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of the determination of a housing unit; and number of acres in the place and sales of farm products were enumerated for the purpose of determining farm residence. On the other hand, information was collected in 1950, but not in 1960, on electric lighting, refrigeration equipment, and kitchen sink. Subjects enumerated in the Components of Inventory Change and Residential Finance programs are discussed in Volumes IV and V, respectively. Mortgage status, which was included in 1950, is covered in the Residential Finance program in 1960. Some items in 1960 have more detail and a few have slightly less detail than the comparable items in 1950. Additional information was collected in 1960 on condition of housing units, description of trailers, description of vacant units not on the market, and number of television and radio sets. Slightly less detail is available in 1960 than in 1950 for type of structure and toilet facilities.
Changes were made in the definitions of some of the major concepts, particularly in the definition of the unit of enumeration and the definition of farm housing. They were made in order to improve the usefulness of the data although it was recognized that comparability with previous censuses would be affected.
Procedures for collecting and processing the data in 1960 also differed from 1950. In this respect, the 1960 Census contained several innovations. One of the innovations was the use of forms which household members themselves were asked to complete--the Advance Census Report form used on a nationwide basis for complete- count items, and the Household Questionnaire used in the more populous sections of the country for sample items. Information for items not completed by the respondents was obtained by enumerators in direct interview. Other innovations included the division of the census period into two stages, the greater use of sampling, the use of formal field review procedures, and the extensive use of the electronic computer and related equipment to process the data and produce the final tables. These innovations were designed primarily to improve the quality of the statistics and to reduce the time required to collect and publish the data; at the same time, they have introduced an element of difference between the 1960 statistics and those of earlier censuses.
Changes and innovations are discussed in the sections on "Definitions and explanations" and "Collection and processing of data," which appear later in this report.
HOUSING DATA FROM OTHER CENSUSES
Many of the subjects covered in the 1940 Census of Housing are included in the 1960 Census of Housing. The subjects specified above as having been added since 1950 were also added since 1940. One item, television sets, was enumerated in 1960, but not in 1940. On the other hand, information was collected in 1940, but not in 1960, on conversion, exterior material, lighting equipment, refrigeration equipment, estimated rentals of owner-occupied homes, and value and rent of farm dwellings.
Although the 1940 Census of Housing was the first complete census of housing, data on a few housing characteristics were collected in earlier years in conjunction with the decennial censuses of population. Statistics on the number of “families," "private families," or "homes" and the "population per family" may be derived from earlier censuses of population. Counts of families (including quasi-family groups for some censuses) are available for each census year since 1890, with limited data back to 1850. In addition, counts of families by color of head are available for each census year since 1890, except 1910 when such data were available only for the Southern States. The classification of homes by tenure has been reported since 1890; and data on owned homes that were en
ulation from 1890 to 1920. Value and monthly rent of nonfarm homes and the number of families having a radio were included for the first time in the 1930 reports.
In some instances, concepts and procedures were not identical from census to census as discussed under the item in the section on "Definitions and explanations." The differences for the most part, however, are not great enough to invalidate comparisons of the data. Comparisons with earlier censuses are restricted to censuses of housing and population, although information for a few characteristics related to housing was collected in other censuses.
1960 PUBLICATION PROGRAM
Final housing reports.-Results of the 1960 Census of Housing are published in Volumes I to VII and in a joint housing and population volume consisting of reports for census tracts. A series of special reports for local housing authorities constitutes the remainder of the final reports. Volumes I to IV and the census tract reports are issued as series of individual reports; Volumes I and II are later bound into volumes. Volumes V to VII are issued only as bound volumes.
The source of Volumes I, II, III, VI, and VII and the housing data in the census tract reports is the April enumeration of the 1960 Census of Housing. The special reports for local housing authorities are based on results of the April enumeration and, for most areas, on data collected at a later date for nonsample households.
Data for Volumes IV and V are based largely on the enumeration of units in a sample of land area segments, started in late 1959 and completed in 1960. Separate data are published for the United States and 17 selected metropolitan areas (15 standard metropolitan statistical areas, defined as of June 8, 1959, and 2 standard consolidated areas). The areas consist of the New York-Northeastern New Jersey and the Chicago-Northwestern Indiana Standard Consolidated Areas and the following standard metropolitan statistical areas: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Cleveland, Dallas, Detroit, Los Angeles-Long Beach, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, San Francisco-Oakland, Seattle, and Washington, D.C.
