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American vines as direct producers of grapes have been tried, but only as curiosities. In the Azores some Isabella vines, a variety of Labrusca whose grapes have a foxy taste, are still kept. On the mainland this kind is considered only as ornamental.
The adoption of American vines modified profoundly the cultivation of the vine in Portugal.
The first effect has been to change the situation of the vineyards, which formerly were located on the hill slopes in dry and poor soils. Now the vineyards have descended to the plains or kept to the slightly sloping ground where the soil is deep.
Some of the most fertile plains of the country, like that of Ribatejo, have been planted to vines on a great scale. Besides the greater needs of American vines as regards depth of soil and the depth to which the latter has to be broken up, the change in economical conditions has favoured this displacement of the Portuguese vineyards, which at first lost something in the quality of their produce but gained much in intensity of production.
Grafting, which was rendered necessary by the use of American stocks, contributed also to the increase of production, and by requiring greater care to be taken in the cultivation of the vine brought about a great improvement in cultural methods. The graft most used was cleft-grafting and frequently also whip-grafting in plantations made with American cuttings; inarching was used only in nurseries.
From the preliminary breaking up of the soil up to the vintage it may be said that all operations connected with the vines have been influenced by the introduction of American stocks. The soil was worked to a greater depth and more thoroughly. Preparatory and cultural improvements, which formerly were compratively rare, became common practices. The use of artificial fertilizers, nitrogenous, phosphatic and even potassic, notwithstanding the fact that Portuguese soils are frequently rich in potash, became general.
The vines were planted further apart, and instead of being placed always in rows or squares, they were planted to a great extent in quinThe average distance between the vines, formerly 3 ft. 3 in. to 4 ft. 9 in., has often been increased to 6 ft. 6 in.
Hoeing has became a current practice.
The system of pruning the canes known as Guyot's, though it is of Portuguese origin and has been practised from remote periods in the Douro region, has become general throughout the country; the old system of pruning is still followed in the great vineyards of Ribatejo and in the plains, with the only object of saving expense.
As for the vintage, more care than formerly is bestowed on fixing the time of gathering the grapes, on their selection and transport. Even in wine-making an improvement has taken place since the appearance of phylloxera.
In conclusion, it may be said that if the invasion of phylloxera has been a calamity, all the sacrifices which it has entailed have been com
pensated by the improvement and intensity of the present production and by its increased value.
Neither vine-growing nor wine-making in Portugal has anything to fear from comparisons with the same industries in any other country.
Portuguese viticulture as it is at present reconstituted, is still expanding, and bears witness, by the excellent results it has achieved, to the value of American stocks and of the modern technical processes of vinegrowing and of wine-making.
The Recent Development of Cattle
Breeding in Germany.
Privy Councillor, Professor Dr. HANSEN, Königsberg, Prussia.
Owing to the expansion of trade throughout the world and to the development of flourishing industries, German agriculture underwent farreaching changes during the second half of the last century. While the prices of grain have at times fallen considerably and are now again moderately rising, the prices of animal products have uninterruptedly followed an ascending course. A population continually growing in numbers and in prosperity was inclined and able to increase to a great extent its consumption of animal products. It was thus that German farmers found in the rearing of live stock at least a partial compensation for the loss of their prospective profits on grain-growing.
Of course the single branches of live stock keeping were each of them differently affected by the altered economic conditions. The breeding of sheep, which had been carried on chiefly for the production of wool, was struck hard by the cheap colonial wocl that invaded European markets, and the gradually increasing prices of meat were not sufficient to make good the deficiency. It is true that a gradual change in the breeds of sheep kept had begun; namely from those producing only wool to those yielding wool and meat and even only the latter; still the number of sheep in Germany has fallen to a quarter of what it was in the sixties of last century, and, notwithstanding the better prices for wool, this movement has not yet ceased. On the other hand, notwithstanding the notable extension of railways and the recent diffusion of the motor-car industry, the number of horses has increased at a fairly uniform rate. From 3.19 millions in the early sixties the number has risen to 4.35 millions in 1907, that is in the ratio of 100 to 136. The number of goats has also considerably increased, having risen in the same period from 1.82 millions to 3.53 millions, or as 100 to 194, and still greater is the increase in the number of pigs, which in 1861 was 6.46 millions and in 1907, 22.15 millions, that is in the ratio of 100 to 343.
The development of cattle breeding was not so striking. The much greater weight of the animals and their consequently greater food requirements, their slower growth and the longer life of the individual animals,
which is not determined, as with pigs, only by the production of flesh, but extends over years for the production of milk and of muscular energy, rendered a rapid increase in the number of head impossible. Nevertheless the figures show considerable progress. The census for the whole German empire give the following returns:
At first, during the above period the increase was not much, but after the eighties it grew considerably. The returns of the census taken at long. intervals of time for the whole of the German Empire show the increase in the number of cattle even during recent years to have been fairly uniform. In reality, however, such was not the case, for the development was irregular, as is proved by the yearly enumerations made since 1907 in the largest cities of the German Federation and in the Kingdom of Prussia. In Prussia the head of cattle were:
In the years 1902, 1909 and 1910 the number of cattle diminished. This was due to scanty forage crops and partly also to diseases. It is remarkable however that in 1911, during which year both the above mentioned adverse conditions obtained, a slight increase took place. This is the best proof that endeavours are being made in every way to increase the stock of cattle.
On each square mile of total area there were in 1873, 75.9 head of cattle, in 1892, 84.5 and in 1907, 99.1. With the increase of the population of the German Empire the number of animals has not quite kept pace. To every 100 inhabitants there were in 1873, 38.4 head of cattle, in 1892, 36.5 and in 1907, 33.0. It would however be erroneous to conclude that the present stock of cattle yielded less per inhabitant than it did in the seventies of last century. During this period not only have cattle grown in number but also, owing to better feeding and better breeding, they have much improved in precocity, live and dead weight, in milk yield and consequently also in
value. In regard to live weight and value, valuations were made in connection with the returns for 1883, 1892 and 1900, according to which the live weight increased between 1883 and 1900 from 100 to 132 and the value from 100 to 136, whilst the number of head increased only from 100 to 120. In other words, one average head of all age-classes weighed in 1883, 706.2 lb. and in 1900, 774.4 lb., which amounts to an increase of 10 per cent. in the live weight, and about the same in the yield. There is no doubt that the dead weight has increased in a higher degree. The greater precocity which leads to a younger stock and to a quicker sale of fattened cattle may be so far translated into figures as the proportion of cattle of the younger age-classes constitutes now a greater proportion of the total stock than formerly. It means a more rapid sale and this of animals possessing a higher dead weight. It has been calculated that in the last thirty years the production of beef and of veal has increased by 60 per cent. The greater number of cows, and further the improved milk yield of the individual cows, has also led to a higher production of milk. Though the assumption that the amount of milk produced in Germany has doubled since the seventies may be disputed, there can be no doubt that the increase in the quantity of food stuffs produced by cattle rearing has sensibly outstripped the rise in the numbers of the population.
As regards the distribution of the stock of cattle according to the acreage of the farms, and the changes that have taken place in this respect during the last 25 years, the following table showing the figures for the Kingdom of Prussia, gives a fair idea.
For the whole German Empire the conditions are very nearly the same; of the whole stock of cattle, 6.6 per cent. is held by cottagers, while peasant farmers with farms ranging from 5 to 250 acres possess 81.8 per cent. and the large estates only 11.6 per cent., or much less than in Prussia. In proportion to the acreage the number of cattle diminishes with the extent of the farm. In this respect it is to be observed that the increase of cattle in large estates has quite recently become considerable. This is due