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under an arrangement under which the newspapers or magazines are to be sold by him at a fixed price, his compensation being based on the retention of the excess of such price over the amount at which the newspapers or magazines are charged to him, whether or not he is guaranteed a minimum amount of compensation for such service, or is entitled to be credited with the unsold newspapers or magazines turned back; or (16) Service performed in the employ of an international organization.

(c) INCLUDED AND EXCLUDED SERVICE.-If the services performed during one-half or more of any pay period by an employee for the person employing him constitute employment, all the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment; but if the services performed during more than one-half of any such pay period by an employee for the person employing him do not constitute employment, then none of the services of such employee for such period shall be deemed to be employment. As used in this subsection, the term "pay period" means a period (of not more than 31 consecutive days) for which a payment of remuneration is ordinarily made to the employee by the person employing him. This subsection shall not be applicable with respect to services performed in a pay period by an employee for the person employing him, where any of such service is excepted by paragraph (9) of subsection (b).

(d) EMPLOYEE.-The term "employee" includes an officer of a corporation, but such term does not include (1) any individual who, under the usual common-law rules applicable in determining the employeremployee relationship, has the status of an independent contractor or (2) any individual (except an officer of a corporation) who is not an employee under such common-law rules.

(e) STATE. The term "State" includes Alaska, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia.

(f) PERSON. The term "person" means an individual, a trust or estate, a partnership, or a corporation.

(g) AMERICAN VESSEL.-The term "American vessel" means any vessel documented or numbered under the laws of the United States; and includes any vessel which is neither documented or numbered under the laws of the United States nor documented under the laws. of any foreign country, if its crew is employed solely by one or more citizens or residents of the United States or corporations organized under the laws of the United States or of any State.

(h) AGRICULTURAL LABOR.-The term "agricultural labor" includes i all services performed

(1) On a farm, in the employ of any person, in connection with cultivating the soil, or in connection with raising or harvesting any agricultural or horticultural commodity, including the raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, and management of livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife;

(2) In the employ of the owner or tenant or other operator of a farm, in connection with the operation, management, conserva

tion, improvement, or maintenance of such farm and its tools and equipment, or in salvaging timber or clearing land of brush and other debris left by a hurricane, if the major part of such service is performed on a farm;

(3) In connection with the production or harvesting of maple sirup or maple sugar or any commodity defined as an agricultural commodity in section 15 (g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act,' as amended, or in connection with the raising or harvesting of mushrooms, or in connection with the hatching of poultry, or in connection with the ginning of cotton, or in connection with the operation or maintenance of ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways used exclusively for supplying and storing water for farming purposes;

(4) In handling, planting, drying, packing, packaging, processing, freezing, grading, storing, or delivering to storage or to market or to a carrier for transportation to market, any agricultural or horticultural commodity; but only if such service is performed as an incident to ordinary farming operations or, in the case of fruits and vegetables, as an incident to the preparation of such fruits or vegetables for market. The provisions of this paragraph shall not be deemed to be applicable with respect to service performed in connection with commercial canning or commercial freezing or in connection with any agricultural or horticultural commodity after its delivery to a terminal market for distribution for consumption.

As used in this subsection, the term "farm" includes stock, dairy, poultry, fruit, fur-bearing animal, and truck farms, plantations, ranches, nurseries, ranges, greenhouses or other similar structures used primarily for the raising of agricultural or horticultural commodities, and orchards.

