Alternative Toxicological Methods

Front Cover
Harry Salem, Sidney A. Katz
CRC Press, 2003 M03 26 - 616 pages
Bringing together the recent and relevant contributions of over 125 scientists from industry, government, and academia in North America and Western Europe, Alternative Toxicological Methods explores the development and validation of replacement, reduction, and refinement alternatives (the 3Rs) to animal testing. Internationally recognized scientist

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Contents

Progress in the Validation and Regulatory Acceptance of Alternatives
1
The First 4000 Years
3
Chapter 2 A History of Interagency Approaches to Alternatives and Establishment of the Interagency Regulatory Alternatives Group
9
Recent Progress in the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicity Testing Methods
15
Current Situation in the European Union
31
Chapter 5 Integrated In Vitro Approaches for Assessing Systemic Toxicity
43
Chapter 6 Summary of the OECDs New Guidance Document on the Recognition Assessment and Use of Clinical Signs as Humane Endpoints for Exp...
51
The Humane Society of the United States Pain and Distress Initiative
61
Chapter 24 Evaluation of Cytotoxicity Assays of Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Exposed In Vitro to Sulfur Mustard
281
Chapter 25 Comparison of Spectrophotometric and Fluorometric Assays of Proteolysis in Cultured Human Cells Exposed to Sulfur Mustard
287
Chapter 26 Effects of Low Dose Sulfur Mustard on Growth and DNA Damage in Human Cells in Culture
295
Chapter 27 Imaging Sulfur Mustard Lesions in Basal Cells and Human Epidermal Tissues by Confocal and Multiphoton Laser Scanning Microscopy
303
Implications for Toxicity and Medical Countermeasures
313
Chapter 29 Development of Medical Countermeasures to Sulfur Mustard Vesication
323
Neurotoxicology Molecular Biomarkers Transgenics and Imaging Technologies
329
Lessons Derived from Transgenic Models
333

Development of Predictive Methods Based on Mechanisms of Eye Irritation at the Ocular Surface Meeting Industry and Regulatory Needs
75
Chapter 8 Meeting Industry and Regulatory Needs for Alternative Test Methods to the Draize Rabbit Eye Irritation Test
77
Barrier Function and Mechanisms of Injury and Repair
89
Chapter 10 Evaluation and Refinement of the Bovine Cornea Opacity and Permeability Assay
109
Chapter 11 Corneal Organ Culture for Ocular Toxicity Test of Commercial Hair Care Products
117
Chapter 12 Human Corneal Equivalents for In Vitro Testing
125
A Reproducible In Vitro Means of Assessing Ocular Irritancy
131
Chapter 14 ThreeDimensional Construct of the Human Corneal Epithelium for In Vitro Toxicology
147
Scientific Relevance and Summary of Prevalidation Study Results
161
Dermal Testing Alternatives
187
Chapter 16 Alternative Methods for Dermal Toxicity Testing
189
Mechanisms and Methods
193
An Introductory Case Study
207
Chapter 19 A Molecular Diagnostic Approach to Irritant or Allergic Patch Testing Using the DermPatch
221
Chapter 20 In Vitro Skin Equivalent Models for Toxicity Testing
229
A Case Study in the Use of Alternatives to Determine the Mechanism of Sulfur Mustard Action
249
Chapter 21 Cellular Resistance of Tetrahymena to Sulfar Mustard
251
Chapter 22 Studies of Cellular Biochemical Changes Induced in Human Cells by Sulfur Mustard
259
Chapter 23 Human Keratinocyte Inflammatory Transcript Gene Activity Following Sulfur Mustard
269
Chapter 31 A Microassay Method Using a Neuroblastoma Cell Line to Examine Neurotoxicity of Organophosphate Mixtures
341
Chapter 32 Development of Integrin Expression as a Molecular Biomarker for Early Sensitive Detection of Neurotoxicity
347
A Review of Recent Advances in DeepTissue Imaging
361
Role of Transgenics and Toxicogenomics in the Development of AlternativeToxicityTests
375
Chapter 34 The Application of Genomics and Proteomics to Toxicological Sciences
377
Chapter 35 Use of Transgenic Animals in Regulatory Carcinogenicity Evaluations
391
Chapter 36 Changes in Gene Expression after Exposure to Organophosphorus OP Agents
413
Recent Innovations in Alternatives
429
Minimizing Need for Animal Experiments
431
An Overview with Special Reference to Biomedicine
449
Chapter 39 World Wide Web Biomedical Chemical and Toxicological Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine
473
Chapter 40 In Silico Approaches for Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling
479
Chapter 41 In Silico Application of Quantum Chemical Methods for Relating Toxicity to Chemical Reactivity
533
Increasing the Discovery of Therapeutics through HighPerformance Computing
543
A Metric for Mutagenicity?
559
A Gestational Toxicity Test Using Human Placental Trophoblasts
567
Index
581
Back cover
593
Copyright

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Page 269 - The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense.
Page 4 - Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor, and do all your work; but the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God; in it you shall not do any work...
Page 193 - US Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the US Environmental Protection Agency; nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.
Page 244 - Alizadeh, AA, Eisen, MB, Davis, RE, Ma, C, Lossos, IS, Rosenwald, A., Boldrick, JC, Sabet, H., Tran, T., Yu, X., Powell, JI, Yang, L., Marti, GE, Moore, T., Hudson...
Page 244 - Lewis DB, Tibshirani R, Sherlock G, Chan WC, Greiner TC, Weisenburger DD, Armitage JO, Warnke R, Levy R, Wilson W, Grever MR, Byrd JC, Botstein D, Brown PO, Staudt LM. 2000. Distinct types of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene expression profiling.
Page 357 - Hynes, RO (1992). Integrins: versatility, modulation, and signaling in cell adhesion.
Page 357 - Greene, LA, and Tischler, AS (1976). Establishment of a noradrenergic clonal line of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells which respond to nerve growth factor.
Page 246 - Mosmann, T. (1983) Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays.

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