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kneel down in this age to ask his nerous origin: but it is right to point papa's blessing on leaving town for the attention of historical students to Brighton or Bathấwould be felt by their strength and the effect which himself to be making a theatrical dis- they have had. They have been inplay of filial duty, such as would be dulged to excess; they have distipainful to him in proportion as his gured the grandest page in English feelings were sincere. All this would history; they have hid the true dehave been evident to the learned edi- scent and tradition of our constitutor in any case but one which re- tional history; and, by impressing garded the Puritans: they were at upon the literature of the country a any rate to be molested : in default false conception of the patriotic party of any graver matter, a mere fanciful in and out of Parliament, they have grievance is searched out. Still, how- stood in the way of a great work, a ever, nothing was effected; fanciful work which, according to my ideal of

real, the grievance must be con- it, would be the most useful that nected with the Puritans: here lies could just now be dedicated to the the offence, there lie the Puritans: it English public--viz. a philosophie rewould be very agreeable to find some cord of the revolutions of English His means of connecting the one with the tory. The English Constitution, as other: but how shall this be done? proclaimed and ratified in 1688-9, is Why, in default of all other means in it's kind, the noblest work of the the learned editor assumes the con- human mind working in conjunction nexion. He leaves the reader with with Time, and what in such a case an impression that the Puritans are we may allowably call Providence. chargeable with a serious wound to Of this chef d'æuvre of human wisthe manners of the nation in a point dom it were desirable that we should affecting the most awful of the have a proportionable history: for household charities : and he fails to such a history the great positive quaperceive that for this whole charge lification would be a philosophic his sole ground is--that it would be mind: the great negative qualificavery agreeable to him if he had a tion would be this [which to the esground.--Such is the power of the tablished clergy may now be recomesprit de corps to palliate and recom- mended as a fit subject for their mend as colorable the very weakest magnanimity]; viz. complete conlogic to a man of acknowledged quest over those prejudices which learning and talent! In conclu. have hitherto discolored the greatest sion I must again disclaim any want æra of patriotic virtue by contemof veneration and entire affection for plating the great men of that æra unthe Established Church : the very der their least happy aspect-nameprejudices and injustice, with which ly, in relation to the Established

tax the English clergy, have a ge- Church.


Now that I am on the subject of (viz. the authority of an eminent English History, I will notice one person contemporary with the fact] of the thousand mis-statements of it must be looked on as involving a Hume's which becomes a memora- peremptory defiance to all succeedble one from the stress which he ing critics who might hesitate behas laid upon it, and from the man- tween the authority of Mr. Hume at ner and situation in which he has the distance of a century from the introduced it. Standing in the cur- facts and Sir William Temple speakrent of a narrative, it would have ing to them as a matter within his merited a silent correction in an un- personal recollections.--Sir Wilpretending note: but it occupies a liam Temple had represented himself much more assuming station ; for it as urging in a conversation with is introduced in a philosophical essay; Charles the II, the hopelessness of and being relied on for a particular any attempt on the part of an Enpurpose with the most unqualified glish king to make himself a despotic confidence, and being alleged in op- and absolute monarch, except inposition to the very highest authority deed through the affections of bis

