« PreviousContinue »
The liquid impregnating the pomace consists of: 300 litres of juice at 15 per cent. of sugar, plus 107 litres of water of vegetation from the different organs, and will only be capable of furnishing 3X8.57 of alcohol, or 25.71, which, divided between 407 litres, gives an alcohol content of 6.61 per cent.
In this case, the "vin de goutte " extracted for white wine will show a difference of 1.96 per cent of alcohol in favour of white "vin de goutte compared with red "vin de goutte", whether obtained by pressure or by diffusion.
This coincides with what is often found in practice, and even the difference between "vins de marc" and "vins de goutte" may be still more accentuated, if instead of limiting the extraction to 500 litres per 1000 kg., it is extended to 550 or 600 litres, or even more.
The method and the completeness of the crushing, or still more of the removal of the stalks, causes great differences in the composition of the pomace and thus in that of "vins de marc". The result of perfect crushing, whether performed by the crusher alone, or by crushing followed by different mechanical operations, is to remove the pulp entirely from the berries and thus to make the pomace much poorer in sugar, as the latter substance is derived only from the adherent pulp, and is also much lighter. This difference of composition and of density has a notable influence upon the quality of red "vins de mare" according to the fermentation method adopted.
These differences are attenuated by the separation of the stalks, as this operation removes from 2 to 5 per cent. of the water of vegetation.
If the submerged-pomace fermentation system is used, whatever the state of the grapes which are crushed, there is no difference between "vin de goutte" and "vin de marc ". For all the water of vegetation is found in the mass, the intercellular exchanges take place during the whole fermentation period, and this water of vegetation is distributed throughout the liquid, especially if the liquid has been well mixed during the fermentation process. If, however, it is a question of floating-pomace fermentation, differences occur, and these vary according to whether the crushing has been complete, or not, whether the fermentation, always with floating pomace, is carried out in tuns, or in vats with vertical sides; whether or not the mixing by drawing liquid from the bottom of the vessel and pouring it in at the top during fermentation, has been practised or not, and also according to the ripeness of the grapes.
Tha shape of the vessels, tuns or vats, may be of importance, in so far as it hinders or allows the rising of the pomace and the formation of the “cap".
In tuns, which are normally full, the submerged portion of the pomace is always larger, approaching nearly to the submerged-pomace type of fermentation. The difference betwen "vins de goutte and Ivins de marc" would be very slight and often almost nil, if it were a question of a not completely ripe vintage, which has undergone a merely rudimentary pressing; the "vins de marc ", whether obtained by pressure or diffusion,
are more alcoholic than the "vins de goutte". This is explained by the fact that the accumulation of sugar in the grape proceeds from the periphery to the centre during the ripening. Also, if it is a question of a vintage which has been little crushed, it is just the poorest part of the pulp which is expelled: and this forms the "vin de goutte". The pulp which adheres to the skins may be much richer in sugar, and able to more than counteract the influence of the water of vegetation contained in the fruit.
When fermentation takes place in vats with vertical sides, or in partially filled tuns, the immersion of the pomace may be very variable, and the difference between "vin de goutte" and "vin de marc" will be increased with the completeness of pressing, the pomace being lighter and the immersion least. This difference will also be augmented by the fermentation being shorter after the formation of the pomace cap, as the immersion increases till, in time, it is complete; and also by the greater ripeness of the vintage, for when the grapes are quite ripe, the pulp adhering to the residuum is no richer in sugar then that which forms "vin de goutte ".
In vats and tuns alike it may also happen in the case of unripe, littlecrushed grapes, that the "vin de marc" is richer than the 'vin de goutte".
These are undeniable facts and relatively newly discovered, as they could not be observed while wine-making methods and apparatus were primitive. But, whatever decrease there may be in alcohol content, " vins de marc", whether the result of pressing or diffusion, should not present the habitual characteristics of watering. In fact, if the skins, stalks and pomace bring sufficient water of vegetation to cause a diminution in the alcohol content, they also supply soluble acid and neutral compounds, which enter into the composition of the wine and give it normal analytic characters.
65 - Peanut Butter.
