living in quarters classified as housing units; it excludes persons living in group quarters. The 1960 figure for "population per occupied unit" was computed by dividing the population in housing units by the number of occupied units. When this figure is tabulated from a sample, it is subject to sampling variability (see section on "Sample design").
The "population in dwelling units, 1950” is the 1950 population in quarters classified as dwelling units; and the "population per occupied unit" is computed in the same way as the 1960 figure. Although the concepts are similar, the change from "dwelling unit" to "housing unit" may have introduced an element of difference between the 1960 and 1950 figures. The "population per occupied unit" in the 1940 Census of Housing and the "population per family" or "population per private family" in the Censuses of Population in 1930 and earlier are comparable with the concepts used in the 1960 figures. The population count for 1940 and some of the earlier censuses, however, was the total population and included persons in institutions, rooming houses, and similar quarters. Likewise, the count of families for some of the censuses in
bility is affected in areas having an appreciable number of persons in quasi-family groups.
The 1950 figures for places, urbanized areas, and counties are based on boundaries as of 1950. For SMSA's and the total inside and outside SMSA's for the State, the figures are based on 1960 boundaries. Leaders (...) are shown where it was not possible or feasible to reconstruct the 1950 figures.
Persons (P2). -- All persons enumerated in the 1960 Census of Population as members of the household were counted in determining the number of persons who occupied the housing unit. These persons include not only occupants related to the head but also any lodgers, foster children, wards, and resident employees who shared the living quarters of the household head.
In the computation of the median number of persons, a continuous distribution was assumed, with the whole number of persons as the midpoint of the class interval. For example, when the median was in the 3-person group, the lower and upper limits were assumed to be 2.5 and 3.5 persons, respectively. In table 26, the median for all occupied units was computed from the 100-percent count of units, whereas the medians for owner- and renter-occupied units were computed for a sample of units.
Comparable data on the number of persons in the unit are available from the 1950 and 1940 Censuses of Housing. Data are available also from the Censuses of Population in 1930 and earlier; however, data for some of these censuses pertain only to persons related to the head.
Persons per room. --The number of persons per room was computed for each occupied housing unit by dividing the number of persons by the number of rooms in the unit. The tabulation form contained a terminal category of “10 or more" rooms; for purposes of the computation, the terminal category was given a mean value of 11. Similar data are available from the 1950 and 1940 Censuses.
Color (P5).--Occupied housing units are classified according to the color of the head of the household into two
"non white" consists of such races or ethnic groups as Negro, American Indian, Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, Eskimo, Aleut, Korean, Asian Indian, and Malayan. Persons of Mexican birth or ancestry who are not definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race are classified as white. Persons of mixed racial parentage are classified as nonwhite.
The concept of race, as it has been used by the Bureau of the Census, is derived from that which is commonly accepted by the general public. The use of self-enumeration in the 1960 Census may have affected the accuracy of the data on color as compared with earlier censuses. Whereas formerly the classification was obtained in most cases by the enumerator's observation, in 1960 it was possible for members of the household to classify themselves.
Data on color of head of household are available from the 1950 and 1940 Censuses of Housing. Except for 1910, the number of "families" by color is available from the Censuses of Population from 1930 back to 1890 (data for 1910 being available only for the Southern States).
Heads having Spanish surnames and Puerto Rican heads. -In order to provide data for housing occupied by Spanish- and Mexican-Americans for areas of the United States where most of such persons live, white household heads having Spanish surnames were identified in five Southwestern States (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas). In all other States, Puerto Rican heads of households were identified. Puerto Ricans comprise persons born in Puerto Rico and persons of native parentage with at least one parent born in Puerto Rico (as determined by population items on place of birth).
Housing data were published in 1950, but not in earlier censuses, for units with white household heads having Spanish surnames in the five Southwestern States. Data for housing units with Puerto Rican heads are not available in censuses prior to 1960.
Tenure (H12).-- A housing unit is "owner occupied" (reported as "owned or being bought" on the enumeration forms) if the owner or co-owner lives in the unit, even if it is mortgaged or not fully paid for. The owner need not be the head of the household. A cooperative apartment unit is "owner occupied" only if the owner lives in it.
All other occupied units are classified as "renter occupied," including units rented for cash as well as units occupied without payment of cash rent. Units rented for cash (reported on the direct-interview form as "rented") are units for which any money rent is paid or contracted for. Such rent is commonly paid by the occupants but may be paid by persons not living in the unit--for example, a welfare agency. Units for which no cash rent is paid include units provided by relatives not living in the unit and occupied without rental payment, units provided in exchange for services rendered, and units occupied by a tenant farmer or sharecropper who does not pay any cash rent. "No cash rent" appears as a category in the rent tabulations. In county tables for rural-farm units, the category appears under "rent status."
Essentially the same definitions of tenure were used in the 1950 and 1940 Censuses of Housing and in the Censuses of Population from 1930 back to 1890.
Year moved into unit (P12). --Data on year moved into unit are based on the information reported for the head of the household. The question refers to the year of latest move. Thus, if the head moved back into a unit he had previously occupied or if he moved from one apartment to another in the same building, the year he moved into his present unit was to be reported.
The intent of the question is to establish the year the present occupancy of the unit began, as indicated by the year the household head moved into the unit. The year the head
household move, although in the great majority of cases the entire household moves at the same time. The statistics roughly reflect turnover in occupancy of units but do not necessarily indicate the total number of changes in occupancy that have occurred in a given period.