people.* This general thesis he had garrison of the forces left by Monk supported by a variety of arguments; in the North-and above all of the and, amongst the rest, he had describe entire army in Ireland,-it cannot be ed himself as urging this—that even doubted that the whole would Cromwell had been unable to estan amount to the number stated by Sir blish himself in unlimited power, William Temple.Indeed Charles though supported by a military force II. himself, in the year 1678 [i.e. of eighty thousand men. Upon this about four years after this conversaHume calls the reader's attention to tion] as Sir W. Temple elsewhere the extreme improbability which tells us, “in six weeks' time raised there must beforehand appear to be an army of twenty thousand men, in supposing that Sir W. Temple -- the compleatest--and in all appearspeaking of so recent a case, with so ance the bravest troops that could be much official knowledge of that case any where seen, and might have at his command, uncontradicted raised many more; and it was conmoreover by the king whose side in fest by all the Foreign Ministers that the argument gave him an interest in no king in Christendom could have contradicting Sir William's state- made and compleated such a levy as ment, and whose means of informa- this appeared in such a time.” Wiltion were paramount to those of all liam IIl. again, about eleven years others,-could under these circum- afterwards, raised 23 regiments with stances be mistaken. Doubtless, the the same ease and in the same space reader will reply to Mr. Hume, the of six weeks. It may be objected inimprobability is extreme, and scarce- deed to such cases, as in fact it was ly to be invalidated by any possible objected to the case of William III, authority_which, at best, must ter- by Howlett in his sensible Examinaminate in leaving an equilibrium of tion of Dr. Price's Essay on the Poopposing evidence. And yet, says pulation of England, that, in an age Mr. Hume, Sir William was unques- when manufactures were so little extionably wrong, and grossly wrong: tended, it could never have been difCromwell never had an army at all cult to make such a levy of men— approaching to the number of eighty provided there were funds for paying thousand. Now here is a sufficient and equipping them. But, considera proof that Hume had never read lord ing the extraordinary funds which Clarendon's account of his own life: were disposable for this purpose in this book is not so common as his Ireland, &c. during the period of “ History of the Rebellion"; and Cromwell's Protectorate, we may very Hume had either not met with it, or safely allow the combined authority had neglected it. For, in the early of Sir William Temple-of the king part of this work, lord Clarendon, -and of that very prime minister speaking of the army which was as- who disbanded Cromwell's army to sembled on Blackheath to welcome outweigh the single authority of the return of Charles II., says that Hume at the distance of a century it amounted to fifty thousand men: from the facts. Upon any question of and, when it is remembered that this fact, indeed, Hume's authority is army was exclusive of the troops in none at all.

X. Y. Z. * Sir William had quoted to Charles a saying from Gourville (a Frenchman whom the king esteemed, and whom Sir William himself considered the only foreigner he had ever known that understood England) to this effect: " That a king of England, who will be the man of his people, is the greatest king in the world; but, if he will be something more, by G- he is nothing at all.”

THE PARISIAN ARISTOCRACY. In noticing in our last number the society is very curiously composed new work of M. Benjamin Constant, and as its constitution is not very geand in describing the circumstances nerally known in England, and as it out of which it arose, and the pur- is an odd state of things arising from poses which it was intended to an- the remarkable changes that have of swer, we had occasion to speak of late taken place in the neighbouring Lu Haute Société de France. This country-it may be worth while to

say a few words more of it, which persuaded that he knows tout ce we shall still do in reference to M. qu'il est convenable qu'il suche. Now Benjamin Constant. The Aristocracy M. Benjamin Constant has published of France is divided virtually into - from 1814 to 1819–a number of three classes. 1. We have the Aris- amusing pamphlets; the Frenchman tocratie ultra of the fauxbourg St. Ger- says he reads them à cause de leur main.--2. The Aristocracy of MM. esprit ; all the while, however, he is de Broglie, St. Aulaire, De Staël, being instructed. The ultra party, who wish to make their class of led by the Jesuits, a subtl race, Aristocracy exactly what the Les easily saw that the royalist pamMilords Anglais are in London.-3. phlets were dull and stupid by the The Aristocratie Lafitte, De Les- side of those of Constant—which, sert, Perier, &c. whose object it and that was worst of all, not only is to make the millions a sufficient amused, but instructed. They theretitle to consideration. These three fore set themselves to calumniate classes are all just now of a religious him, and they have had abundance of cast, for Christianity happens to be success. at this moment in Paris an engine of On the return of Napoleon from power, and a means of triumph; the Isle of Elba, in 1815, M. Benjaand, for the interests of the respective min Constant, not having an army in classes, nothing must be done which his pocket to drive him from the pais likely to cast a slur upon their se- lace of the Thuilleries, accepted the veral reputations. For instance, a place of Conseiller d'Etat : not being great male leader of the class No. 2. able to repel the týrant, he wished, lately lived with a noble female as much as was in his power, to leader of the same class, whom diminish the evil which he was about he has quitted within two months, to inflict. The mere presence in the lest the scandal might injure his Conseil d'Etat, of a dialectician so party. For the last ten years the dexterous and epigrammatic as M. upper classes have been unjust to the Benjamin Constant, was enough reputation of M. Constant. The to seal up the mouths of such men reason of this injustice is that he is as Regnault de St. Jean d'Angely, poor. Opinion in France permits all Maret, and the other valets of Napokinds of meanness to a man, pro- leon. Well-since Constant is poor, vided always that he is rich enough the Aristocracy will not see any to keep a carriage, and has his but thing in this action really, benefiton holes decorated with a cross or cial to France, but the desire of two. These two points attended to, ensuring to himself some appointthe authority of the noble society of ments to the amouut of a thousand Paris ordains that he shall be con- a-year. Constant has felt this injus sidered honnête homme. Now M. tice very deeply. The calumnies of Constant has neither got a carriage the Ultra party have caused him to nor a cross. The low estimation in be neglected by the liberal part of which he felt himself held, has, in the middle classes, the real majority our opinion, driven Benjamin Con- of France. He was a year without stant to the only bad thing he ever being re-elected into the chamber; did-the publication of his De la Re- and this has put the finishing stroke ligion. M. Constant has more than to his demoralization. He sees that any other man in France, contributed France is not worthy of having a to teach his countrymen what is disinterested defender, and to the meant by a Constitutional Government. bottom of his heart he is sold to the He is not eloquent, but he is smart, Aristocratical party. By the word epigrammatic, and subtle; his talent sold, we do not mean that he has resembles very much that of La Bru- taken money, but he has hoped that yere, the celebrated author of the by publishing a book which should Caructères. By the aid of this talent, flatter the views of the first class of Constant has made Hrenehmen, al society in Paris, that he should be most without their knowledge, fully recompensed by its praise and its comprehend the constitutional re- consideration. Madame la Duchesse gime. French vanity is such that a de Broglie has written twelve pages man of thirty docs not like to be on Bible Societies—this little circumtiughi-a Frenchman is intimately stance is a key to the noble society of



