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search and the clearest disclosure of the object of their visit. The military commander to whom the Queen has been confided is obliged to sleep in a chamber close to her's. With respect to the Patriarch, the proof is not so strong against him; but still the suspicions of the government, amounting almost to conviction, induced them to order him into exile. Such however is his audacity, that, acting on the model of Saez, quoted above, he has refused to go, and such is the feebleness of the executive, that they have not the means of enforcing obedience to their order.. Even the Intendant of the Police himself is more than suspected, and yet the government cannot venture to dismiss him! Scarcely had the alarm thus created begun to subside, than another and an equally serious conspiracy was also detected through the defection of one of the initiated. The object is now known to be the murder of the ministers and the enforced resignation of the King in favour of Don Miguel. In this latter plot, it is said that many of the regiments were implicated. Government had accordingly begun to act more decidedly, and monks, curés, officers, and many gentlemen were seized and lodged in the prisons of Fort St. George and the Tower of Belem. The Patriarch however still successfully defied their power; and his influence, combined with that of the Queen, was so powerful that the convocation of the Cortes, who were to have met in Lisbon during the month of October, was obliged to be postponed, it was supposed, indefinitely. A vessel laden with cannon balls had arrived in the river from England, and Government had ordered quantities of ammunition and military stores. Portugal affords at this moment somewhat of a test as to the sincerity of the principles by which France professed to be actuated in her Spanish invasion. If it be true that the war was undertaken merely to free Ferdinand from the factious, why do the legitimates now leave a brother monarch to their machinations in Portugal? Surely no one will attempt to solve the difficulty by alleging that Ferdinand was beset by moderate Constitutionalists, whereas Don John is only encum
bered by legitimate serviles. Yet there certainly is this difference in their situations.
The proclamation of the Greeks to which we adverted in our last, and which gave such dire offence to our authorities in the Ionian Isles, has been modified. In place of the denunciation there inserted against neutral shipping and transports in the pay and employ of the Turks, they are now subjected to the general laws in force against neutrals on such occasions. We again repeat that we regret exceedingly that any hypercriticism on such proclamations should have been indulged in on the part of our country. It does not look well that a great, free, and Christian power should be seen straining its critical faculties on such an occasion. Whatever may be the motive, it has a very bad effect in such an interesting conflict, and we hope it may be the last instance of the kind which we shall be called upon to record and to condemn. The Turkish Campaign may now be considered, as for this season, concluded, and peculiarly adverse to them it has proved. The failure of their naval expeditions has been most remarkable. In order that our readers may duly estimate, and, as we hope, rejoice at it, we may as well just briefly state the most authentic calculation we have seen of the naval force employed by the Barbarians. Of the exact number of vessels sent out from Constantinople under the Captain Pacha we have not been accurately informed; but that they must have been numerous, appears from the fact that they transported from Asia to Samos a force estimated at from 40,000 to 60,000 men. The details of the grand Egyptian expedition are more certain. The Viceroy of Egypt collected 56 vessels of war of various sizes, about 100 Egyptian transports, and 86 transports under European flags. This last item we would willingly have omitted if we could; but surely the fact affords sufficient justification for some slight extravagance in the Greek proclamation. This Egyptian armament therefore amounted to 240 sail at the least, and is reported to have carried, besides their crews, 20,000 cavalry and infantry. To oppose these combined
fleets, the Hydra paper (a Greek government journal) states the Christian force to have amounted to only 95 sail, generally of smaller sizes than those of their enemy. In the various naval engagements, first with the Turkish fleet and its detach ments alone, and then with the combined Turkish and Egyptian armaments, the Greeks were universally and completely successful. The remnant of the Egyptian squadron fled shamefully; and of the combined fleets only five vessels had returned to the Dardanelles, including that of the Captain Pacha, who, however, it was rumoured was not on board. According to some accounts, he had committed suicide in despair; according to others, he had arrived incognito at Constantinople: either way his fate is pretty similar. In the engagements of the 16th, 18th, 26th, and 30th of September they are said to have lost twelve frigates, twenty brigs, and more than eighty transports. Canaris is reported to have declared that if the wind continued fair he would go and burn the remainder, even in the mouth of the Dardanelles. While grappling with his fire-ship a noble Egyptian frigate, named the African, this brave commander is reported to have exclaimed, "it is Canaris who destroys you,' and she almost immediately blew up. We are happy to add that all doubt about his safety is at an end, and that he still lives to gain a good immortality by the emancipation of his country. The Greeks have been also fortunate on land, and there are now some rumours of an European congress on the subject. The Christian powers have been so tardy in their notice of this contest, that we cannot say we augur much good from their final interference.
