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State of Maryland.

Maryland's Chesapeake Bay License Plate Program funds environmental education and restoration projects.

promote environmental education in various regions of the world. For example, EPA is sponsoring the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, initiated in 1990 in Budapest, Hungary; the Caribbean Environment and Development Institute, initiated in 1992 in Puerto Rico; and the Environmental Education and Information Center, initiated in 1992 in Kiev, Ukraine.

The Department of the Interior also is assisting the government of Hungary in developing a free-market-based mineral development program. Assistance includes training in process and techniques for assessing the potential environmental effects of mineral development. The objective is to provide the basic tools for including consideration of environmental values in decisionmaking.

Energy

Also see Federal Facilities Management, International Issues, Technology, Transportation, and related tables and figures in Part II.

T

1992, allows implementation of a balanced, pro-environment, pro-growth national energy strategy.

Conditions and Trends

he quality of the environment has become closely linked to energy

use. In 1992 the federal government expanded energy initiatives to improve environmental quality and energy security and to stimulate economic growth. The basis for the initiatives is the National Energy Strategy (NES) issued by the President in February 1991 as a blueprint for the energy future of the United States. During 1991 and 1992 the federal government introduced over 90 NES initiatives, including the following:

• Expanded energy efficiency and
renewable energy programs,
• Increased funding for advanced
transportation technologies,
• Expanded interagency efforts in the
U.S. Global Change Research
Program, and
• Formed partnerships among federal
agencies, industries, and states to
reduce energy and water use.

The National Energy Strategy Act of 1992, enacted by the Congress and signed by President Bush in October

Energy is essential for economic production and the high standard of living Americans enjoy. Over the past two decades, the nation has learned to use energy more efficiently in every sector. The United States uses 10 percent more energy today than it did in 1973, yet there are 30 percent more homes, 50 percent more vehicles, and the gross domestic product is 50 percent higher. The challenge is to produce and use energy more efficiently and cleanly. Implementation of NES promises to improve the way the United States produces and uses energy.

Energy Consumption

Americans depend on energy to produce goods and services in the following end-use sectors:

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Residential and Commercial. This sector accounts for 36 percent of U.S. end-use energy consumption; 35 percent of which is currently in the form of electricity. As the number of electrically heated and cooled homes and buildings expands, the Department of Energy (DOE) expects residential and commercial demand for electricity to rise to over half the total end-use energy demand for this sector by the next century.

Industry. Industry accounts for another 36 percent of end-use energy consumption, relying on a mix of fuels. Industry uses 70 percent of the energy it consumes to provide heat and power for manufacturing. DOE expects industrial energy demand to grow steadily over the next two decades. During this period, however, energy use per dollar of economic output may decline as a result of energy efficiency improvements.

Industry also will increase its generation of electricity and steam for its own use.

Transportation. The United States devotes 27 percent of its energy consumption to the transport of people and goods. Virtually all of this energy consists of petroleum products used to power automobiles, trucks, ships, airplanes, and trains. The transportation sector accounts for two-thirds of U.S. petroleum use. While the number of alternative-fueled vehicles will rise in the future, petroleum fuels likely will continue to dominate transportation energy use for the next 20 years.

Energy Production

U.S. domestic energy resources are extensive and diverse, with coal, oil, natural gas, and uranium found in significant quantities within U.S. borders. Unconventional sources, such as coalbed methane, are also potential future

Sources of U.S. electricity.

3,000

[graphic]
[blocks in formation]

Natural gas Nuclear

0 -
1960

1965

1970

Coal
Hydroelectric

Source: Part II, Table 19.

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