Paris. She envies the consideration Aulaires have formed a powerfu 1 which our Aristocracy has obtained club, called the Society of Christia n all over the nation. The sole end at Morals. This plan is evidently that this moment of one great class of the which poor Benjamin Constant point's nobility of Paris is to acquire the out in his book, and yet in this so precise existence of the English ciety de la Morale Chretienne he is

Peerage. The middle class have, never talked about; we doubt even however, both too much talent and whether he is a member. too much vanity ever to permit this In the meanwhile, the book has success. The liberal peers of France entirely ruined Constant with the perceive that the spread of education, class of rich merchants and bankers, of the kind which has been spread- and the great monied men of Paris ; ing in France of late years, is the headed by the MM. Lafitte, de most likely thing in the world to pre- Lessert, and Perier. This class never vent the attainment of their darling reads, but in this act of the deputy object-the life of the English Peer of the Seine (M. Constant has been -and they have consequently joined re-elected some months) it sees a with the Últra Peers to commit edu- piece of servility towards the party of cation into the hands of the Jesuits, the Aristocratie nobiliaire. The monied or, at least, to the religious corpo- men have therefore spread abroad a rations. MM. de Broglie, de Sainte report, that Constant is sold to the Aulaire, de Staël, and the other chiefs minister Villèle, and at this moment of the class of pretended liberals, have this is the general opinion in Paris. actually made up to M. le Cardinal de This evil action, this bad book, this Lafare, M. de Talaru, and the other sad piece of hypocrisy, has made the Ultra peers. The view of the two poor man despised by the nobles, and parties is the same-to found l'Aris punished by the bankers. tocratie nobiliaire. The only differ- The end of the monied Aristoence is this that the party of M. de cracy to make stock a fair title to adBroglie has more intellect than that mission among the noble Aristocracy, of M. de Talaru, and comprehends the will, in all probability, be gained. limits of their power, and understands in the course of ten years, it is likely that all that it is possible to acquire is that every man with five millions of the state of the English nobility. M. francs (about 200,0001. sterling) will de Talaru, who is a man of a' narrow- be as good a noble as a duke. At er mind, fancies that they can go the present, however, the noble Arisbeyond that--and become again the tocracy make every effort to preinsolent GRANDS-SEIGNEURS of the vent this assimilation-and strive to reign of Louis XIV. Constant has corrupt education by the Jesuits, and bound himself to the least blind of bring this back as near as possible these two parties—but even these to the ancient regime. All the prindespise both his motive and his ciples of Constant's book are likebook, and that which is most par- wise in action, he nevertheless has ticularly mortifying to him is, that the pain to see his book forgotten, he sees them following up all his and himself despised. This is, howideas to the letter, without ever ever, unjust. We regard him as a deigning to mention his work. The good man, and a useful citizen, who Broglies, the Staëls, and the Saint has made one false step.

