Knowledge, Power, and Participation in Environmental Policy Analysis

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Transaction Publishers, 2001 - 500 pages
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This volume probes practical dilemmas and competing re- search perspectives in environmental policy analysis. Scholars working in different fields, research traditions, societies, and policy domains offer significant insights into the processes and consequences of environmental policy making.

Part 1, "Coping with Boundaries," describes present-day conflict between experts and greater public participation in environmental policy. It shows that the institutionalization of increasingly complex environmental problems has led to a conflict between technocracy and democracy. Part 2, "The Transnational Challenge," examines modes of cooperation between grassroots movements, scientists, and regional authorities in the United States and Canada. These and other modes of cooperation laid the foundations for the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, increased the effectiveness of air pollution treaties, and increased climate change. Part 3, "Bio-Hazards: Policies and Paralysis," deals with environmental prob-lems closest to the everyday concerns of the public at large because they have immediate implications for food safety and other values. Part 4, "The Citizens' Perspective," focuses on citizen vis--vis environmental policy, noting that in order to make policies work citizens must be willing and able to participate in policy-making and cooperate in implementing environmental choices. Part 5, "Confronting Ordinary and Expert Knowledge," explores opportunities and constraints affecting public participation in evaluation of science. Part 6, "Developments in Research Programming," addresses such questions as whether scientists still have opportunities to do the research they want without being interrupted or disturbed by policy makers and other stakeholders. Part 7, "Policy Sciences' Aspirations," explores different avenues for improving environmental policy.

Volume twelve in the PSRA series should inspire further investigations of the relations among knowledge, power, and participation in environmental policy. It will be of timely interest to environmentalists, policy-makers, scholars, and the general public.

Matthijs Hisschemller is senior researcher at the Institute for Environmental Studies of the Free University in Amsterdam. Rob Hoppe is professor and chair of the Policy Studies unit of University of Twente's Faculty of Public Administration and Public Policy. William N. Dunn is professor of Public Policy and Management in the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh. Jerry R. Ravetz is director of the Research Methods Consultancy Ltd., in London.

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Contents

Knowledge Power and Participation in Environmental Policy Analysis An Introduction
3
Beyond Technocratic Environmentalism Citizen Inquiry in Sustainable Development
31
Coping with Intractable Controversies The Case for Problem Structuring in Policy Design and Analysis
49
Democratic Expertise Integrating Knowledge Power and Participation
75
Toward a Best Practice of Constructing Serviceable Truths
99
The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement Its Past Successes and Uncertain Future
123
Effectiveness of Air Pollution Treaties The Role of Knowledge Power and Participation
147
From Arrhenius to the Kyoto Protocol Climate Change and the Interplay between Science and Policy
177
Description and Explanation of the Greening of the World A Methodological and Theoretical Challenge for Survey Methodology As Illustrated by R...
273
Public Perceptions of Environmental Risks and Willingness to Act
299
Integrated Assessment Modeling and the Participatory Challenge The Case of Climate Change
319
Participation and Expert Knowledge A Case Study Analysis of Scientific Models and Their Publics
351
Steering Research Toward Policy The Case of Social Science and Environmental Change
373
Aggregation Machines A Political Science of Science Approach to the Future of the PeerReview System
393
Using the Method of Context Validation to Mitigate Type III Errors in Environmental Policy Analysis
419
Knowledge Use and Political Choice in Dutch Environmental Policy A ProblemStructuring Perspective on Real Life Experiments in Extended Peer R...
439

FrameReflective Policy Analysis in Practice CoEvolution of a Policy Regime and an Intractable Controversy in Biotechnology
203
The Genetically Modified Maize Debacle A Case Study of Policymakers Failure to Deal with Scientific Uncertainty Even After BSE
231
Civilization and Madness The Great BSE Scare of 1996
253
Models of Risks An Exploration
473
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Page 163 - Promoting international cooperation in the economic, social, cultural, educational and health fields and assisting in the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.
Page 188 - Summit, its ultimate objective is the "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human-made) interference with the climate system.
Page 67 - The more people's standpoints I have present in my mind while I am pondering a given issue, and the better I can imagine how I would feel and think if I were in their place, the stronger will be my capacity for representative thinking and the more valid my final conclusions, my opinion.
Page 165 - Convention and of those protocols in force to which they are party to protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting or likely to result from human activities which modify or are likely to modify the ozone layer.
Page 356 - When problems lack neat solutions, when environmental and ethical aspects of the issues are prominent, when the phenomena themselves are ambiguous, and when all research techniques are open to methodological criticism, then the debates on quality are not enhanced by the exclusion of all but the specialist researchers and official experts. The extension of the peer community is then not merely an ethical or political act; it can positively enrich the processes of scientific investigation.
Page 166 - Calculated levels' of production, imports, exports and consumption means levels determined in accordance with Article 3. 8. 'Industrial rationalization' means the transfer of all or a portion of the calculated level of production of one Party to another, for the purpose of achieving economic efficiencies or responding to anticipated shortfalls in supply as a result of plant closures. ARTICLE 2 CONTROL MEASURES...
Page 129 - Parties is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem.
Page 155 - the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate...
Page 179 - Nevertheless, we can say with some confidence that the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and changes of land use have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by about 15 per cent during the last century and it is at present increasing by about 0.4 per cent per year. It is likely that an increase will continue in the future. Carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in determining the temperature of the earth's atmosphere, and it appears plausible...
Page 262 - The British have formed the habit of praising their institutions, which are sometimes inept, and of ignoring the character of their race, which is often superb. In the end they will be in danger of losing their character and being left with their institutions...

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