The titles and contents of the reports are described on page V. For the most part, they are comparable to the series published from the 1950 Census of Housing. The 1960 Volumes I, II, and VI are similar to 1950 Volumes I, II, and III, respectively. Volume III of 1960 corresponds to the series of reports on block statistics which constituted 1950 Volume V. Volume IV of 1960 has no 1950 counterpart but corresponds to Volumes I and III of the 1956 National Housing Inventory. Volume V of 1960 corresponds to Volume IV of 1950 and, in part, to Volume II of the 1956 National Housing Inventory. In 1950, census tract reports were published as Volume III of the 1950 Census of Population. Special reports for local housing authorities were published for 219 areas in 1950 Census of Housing, Series HC-6, Special Tabulations for Local Housing Authorities. The type of data presented in 1960 Volume VII has not been published in previous census reports.
Preliminary and advance reports.-Statistics for many of the subjects covered in the census were released in several series of preliminary and advance reports. The figures in the preliminary and advance reports are superseded by the data in the final reports.
Population reports. - Population data are available for approximately the same types of areas that are covered in Volume I of the housing reports. The data are published in Series PC (1)-A, B, C, and D which constitute 1960 Census of Popula
AVAILABILITY OF UNPUBLISHED DATA
During the processing of the data for publication, more data are tabulated than it is possible to print in the final reports. Some of the unpublished data from the April 1960 enumeration are for small areas such as enumeration districts, census tracts, and minor civil divisions in untracted areas. A limited amount of additional data for housing units with nonwhite
household heads has been tabulated but not published. For the larger areas, virtually all the data that are tabulated are published.
Photocopies of unpublished data can be provided at cost. Certain special tabulations can be prepared on a reimbursable basis. Requests for photocopies or for additional information should be addressed to Chief, Housing Division, Bureau of the Census, Washington 25, D. C.
According to the definition adopted for use in the 1960 Census, urban housing comprises all housing in (a) places of 2,500 inhabitants or more incorporated as cities, boroughs, villages, and towns (except towns in New England, New York, and Wisconsin); (b) the densely settled urban fringe, whether incorporated or unincorporated, of urbanized areas (see section on "Urbanized areas"); (c) towns in New England and townships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania which contain no incorporated municipalities as subdivisions and have either 25,000 inhabitants or more or a population of 2,500 to 25,000 and a density of 1,500 persons or more per square mile; (d) counties in States other than the New England States, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that have no incorporated municipalities within their boundaries and have a density of 1,500 persons or more per square mile; and (e) unincorporated places of 2,500 inhabitants or more. In other words, urban housing comprises all housing units in urbanized areas and in places of 2,500 inhabitants or more outside urbanized areas (see section on "Places").
Housing not classified as urban constitutes rural housing. Rural housing comprises a variety of residences, such as isolated homes in the open country and homes in small villages and environs of cities outside urbanized areas.
The 1960 definition of urban is substantially the same as that used in 1950; the major difference between the two is the designation in 1960 of urban towns in New England and of urban townships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The effect on housing classification arising from this change was actually small because, in 1950, most of the housing in such places was classified as urban by virtue of its location in an urbanized area or in an unincorporated urban place. In censuses prior to 1950, urban housing comprised all housing in incorporated places of 2,500 inhabitants or more and areas (usually minor civil divisions) classified as urban under somewhat different special rules relating to population size and density.
The most important component of the urban territory is the group of incorporated places having 2,500 inhabitants or more. A definition of urban territory restricted to such places, however, would exclude a number of equally large and densely settled places merely because they are not incorporated places. Under the definition used previous to 1950, an effort was made to avoid some of the more obvious omissions by the inclusion of selected places which were classified as urban under special rules. Even with these rules, however, many large and closely built-up places were excluded from the urban territory.
To improve its measure of urban housing the Bureau of the Census adopted, in 1950, the concept of the urbanized area and defined the larger unincorporated places as urban. All housing in urban-fringe areas and in unincorporated places of 2,500 or more was classified as urban in 1950
The primary divisions of the States are, in general, termed counties, but in Louisiana these divisions are known as parishes. There are no counties in Alaska; for this State, data are shown for election districts, which are the nearest equivalents of counties. In Maryland, Missouri, and Virginia, there are a number of cities which are independent of any county organization and thus constitute primary divisions of their States.