BEATTIE, W. R.-U. S. Department of Agricukure, Dureau of Plant Inaustry, Circular
In the United States several large factories and a number of smaller ones are now devoted to the manufacture of peanut butter with which to supply the rapidly increasing demand. Some of the larger factories are almost models in their construction, equipment and management, while many of the smaller establishments which have no elaborate equipment, are turning out an excellent product.
Peanut butter consists merely of fresh roasted peanuts ground fine and salted. It is calculated that in 1911 about 1000 railway cars of shelled peanuts, or 1 000 000 bushels, were used in the manufacture of this food.
In order to produce high class peanut butter the best of materials and the utmost cleanliness are necessarry; consequently it should never be prepared in premises attached or adjacent to a peanut cleaning establishment, on account of the dust.
In the United States two distinct types of peanut are grown, the Virginia or Jumbo (including the varieties known as Virginia Bunch, Virginia Runner, and North Carolina or Wilmington) and the Spanish type (including the true Spanish, Georgia Red, Tennessee Red, and Valencia).
Three grades of shelled goods of both types are prepared. In each case No. I consists of whole kernels, No. 2 of split kernels and No. 3 of the finely broken and badly shrivelled ones. The use of the latter in the manufacture of the butter should be discontinued. The best grade of the Spanish and Valencia and the cheaper grades of the Virginia type of peanuts are commonly employed for the production of peanut butter. An admixture of the Spanish peanuts gives the product a greater degree of smoothnss, but butter made from Spanish peanuts alone contains too much oil. The writer suggests the posssibility of using them after having extracted from them 8 to 10 per cent. of the oil by pressing. Peanut butter of the proper consistency contains 41 or 42 per cent. of fat.
The successive manipulations that the peanuts are submitted to for the preparation of the butter are the following:
1. Roasting at about 160° C. for 30 to 35 minutes.
2. Rapid cooling by a cold air blast.
3. Blanching, that is removal of the outer red skins and the germs. This is accomplished by means of blanching machines consisting of a set of brushes revolving against a corrugated plate.
4. Hand picking for the removal of small pebbles, discoloured
or inferior nuts, etc.
5. Blending of the different kinds of peanuts used.
6. Salting with 1 2 to 3 per cent. in weight of salt.
7. Grinding to a fine granular form.
8. Bottling and packing.
The writer describes with full particulars each of the above operations as well as the necessary plant, and gives illustrations of some of the model factories.
- Royal Decree of Nov. 8, 1912, regarding the Regulations for the Creation of a Phytopathological Service in Belgium.
Arrête royal du 8 Nov. 1912, portant règlement concernant la création du Service phytopathologique spécial, l'inspéction des cultures horticoles et des pépinières, ainsi que l'importation et l'exportation des produits de ces cultures et plantations.-Moniteur Belge, Year 82, No. 322, pp. 7458-7464. Bruxelles, Nov. 17, 1912.
Article 12 of the rural code, amended by the law of June 27, 1912, is formulated in the following terms:
"The measures to be adopted for the destruction of caterpillars and insects and for the uprooting of thistles and the destruction of injurious plants, are determined by Royal Decrees. Those which have for their object the prevention of the introduction into the country or of the propagation of insects or other animals, or of cryptogams and other plants, which are injurious to crops, are likewise regulated by Royal Decrees."
For the execution of this law, a decree was passed on Nov. 8, 1912, as follows:
§ 1. Special service of phytopathological inspection. An inspector is entrusted with the direction and scientific control of the special service of phytopathological inspection. Assistant experts are appointed to aid the inspector in drawing up the necessary certificates for the dispatch of horticultural plants abroad. (Art. 1).
All matters of the special service of inspection, both in the interior of the country, or on the frontiers, are regulated by Ministerial Decrees (Art. 2). Every owner or tenant who cultivates or keeps horticultural or nursery plants under glass or otherwise, is obliged to permit the grounds to be visited by the inspector of the special service of inspection, or by the experts mentioned in Art. 1. All dealers in the plants under supervision are required to allow the contents of the parcels of plants for export to be examined at any time (Art. 3).
§ 2. Transit. Art. 4.-"Plants imported for transit are subject only to the conditions prescribed by Art. 6 of the Royal Decree of Sept. 15, 1885, for the execution in Belgium of the regulations of the International Phylloxera Convention. "