(i) OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF CREWS EMPLOYED BY WAR SHIPPING ADMINISTRATION.-The term "employment" shall include such service as is determined by the Administrator, War Shipping Administration, to be performed after September 30, 1941, and prior to the termination of title I of the First War Powers Act, 1941, on or in connection with any vessel by an officer or member of the crew as an employee of the United States employed through the War Shipping Administration, or, in respect of such service performed before February 11, 1942, the United States Maritime Commission, but shall not include any such service performed (1) under a contract entered into without the United States and during the performance of which the vessel does not touch at a port in the United States, or (2) on a vessel documented under the laws of any foreign country and bareboat chartered to the War Shipping Administration. The term "wages" means, with

1 Sec. 15 (g) of the Agricultural Marketing Act (46 Stat. 1550, § 3; 12 U. S. C. 1141j) defines "agricultural commodity" to include "in addition to other agricultural commodities, crude gum (oleoresin) from a living tree, and the following products as processed by the original producer of the crude gum (oleoresin) from which derived: Gum spirits of turpentine, and gum rosin, as defined in the Naval Stores Act, approved March 3, 1923." The Naval Stores Act (42 Stat. 1435, §2; 7 U. S. C. 92) defines "gum spirits of turpentine" to mean "spirits of turpentine made from gum (oleoresin) from a living tree", and "gum rosin" to mean "rosin remaining after the distillation of gum spirits of turpentine."

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respect to service which constitutes employment by reason of this subsection, such amount of remuneration as is determined (subject to the provisions of this section) by the Administrator, War Shipping Administration, to be paid for such service. The Administrator and such agents as he may designate for the pupose are authorized and directed to comply with the provisions of the internal revenue laws on behalf of the United States as the employer of individuals whose service constitutes employment by reason of this subsection The Administrator, War Shipping Administration, and the United States Maritime Commission, and their agents or persons acting on their behalf or for their account, may, for convenience of administration, make payments of the tax imposed under section 1410 without regard to the $3,000 limitation in section 1426 (a) (1), but they shall not be required to obtain a refund of the tax paid under section 14101 on that part of the remuneration of seamen in their employ not included in wages by reason of section 1426 (a) (1).1

[The First War Powers Act, 1941, is to "remain in force during the continuance of the present war and for six months after the termination of the war, or until such earlier time as the Congress by concurrent resolution or the President may designate."

The functions of the War Shipping Administration were transferred to the United States Maritime Commission by section 202 of the act of July 8, 1946 (60 Stat. 501).]

(j) CERTAIN EMPLOYEES OF BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATOR. The term "employment" shall include such service as is determined by the Bonneville Power Administrator (hereinafter called the Administrator) to be performed after December 31, 1945, by a laborer, mechanic, or workman, in connection with construction work or the operation and maintenance of electrical facilities, as an employee performing service for the Administrator, but shall not include any service performed by such a laborer, mechanic, or workman, to whom the act of May 29, 1930 (46 Stat. 468 [5 U. S. C., chapter 14]), as amended, applies. The term "wages" means, with respect to service which constitutes employment by reason of this subsection, such amount of remuneration as is determined (subject to the provisions of this section) by the Administrator to be paid for such service. The Administrator is authorized and directed to comply with the provisions of the internal revenue laws on behalf of the United States as the employer of individuals whose service constitutes employment by reason of this subsection.

SEC. 1428. ESTIMATE OF REVENUE REDUCTION.

The Secretary at intervals of not longer than three years shall estimate the reduction in the amount of taxes collected under this subchapter by reason of the operation of paragraph (9) of subsection (b) of section 1426 and shall include such estimate in his annual report.

SEC. 1429. RULES AND REGULATIONS.

The Secretary shall make and publish such rules and regulations, not inconsistent with this subchapter, as may be necessary to the efficient administration of the functions with which he is charged 1 The words "of the Internal Revenue Code" are omitted.

under this subchapter. The Commissioner, with the approval of the Secretary, shall make and publish rules and regulations for the enforcement of this subchapter.

SEC. 1430. OTHER LAWS APPLICABLE.

All provisions of law, including penalties, applicable with respect to any tax imposed by section 2700 or section 1800, and the provisions of section 3661, shall, insofar as applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions of this subchapter, be applicable with respect to the taxes imposed by this subchapter.

SEC. 1432. [SHORT TITLE.]

This subchapter may be cited as the "Federal Insurance Contributions Act."