Although no official account has appeared, there can be no doubt, from the concurrence of various reports from different quarters, that a partial engagement has taken place between the cavalry of Bolivar and Canterac, headed by their respective commanders in person. The Spanish force is reported to have consisted of above a thousand men, while that of Bolivar did not exceed six hundred. The latter were, however, completely successful, and Canterac was in full
retreat; this, though not decisive, is a good omen. A large reinforcement had been ordered from Colombia, and the spirit of the Liberator's troops was excellent. From this it is, however, clear that the Spanish general had abandoned whatever intentions he might have entertained of negotiation, and determined on hostilities. It is strange enough how faithful these Spanish generals have continued in the Colonies, and how deplorably the reverse in the Peninsula. Morillo, stubborn enough in Old Spain, could not resist the magic sword of the Duke of Angoulême. Bolivar, however, though in the land of gold, fights only with steel. In Mexico a severe conflict has taken place for the Presidentship, which has ended in the election of General Vittoria-a choice which they say is very adverse to the Spaniards, and therefore we rejoice in it. The congress has passed a decree, declaring against the farther admission of slaves-an example worthy of the cause in which they are engaged, and which we hope will also be found worthy of imitation.
It is recorded of Bolivar that he set South America a noble example in this respect, having commenced his career by the manumission of all his own slaves at a very considerable personal sacrifice. Accounts have been received from the Brazils, stating the complete success of the Imperial expedition against Pernambuco. The attack was a combined one, by the fleet under Commodore Juett, and the army, under General Lima; Lord Cochrane, who commanded the naval force, was absent at the moment of the surrender, having, owing to the inefficiency of his mortar vessels, gone off to Bahia for better working tools, as he expressed it. He had previously received, for the payment of his seamen and the outfit of the expedition, 500,000 dollars from the emperor in part payment of the Bahia prize-money. Previous to this, some misunderstanding had existed. The fall of Pernambuco was followed by the raising of the blockade, and the consequent opening of that port to the flags of all nations. The republican party in the northern provinces of Brazil were much depressed, and Carvalho, the
president, had taken refuge on board His Britannic Majesty's ship, Tweed, the commander of which had refused to give him up.
The war with the Burmese still continues; in the few skirmishes, for we cannot call them engagements, which have taken place, the British have been successful; the enemy however appear actuated by a very hostile spirit. What the object of this war is has not yet been very clearly promulgated; it has been said, indeed, to be in consequence of some ill treatment of some men in our service by the Burmese-an accession of territory in India can hardly be necessary to us now, or even desirable. It seems considerable alarm had prevailed at Calcutta with respect to an invasion; and a private letter dated from that place on the 12th of June, and received by the Sir Edward Paget, states that "all agree the Burmese might have advanced upon Calcutta with the greatest ease." This, we confess, is what we scarcely 'could have contemplated, and what we cannot suppose could take place, without very serious, if not fatal consequences. Our moral hold once loosened in India, our empire must soon vanish.
An expedition, it seems, is gone out to offer the "Olive Branch to the Ashantee butcher, and fight him if he refuses it. Considering the predilection this legitimate has shown for human jaw bones, really the idea of approaching him at all is enough to make the teeth chatter in one's head. This seems a contest in which we may lose, but cannot possibly gain.
There is not any domestic news of interest. Several fires have, within the last month, occurred, both in London and Edinburgh, to an alarming extent; they are supposed to have been the effect of accident, but we are sorry to say, have ended in the destruction of very considerable property.
An enormous ship built in Canada has just arrived in the river. She is called the Columbus, and carries a timber cargo of 7,875 tons! The value of the ship and cargo is estimated at 48,000l. She is the longest ship ever seen in the Thames. She is flat bottomed, and her bottom is two feet
wider than her deck. She sailed much better than was expected, and crossed the Atlantic in seven weeks, though she encountered several severe gales.
A late visitor at St. Helena says, that the house inhabited by Napoleon in that island is now converted into a barn, and that there actually is a threshing machine in the chamber in which he breathed his last! Surely this residence so much vaunted by Lowe and Co. could not have been very valuable, if it is thus considered fit only for such" vile uses." What a tell tale, time is!