Data on year moved into the unit were not collected in censuses prior to 1960.
Vacant housing unit.-A housing unit is "vacant" if no persons are living in it at the time of enumeration. However, if its occupants are only temporarily absent, the unit is considered occupied. Units temporarily occupied entirely by persons having a usual place of residence elsewhere are classified as vacant (the unit at their usual residence is considered occupied). A vacant unit may be furnished or unfurnished; it may be offered for rent or sale; it may have been rented or sold but the new occupants have not moved in; or it may be held off the market for the owner's occasional or future use, for speculation, or for other reasons.
Newly constructed vacant units are included in the inventory if construction has reached the point that all the exterior windows and doors are installed and the final usable floors are in place. If construction has not reached this point, the unit is excluded. Dilapidated vacant units are included, provided they are still usable as living quarters; they are excluded if they are unfit for human habitation. Vacant units are defined as unfit for human habitation if, through deterioration or vandalism, most of the doors and windows are missing and the floors are unsafe.
Vacant quarters are excluded from the housing inventory if there is positive evidence (a sign, notice, or mark on the house or in the block) that the unit is to be demolished. Vacant quarters condemned for reasons of health or safety so that further occupancy is prohibited are likewise excluded from the inventory. Also excluded are quarters being used for commercial or business purposes, or used for the storage of hay, machinery, business supplies, and the like.
With few exceptions, the same general instructions were used in 1950. In the 1960 Census, however, the instructions for enumerating certain vacant units were more specific than in 1950, particularly the instructions regarding units to be demolished, units unfit for human habitation, and units being used for nonresidential purposes. It is possible also that comparability is affected in some areas by the change from "dwelling unit" to "housing unit."
Information for vacant units was first collected in the 1940 Census of Housing. The counts and categories are not entirely comparable with those in 1960. The 1960 and 1950 counts are considered more inclusive.
Year-round or seasonal occupancy (H7). --Year-round housing units are units which are usually occupied or intended for occupancy at any time of the year. A unit used only occasionally throughout the year is considered a year-round unit. In resort areas, a unit which is usually occupied on a yearround basis is also considered a year-round unit.
Seasonal units are intended for occupancy during only a season of the year. Included are units intended for summer or winter recreational use, such as beach cottages and hunting cabins; units held for herders, loggers, and cannery workers; and units intended for migratory workers employed in farmwork during the crop season. Although units held for migratory workers were separately identified by the enumerator, they were included with other seasonal units in the tabulations. Essentially the same definitions were used in the 1950 Census. In 1950, however, units which were temporarily occupied by persons having a usual residence elsewhere (classified as "nonresident" units) were shown as a separate
were not classified by year-round or seasonal use as in 1960. It is believed that most of the "nonresident" units in 1950 would have been classified as seasonal.
Data for year-round units are presented by condition and vacancy status in most tables. For seasonal units, however, only the one category is shown.
Available vacant.-The count of available vacancies constitutes a measure of vacant units on the housing market. It consists of units which are for year-round occupancy, are in either sound or deteriorating condition, and are offered for rent or for sale. Excluded are seasonal units, dilapidated units; and units already rented or sold, held for occasional use, or not on the rental or sale market for other reasons.
The 1960 category "available" is comparable with the 1950 category "nonseasonal not dilapidated, for rent or sale.” The separate categories "for sale only" and "for rent" for both years also are comparable since essentially the same concepts were used. The categories provided in the 1940 Census reports are not comparable with the 1960 or 1950 categories.
Units available for sale only are the available vacant units which are offered for sale only; they exclude units offered "for sale or rent." Vacant units in a cooperatively owned apartment building are included if the individual unit is "for sale only." A vacant unit in a multiunit structure which is for sale as an entire structure is included if that unit is intended to be occupied by the new owner and if the unit is not also for rent.
Units available for rent are the available vacant units which are offered for rent and those offered for rent or sale at the same time.
Rented or sold, awaiting occupancy. --The category tabulated as "rented or sold, awaiting occupancy" consists of vacant units which are for year-round occupancy and in either sound or deteriorating condition, and which have been rented or sold but the new occupants have not moved in as of the date of enumeration.
Held for occasional use. --The category tabulated as “held for occasional use" consists of vacant units which are for year-round occupancy and in either sound or deteriorating condition, and which are held for weekend or other occasional use. The intent of this question was to identify homes reserved by their owners as second homes. Because of the difficulty of distinguishing between this category and seasonal vacancies, however, it is possible that some "second homes" were classified as "seasonal" and therefore are included in the category "seasonal."
Held for other reasons.--The category tabulated as "held for other reasons" consists of vacant units which are for yearround occupancy and in either sound or deteriorating condition, and which are held off the market for reasons not specified above. For example, the category includes units held for a caretaker or janitor, units held for settlement of an estate, and units held for personal reasons of the owner.
The categories "rented or sold, awaiting occupancy," "held for occasional use, and "held for other reasons" when combined are comparable with the 1950 category “nonseasonal not dilapidated, not for rent or sale" (and some portion of the 1950 "nonresident" category).
Homeowner vacancy rate. --The percentage relationship between vacant units available for sale and the total homeowner inventory is termed the homeowner vacancy rate. The total homeowner inventory consists of owner-occupied units and vacant units available for sale. This rate more adequately describes the sale market than a rate based on total housing