The term "place" as used in reports of the decennial censuses refers to a concentration of population, regardless of the existence of legally prescribed limits, powers, or functions. Most of the places are incorporated as cities, towns, villages, or boroughs, however. In addition, the larger unincorporated places outside the urbanized areas were delineated and they are presented in the same manner as incorporated places of equal size. Furthermore, unincorporated places within urbanized areas are identified if they have 10,000 inhabitants or more and if there was an expression of local interest in their recognition. Finally, the towns in New England and townships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania recognized as urban are also considered places (designated in the tables by "UT"). In this report, data are presented for (a) incorporated places of 1,000 inhabitants or more, whether outside or inside urbanized areas, (b) unincorporated places of 1,000 inhabitants or more outside urbanized areas, (c) unincorporated places of 10,000 inhabitants or more inside urbanized areas, and (d) those towns, townships, and counties recognized as urban.
Political units recognized as incorporated places in the reports of the decennial censuses are those which are incorporated as cities, boroughs, towns, and villages with the exception that towns are not recognized as incorporated places in the New England States, New York, and Wisconsin. The towns in these States are minor civil divisions similar to the townships found in other States and not necessarily thickly settled centers of population such as the cities, boroughs, towns, and villages in other States. Similarly, in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, where some townships possess powers and functions similar to those of incorporated places, the townships are not classified as "incorporated places. Thus some minor civil divisions which are "incorporated" in one legal sense of the word are not regarded by the Census Bureau as "incorporated places." Without this restriction all of the towns in the New England States, New York, and Wisconsin and the townships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania would be counted as incorporated places without any consideration of the nature of population settlement. A number of towns and townships in these States do qualify, however, as urban towns or townships and in others the densely settled portions are recognized as unincorporated places or as parts of an urban fringe.
As in the 1950 Census, the Bureau delineated, in advance
centers without corporate limits. Each unincorporated place (designated in the tables by "U") possesses a definite nucleus of residences and has its boundaries drawn so as to include, if feasible, all the surrounding closely settled areas.
In 1950, only those unincorporated places outside urbanized areas were recognized in the census. Incorporated places were identified whether inside or outside urbanized areas.
The figures for a given place apply to the housing within the boundaries of the place at the time of the census. Hence, the indicated change from 1950 to 1960 reflects the effect of any annexations or detachments. There were a great many annexations to cities in the decade of the 1950's, and some of them involved large areas. To permit an analysis of the importance of the change in boundaries, population figures for the 1950 area and for annexed areas of incorporated places are shown in table 9 of the reports in series PC(1)-A of the 1960 Census of Population, Number of Inhabitants (Volume I, Part A). For unincorporated places, the boundaries in many instances have changed as the communities have expanded.
The major objective of the Bureau of the Census in delineating urbanized areas was to provide a better separation of urban and rural housing in the vicinity of the larger cities, but individual urbanized areas have proved to be useful statistical areas also. They correspond to what are called "conurbations" in some other countries. An urbanized area contains at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more in 1960,1 as well as the surrounding closely settled incorporated places and unincorporated areas that meet the criteria listed below. An urbanized area may be thought of as divided into the central city, or cities, and the remainder of the area, or the urban fringe. All housing in ar urbanized area is included in urban housing. A map of each urbanized area in this State, if any, appears at the end of this report. The counties or parts of counties in which each area is located are listed on page 2.
It appeared desirable to delineate the urbanized areas in terms of the 1960 Census results rather than on the basis of information available prior to the census as was done in 1950. For this purpose a peripheral zone around each 1950 urbanized area and around cities that were presumably approaching a population of 50,000 was recognized. Within the unincorporated parts of this zone small enumeration districts were planned, usually including no more than one square mile of land area and no more than 75 housing units. 2 Arrangements were made to include within the urbanized area those enumeration districts meeting specified criteria of population density as well as adjacent incorporated places. Since the urbanized area outside incorporated places was defined in terms of enumeration districts, the boundaries of the urbanized area for the most part follow such features as roads, streets, railroads, streams, and other clearly defined lines which may be easily identified by census enumerators in the field and often do not conform to the boundaries of political units.