We stated in our last the result of a late census of the population of Ireland. It appears that the males amount to 3,341,926. The females, to 3,459,901. Those employed in agriculture are 1,138,069-in trades, manufactures or handicraft, 1,170,044. Dublin is supposed to contain 227,335. The state of the whole country is represented as very precarious. There are now public theological disputations, in which the zeal on each side is quite equal to the Christianity displayed. No doubt, if each party could for a season enjoy the pure unmixed ascendancy of the primitive times, neither would want a fine crop of martyrs. The Catholic Association is in full cry, and the project of the Catholic rent has fully succeeded. The average receipt is now at least 500l. a week; a pretty good voluntary tax for a population which we were told was starving! The following document read in the Association of Ballymore is an amusing instance of real distress:-"To be sold by public cant, in the town of Ballymore, on Saturday the 16th instant, one cow, the property of James Scully; one new bed sheet and one gown, the property of John Quin; seven hanks of yarn, the property of the WIDOW Scott; and one petticoat and one apron, the property of the WIDOW Gallagher, seized under and by virtue of a levying warrant, for tithe due to the Rev. John Usher. Dated this 12th day of May, 1824"!!!-Can this be genuine! Mr. O'Connel pledged himself to the fact, and declared it should be brought before parliament. Verily, if the Irish congregations trouble their heads about temporals, it cannot be said to be the fault of the
clergy; they are left little but the world above to think of.
A list of suicides of late years in Paris has been published, which, if correct, proves that crime to be as common amongst our light-hearted neighbours as even in foggy England. In 1821, 348 suicides were attempted, in 244 cases of which death occurred. The following curious scale of motives is given.
Amorous passions ....
Debauchery, gambling and lottery.
rangement of affairs
Fear of reproach and punishment.. 10 88
The weather during the last month has been most unfavourable for the important business of wheat sowing, with which the farmers are usually occupied at this season. The rain has been so incessant, that upon heavy wet soils operations have been completely at a stand; upon light soils the cultivation has, however, been more fortunate, although even they have been much retarded. The rain has rendered the low meadows very wet, and the second feed has not been available. This would have been most injurious to the farmer, had the crop of turnips not been generally most productive; as it is, he will not suffer much loss, especially as the aftermath upon the uplands is equally good. The crops of peas and beans are allowed to be very nearly an average. Clover seed has been very much injured by the weather. Store cattle of all kinds have risen considerably, in conse. quence of the great demand arising from the plenteousness of feed. Horses have risen very rapidly in value, large quantities having been bought for exportation. There are persons whose sole employment it is to collect horses and colts for exportation, and who always find a good and ready market.
The hop trade is improved, the sale being much brisker, and the advance may be reckoned at full 20s. per cwt. Sussex pockets fetch from 120s. to 140s.; Kent from 128s. to 160s. and are steady at these prices.
The Bedfordshire, Lancaster, Kendal, and West Calder Agricultural Societies have held their annual meetings during the last month, and were all very fully attended.
The corn trade has been a source of great anxiety and watchfulness to Agriculturists during the last few weeks, in consequence of similar attempts to those which opened the ports for oats, having been again
put in practice to open them for barley. The excitation was very great at the country corn markets, particularly in Norfolk and Suffolk, on receiving the London return (made for the week ending Saturday, Nov. 6th) of 25,792 quarters, at 46s. 5d. This for it was much feared that it would be next to impossible to affect the return by any large sales of inferior barley. Exertions were, however, made in Norfolk, and stained and damp barleys were sold to a large amount, at about 13s. and 14s. per coomb. These fraudulent returns will, there is no doubt, be the means of preventing any further attempts of a similar kind, as the attention of the legislature will be again turned to the corn laws. Mr. Wodehouse, the member for Norfolk, has been making lately some inquiries among the Agriculturists, respecting the rate of duty they are inclined to think will be sufficient importation. The extent of the late ficto protect the farmer, in case of an open titious sales may be formed from the following table.
return was held to be almost conclusive,
Quantity of barley arrived in London in the following weeks. 27 to Oct. 2.....