THEATRICALS OF THE DAY. THE " great" theatres have open- sent indeed they are rather menageed for the season. If their greatness rial exhibitions, similar to those at is to be estimated by the number of Exeter Change and Bartholomew bricks in each building, it is indis- Fair, than any thing else: they putable. And to the name of theatres, are almost equally well calculated in its primitive sense, they have (with the help of outlandish music nearly as undoubted pretensions as and orchestras more than commonly any « Orama” in the metropolis, uproarious) to amuse the eye and disbeing little more than permanent tress the ear. The Germans have and enormous show-boxcs. At pre- monopolized one house for the whole by-gone month, and the Equestrians drops of the animal oil course onethe other: monsters and quadrupeds! another down his “ piteous nose, O wise, erudite, intellectual, and re- groans or rather whinnies with de fined People of England! What a light as the fourfooted objects of his - feast of reason do we not partake of anxiety make their appearance ! every night when a stage-full of Hark'ee : how far eminent does he toads, serpents, crocodiles, hell. rise, think you, above the poor duinb hounds, hobgoblins, foul birds and brutes whom he contemplates? Why, unclean beasts of every indescribable forsooth, he can laugh at them, description are served up to us by way whilst they by the parsimony of their of refreshment after a two hours' natures cannot return the salutation. auscultation of dull dialogue and See how the lax muscles of his visage mad music! What a flow of soul run into an indistinguishable jelly at may we not indulge every night the awkward gambols of Roscius on when we behold a gentleman in a all-four! how his eyes and mouth black mask and a blood-red mantle simultaneously broaden into an exsweep across our eye-sight, “ fierce pression of dumb-stricken wonder at as ten furies, terrible as hell,” crying heavy-heeled Esop scampering up a fee-fa-fum! -- and another unlucky wooden staircase into the regions of personage exclaiming Donner und thunder, and the sound of his grarid blitzen ! as he is shot askew with a hoof vibrating through the carpentry charmed bullet! Who dares say of a play-house! O for a pompion after this that the drama is no more, to feature out idiotcy in extatics! that the stage has degenerated, that What anxiety, what amazement, · John Bull has not more taste for what pleasure, and what praise ! To theatricals than Bully Bottom (when see incogitative matter, hoofed, highhis ass's head is on) for a bottle of maned, long-eared, and mounted upon hay or a peck of provender? I four legs, stand on the stage instead would fain see that fellow. And the of in the stable! To see a bona fide quadrupeds too! Ay: it is here that living and long-tailed quadruped, by we of all modern civilized nations, the mere force of underhand exercise we alone imitate and excel that and eternal custom, lie down in a brave and brutal people, the people proper place, or bite a biped in tune, of old Rome. We do not only go to —to see him cutting lavoltas and casee quadrupeds exhibit in an open pricoles to the admonition of the arena, but we bring them into the rowel, as long as the “ great babies room with us, teaching them to in the house are pleased to applaud mince their footsteps and walk as him !— Astonishment! Surely God gingerly over the boards as if they works a miracle now-a-days, making were endeavouring to caper over a reasonable creatures of horses, and field of corn or to dance upon a floor of asses of reasonable creatures! Listen, eggs without bending the one or countrymen and lovers: Suppose that breaking the other. Look !—it is there were two roads from the millbetter than any farce, though a me- race to the clover-field, and that lancholy one - look at the grave, Giles were accustomed to lead Dobbin phlegmatic, taciturn, suicidal En- by one and the same of these roads glishman when the quadrupeds en- every day to and from pasture ; ter! Behold one of the most thinking would any one stand agape if Dobbin people on earth,--the profound and upon being left to himself were to go sagacious islander, — the national by the customary road rather than brother of Newton and Bacon,—the the other ?-But in the theatre it is consummation of sublunary wisdom, quite another thing: here incessant behold him in the middle of the pit pains are taken to inure the animal when the snort and the tramp, the to one routine of action, yet it is clang and the clatter, announce the perfectly admirable that he should ingress of a herd of equestrians ! persist in this on the stage as well as His right hand furnished with the at the riding-house, -and in the presymbol of solemnity-a snuff-box, sence of a greater mimber of fools and his nose bestridden by a pair of than his masters ! But it comes to owl-eyed spectacles, behold him how this: the wonder that Nature makes he stretches his apoplectic neck to- anything whatever but men and towards the proscenium, and while blind matter, or that the inferior

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