In addition to its central city or cities, an urbanized area contains the following types of contiguous areas which together constitute its urban fringe:
1. Incorporated places with 2,500 inhabitants or more.
1There are a few urbanized areas where there are "twin central cities" neither of which has a population of 50,000 or more but that have a combined population of at least 50,000. See the section below on "Standard metropolitan statistical areas" for further discussion of twin central cities. 2An enumeration district (ED) is a small area assigned to an enumerator which must be canvassed and reported separately. In most cases an ED
b. To close indentations in the urbanized areas of one mile or less across the open end.
c. To link outlying enumeration districts of qualifying density that were no more than 1 1/2 miles from the main body of the urbanized area.
A single urbanized area was established for cities in the same standard metropolitan statistical area if their fringes adjoin. Urbanized areas with central cities in different standard metropolitan statistical areas are not combined, except that a single urbanized area was established in the New York-Northeastern New Jersey Standard Consolidated Area and in the Chicago-Northwestern Indiana Standard Consolidated Area.
Relation to earlier censuses.-Urbanized areas were first delineated for the 1950 Census. In 1950, urbanized areas were established in connection with cities having 50,000 inhabitants or more according to the 1940 Census of Population or a later census prior to 1950; in 1960, urbanized areas were established in commection with cities having 50,000 inhabitants or more according to the 1960 Census of Population.
The boundaries of the urbanized areas for 1960 will not conform to those for 1950, partly because of actual changes in land use and density of settlement, and partly because of relatively minor changes in the rules used to define the boundaries. The changes in the rules include the following:
1. The use of enumeration districts to construct the urbanized areas in 1960 resulted in a less precise definition than in 1950 when the limits were selected in the field using an individual city-type block as the unit of area added. On the other hand, the 1960 procedures produced an urbanized area based on the census results rather than an area defined about a year before the census, as in 1950.
2. Unincorporated territory was included in the 1960 urbanized area if it contained at least 1,000 persons per square mile, which is a somewhat different criterion from the 500 or more dwelling units per square mile of the included 1950 unincorporated areas.
3. The 1960 areas include those entire towns in New England, townships in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, and counties that are classified as urban in accordance with the criteria listed in the section on urban-rural residence. The 1950 criteria permitted the exclusion of portions of those particular minor civil divisions.
In general, however, the urbanized areas of 1950 and 1960 are based on essentially the same concept, and the figures for a given urbanized area may be used to measure the housing growth of that area.
Relation to standard metropolitan statistical areas.-Any city in an urbanized area which is a central city of a stand
city of the urbanized area. With but two exceptions, the names of the central cities appear in the titles of the areas. The central cities of the New York-Northeastern New Jersey Urbanized Area are the central cities of the New York, Newark, Jersey City, and Paterson-Clifton-Passaic Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Likewise, the central cities of the Chicago-Northwestern Indiana Urbanized Area are the central cities of the Chicago and Gary-HammondEast Chicago Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas.
The urbanized area can be characterized by the physical city as distinguished from both the legal city and the metropolitan community. In most cases, urbanized areas are smaller than SMSA's and are contained in SMSA's. However, in a few instances, the fact that the boundaries of SMSA's are determined by county lines and those of urbanized areas by the pattern of urban growth means that there are small segments of urbanized areas which lie outside SMSA's. In general, then, urbanized areas represent the thickly settled portions of SMSA's. Because of discontinuities in land settlement, there are also some cases in which a single SMSA contains several urbanized areas.
Areas crossing State lines.-Like standard metropolitan statistical areas, urbanized areas are not confined within State boundaries, nor within region or division boundaries. For urbanized areas which cross State lines, statistics are shown only in the report for the State in which a central city is located.
STANDARD METROPOLITAN STATISTICAL AREAS
It has long been recognized that for many types of analysis it is necessary to consider as a unit the entire area, in and around a city, in which the activities form an integrated economic and social system. Prior to the 1950 Census, areas of this type had been defined in somewhat different ways for different purposes and by various agencies. Leading examples were the metropolitan districts of the 1940 Census of Housing, the industrial areas of the Census of Manufactures, and the labor market areas of the Bureau of Employment Security. To permit all Federal statistical agencies to utilize the same areas for the publication of general-purpose statistics, the Bureau of the Budget has established "standard metropolitan statistical areas" (SMSA's). Every city of 50,000 inhabitants or more according to the 1960 Census of Population is included in an SMSA. The SMSA's in this State, if any, are shown on the map of the State and the constituent parts are listed on page 2.