By this it appears that the return of sales made to the corn inspector exceeds the arrivals by 20,924 quarters. Accord ing to a paragraph in the Farmer's Journal of November 15, it should seem that forgery has also been resorted to. paper, an affidavit has appeared from Messrs. Ford and Hewitt, contradicting à return stated to have been made by them of 2400 quarters of barley, at 49s. per quarter. These merchants expressly state that they have not sold, or offered for sale, a single grain of barley at that price, and that they have purchased only 1000 quarters at 49s. which they consumed in making malt. In consequence of these facts becoming known, considerable agitation has prevailed in Mark-lane. A meeting was to be immediately called of the respectable
The rise in the price of wheat has been a matter of some surprise to those who have paid close attention to the subject of corn generally. It was supposed from the improvements in Agriculture-the long period since any importation of foreign wheat had taken place, from the allowed deficiency of the crop of 1823, and from the protracted harvest of 1824-that the growth of this country equalled, and on the average of years exceeded its consumption. It was inferred, therefore, from the knowledge that the crop of 1823, notwithstanding its deficiency, would more than supply the demand; that the harvest of 1824, from its greater productiveness, would leave a surplus after the supply of the year, and that in consequence of this fore-knowledge the prices would fall. The rise, therefore, can only be occasioned by the demand which has been created by the necessities of the millers and bakers, who having outrun their stocks, under the supposition that prices would fall, are now obliged to buy largely by the yield of the crop being less than anticipated, by the slowness with which the market has been supplied, and by the demand not being always proportioned to the supply. The improved and improving condition of the Agriculturists has also had great effect upon the price, since they are enabled to hold their stocks and thus regulate the market. Their necessities not being immediate, they can glut or starve the market just so far as may be necessary to admit the bonded wheats, should his safety require such a measure to preserve him from foreign importation. It is this improved state that has caused the late importation of foreign oats of 356,000 quarters to be taken off at increasing prices. Notwithstanding these apparently strong facts against the opinion that prices will fall, this supposition still appears fully probable, because it will be found that upon the average of years this country grows sufficient for its consumption. Prices must therefore ultimately fall, although the prosperous condition of the country may for a time enable the merchant to prevent any sudden re-action.
The average arrivals have been in the
Cotton. In the course of the last month there has been much more done than usual in the London market; accounts from America stating that the crops had suffered considerable injury by floods, having led to a spirited buying in Liverpool. The sales were in the week ending October 26, 2200 bales. In the following week the sales were, 5500 Surats, 5d. to 6d.; 1450 Bengals, 5d. to 54d.; 300 Madras, 6d. to 64d.; 800 Pernams, 104d. to 101d.; 150 Boweds, 7 d. to 84d.; and in the next week, Surat, 2800 bales, good fair to good, 6d. to 6d. in bond; 3700, ordinary to fair, 5d. to 54d.; Bengal, 400, good fair, 5d. to 6d.; 950, middling to fair, 5d. to 5d.; Madras, 200, fair to good fair, 6d. to 64d.; Pernambuco and Paraiba, 1750, 10d. to 114d.; Orleans, 170, good fair, 94d. to 94d.; Boweds, 350, fair to good fair, 8d. to 84d.; Demerara, 26, 11d.; Cariacou, 75, 104d.; Egyptian, 150, 9§ d. duty paid. These large purchases however caused a pause in the market, which has been very quiet for this last week, and purchases have been made at rather lower prices, but holders, in general, are very firm, and prefer waiting a revival of the demand to selling at any reduction; Bourbons have been more in request than for some time past, and may be quoted a little higher. The total sales amount to nearly 1900 bales, all in bond, viz.-700 Surats, 54d. to 6d.; 100 Bengals, 54d. to Gd.; 200 Madras, 64d. to 64d.; 300 Pernams, 11d. to 11d.; 100 Boweds, 8d. to 8d.; 50 Orleans, 94d. to 93d.; 400 Bourbons, 94d. to 114d.; 20 Egyptians, 94d.
The sales at Liverpool in four weeks, to 13th November, were 67,350 bags; the arrivals, 30,679.
Sugar. The market has been on the whole very favourable, which has been caused by the diminishing stock, and the extensive deliveries from the West India warehouses. In the last week of October there was a great appearance of improvement, and rather higher prices obtained; refined goods likewise advanced. In the two following weeks, the holders evinced the same firmness, and rather better prices were obtained both for Muscovades and refined. The purchases of Muscovades