SUBCHAPTER B-EMPLOYMENT BY CARRIERS

Part III-Tax on Employers

SEC. 1520. RATE OF TAX.

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In addition to other taxes, every employer shall pay an excise tax, with respect to having individuals in his employ, equal to the following percentages of so much of the compensation paid by such employer for services rendered to him after December 31, 1936, as is, with respect to any employee for any calendar month, not in excess of $300: Provided, however, That if an employee is paid compensation by more than one employer for services rendered during any calendar month after 1936, the tax imposed by this section shall apply to not more than $300 of the aggregate compensation paid to such employee by all such employers ** * * for services rendered during such month, and each employer other than a subordinate unit of a national railway-labor-organization employer shall be liable for that proportion of the tax with respect to such compensation paid by all such employers which the compensation paid by him to the employee for services rendered during such month bears to the total compensation paid by all such employers such employee for services rendered during such month; and in the event that the compensation so paid by such employers to the employee for services rendered during such month is less than $300, each subordinate unit of a national railway-labor-organization employer shall be liable for such proportion of any additional tax as the compensation paid by such employer to such employee for services rendered during such month bears to the total compensation paid by all such employers to such employee for services rendered during such month:

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2. With respect to compensation paid during the calendar years 1949, 1950, and 1951, the rate shall be 6 per centum; 3. With respect to compensation paid after December 31, 1951, the rate shall be 64 per centum.

[For disregard of certain compensation earned in the service of a local lodge or division of a railway labor organization, see section 1532 (e).]

SEC. 1521. ADJUSTMENTS.

If more or less than the correct amount of the tax imposed by section 1520 is paid with respect to any compensation payment, then, under regulations made by the Commissioner with the approval of the Secretary, proper adjustments with respect to the tax shall be made, without interest, in connection with subsequent excise tax payments made by the same employer.

SEC. 1522. OVERPAYMENTS AND UNDERPAYMENTS.

If more or less than the correct amount of the tax imposed by section 1520 is paid or deducted with respect to any compensation payment and the overpayment or underpayment of the tax cannot be adjusted under section 1521, the amount of the overpayment shall be refunded, or the amount of the underpayment shall be collected in such manner and at such times (subject to the statute of limitations properly applicable thereto) as may be prescribed by regulations under this subchapter as made by the Commissioner, with the approval of the Secretary.

Part IV-General Provisions

SEC. 1530. COLLECTION AND PAYMENT OF TAXES.

(a) ADMINISTRATION.-The taxes imposed by this subchapter shall be collected by the Bureau of Internal Revenue and shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States as internal revenue collections. (b) TIME AND MANNER OF PAYMENT.-The taxes imposed by this subchapter shall be collected and paid quarterly or at such other times and in such manner and under such conditions not inconsistent with this subchapter as may be prescribed by the Commissioner with the approval of the Secretary.

(c) ADDITION TO TAX IN CASE OF DELINQUENCY.-If a tax imposed by this subchapter is not paid when due, there shall be added as part of the tax (except in the case of adjustments made in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter) interest at the rate of 6 per centum per annum from the date the tax became due until paid.

(d) FRACTIONAL PARTS OF A CENT.-In the payment of any tax under this subchapter, a fractional part of a cent shall be disregarded unless it amounts to one-half cent or more, in which case it shall be increased to 1 cent.

SEC. 1531. ERRONEOUS PAYMENTS.

Any tax paid under this subchapter by a taxpayer with respect to any period with respect to which he is not liable to tax under this subchapter shall be credited against the tax, if any, imposed by subchapter A upon such taxpayer, and the balance, if any, shall be refunded.

SEC. 1532. DEFINITIONS.

As used in this subchapter

(a) EMPLOYER.-The term "employer" means any carrier (as defined in subsection (h) of this section), and any company which is directly or indirectly owned or controlled by one or more such carriers or under common control therewith, and which operates any equip

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