The definitions and titles of standard metropolitan statistical areas are established by the Bureau of the Budget with the advice of the Federal Committee on Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas. This Committee is composed of representatives of the major statistical agencies of the Federal Government. The criteria used by the Bureau of the Budget in establishing the SMSA's are presented below. (See the Bureau of the Budget publication Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C., 1961.)
The definition of an individual standard metropolitan statistical area involves two considerations: first, a city or cities of specified population to constitute the central city and to identify the county in which it is located as the central county; and second, economic and social relationships with contiguous counties which are metropolitan in
area may be determined. 3 Standard metropolitan statistical areas may cross State lines.
Population criteria.-The criteria for population relate to a city or cities of specified size according to the 1960 Census of Population.
1. Each standard metropolitan statistical area must include at least:
a. One city with 50,000 inhabitants or more, or
b. Two cities having contiguous boundaries and constituting, for general economic and social purposes, a single community with a combined population of at least 50,000, the smaller of which must have a population of at least 15,000.
2. If two or more adjacent counties each has a city of 50,000 inhabitants or more (or twin cities under lb) and the cities are within 20 miles of each other (city limits to city limits), they will be included in the same area unless there is definite evidence that the two cities are not economically and socially integrated.
Criteria of metropolitan character.-The criteria of metropolitan character relate primarily to the attributes of the contiguous county as a place of work or as a home for a concentration of nonagricultural workers.
3. At least 75 percent of the labor force of the county must be in the nonagricultural labor force.4
4. In addition to criterion 3, the county must meet at least one of the following conditions:
a. It must have 50 percent or more of its population living in contiguous minor civil divisions 5 with a density of at least 150 persons per square mile, in an unbroken chain of minor civil divisions with such density radiating from a central city in the area.
b. The number of nonagricultural workers employed in the county must equal at least 10 percent of the number of nonagricultural workers employed in the county containing the largest city in the area, or the county must be the place of employment of 10,000 nonagricultural workers.
c. The nonagricultural labor force living in the county must equal at least 10 percent of the number in the nonagricultural labor force living in the county containing the largest city in the area, or the county must be the place of residence of a nonagricultural labor force of 10,000.
5. In New England, the city and town are administratively more important than the county, and data are compiled locally for such minor civil divisions. Here, towns and cities are the units used in defining standard metropolitan statistical areas. In New England, because smaller units are used and more restricted areas result, a population density criterion of at least 100 persons per square mile is used as the measure of metropolitan character.
Criteria of integration.-The criteria of integration relate primarily to the extent of economic and social communication between the outlying counties and central county.
3Central cities are those appearing in the standard metropolitan statistical area title. A contiguous" county either adjoins the county or counties containing the largest city in the area, or adjoins an intermediate county integrated with the central county. There is no limit to the number of tiers of outlying metropolitan counties so long as all other criteria are met. 4Nonagricultural labor force is defined as those employed in nonagricultural occupations, those experienced unemployed whose last occupation was a nonagricultural occupation, members of the Armed Forces, and new workers.
5A contiguous minor civil division either adjoins a central city in a standard metropolitan statistical area or adjoins an intermediate minor civil division of qualifying population density. There is no limit to the number of tiers of contiguous minor civil divisions so long as the minimum density
6. A county is regarded as integrated with the county or counties containing the central cities of the area if either of the following criteria is met:
a. Fifteen percent of the workers living in the county work in the county or counties containing central cities of the area, or
b. Twenty-five percent of those working in the county live in the county or counties containing central cities of the area.
Only where data for criteria 6a and 6b are not conclusive are other related types of information used as necessary. This information includes such items as average telephone calls per subscriber per month from the county to the county containing central cities of the area; percent of the population in the county located in the central city telephone exchange area; newspaper circulation reports prepared by the Audit Bureau of Circulation; analysis of charge accounts in retail stores of central cities to determine the extent of their use by residents of the contiguous county; delivery service practices of retail stores in central cities; official traffic counts; the extent of public transportation facilities in operation between central cities and communities in the contiguous county; and the extent to which local planning groups and other civic organizations operate jointly.
Criteria for titles.-The criteria for titles relate primarily to the size and number of central cities.
7. The complete title of an SMSA identifies the central city or cities and the State or States in which the SMSA is located:
a. The name of the standard metropolitan statistical area includes that of the largest city.
b. The addition of up to two city names may be made in the area title, on the basis and in the order of the following criteria:
(1) The additional city has at least 250,000 inhabitants. (2) The additional city has a population of one-third or more of that of the largest city and a minimum population of 25,000, except that both city names are used in those instances where cities qualify under criterion lb. (A city which qualified as a secondary central city in 1950 but which does not qualify in 1960 has been temporarily retained as a central city.)
c. In addition to city names, the area titles will contain the name of the State or States in which the area is located.
Relation to earlier censuses.-In 1950, data were presented for standard metropolitan areas (SMA's) which were established in connection with cities of 50,000 inhabitants or more in 1950. In 1940, a somewhat similar type of area called the "metropolitan district" was used. In 1958, the criteria for delineating SMA's were revised by the Bureau of the Budget, and in 1959 the areas were designated as standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA's). In some cases, the 1960 SMSA has the same boundaries as the 1950 SMA; in others, parts have been added or deleted. The designation of the central cities also has changed for some The relationship can be readily determined by comparing the 1960 and 1950 boundaries for the particular area.
SMSA's crossing State lines.-For SMSA's which cross State lines, data are shown in full in tables 12 to 17 in the report for each State in which a central city is located. In the State not containing a central city, the detail is shown only for the portion of the SMSA located in that State, with a total column for the portion in the other State (or States) and a total column for the entire SMSA. In table 1, only the total for the entire SMSA and the portion for that State are given. In tables 8 and 36 to 42, the figures for the entire SMSA are shown in the report for each State containing part of an SMSA.
STANDARD CONSOLIDATED AREAS
In view of the special importance of the metropolitan complexes around New York and Chicago, the Nation's largest cities, several contiguous SMSA's and additional counties that do not appear to meet the formal integration criteria but do have strong interrelationships of other kinds have been combined into the New York-Northeastern New Jersey and Chicago-Northwestern Indiana Standard Consolidated Areas, respectively. The former is identical with the New York-Northeastern New Jersey SMA of 1950, and the latter corresponds roughly to the Chicago SMA of 1950 (two more counties having been added).
Data for the standard consolidated areas are presented in the reports for New York and New Jersey and in the reports for Illinois and Indiana. The constituent parts of each area are listed on page 2 of the four reports.
DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS
The definitions and explanations of terms should be interpreted in the context of the 1960 Census procedures for collecting the data. Data were collected by a combination of self-enumeration, direct interview, and observation by the
Items to be filled through self-enumeration appeared on forms which were supplied to households with the request that the household members themselves complete them. A few of the questions appeared on the Advance Census Report (ACR), which was to be filled and held until the enumerator called. Most of the questions, however, appeared on the Household Questionnaire, which was to be filled and mailed directly to the census office. In completing the self-enumeration items, the respondent had the explanations and wording that were printed on the forms. His answers were accepted unless the enumerator found it necessary to clarify or correct them.
"The Household Questionnaire was used only in areas where the twostage enumeration procedure was followed. In single-stage areas, these items were filled through direct interview. See section on 'Collection and
If the self-enumeration form was not filled or if the answers were incomplete or inconsistent, the enumerator obtained the information through direct interview and recorded it directly on a FOSDIC schedule. The enumerator was instructed to read the questions from the FOSDIC schedule and record the replies as given. If the respondent did not understand a question, the enumerator was to explain it based on his understanding of the definitions and instructions in the Enumerator's Reference Manual. If the respondent's replies were incomplete or inconsistent, the enumerator was instructed to ask additional questions.
Information for vacant units was obtained by the enumerator from owners, landlords, neighbors, or other persons presumed to know the situation and the enumerator recorded the information directly on the FOSDIC schedules. A few items, such as condition of a unit, were always determined by the enumerator on the basis of his own observation and, therefore, did not appear among the self-enumeration items.
The intent of the questions on the two types of forms is the same, although the wording of some of the questions and re