« PreviousContinue »
be recollected, must of necessity be far re. would suffice for the support of a family, tired from navigable waters, and at a re- consisting of eleven persons. Forty acres mote distance from any kind of market. would certainly produce more grain than Who then will be so far infatuated, and led could be consumed by eleven persons ; but blind-fold by a mistaken spirit of loyalty, how are horses, cows, and oxen to be fed as to accept such land from Government on through a tedious Winter of nearly six the usual conditions, when he may purchase months' continuance ? And how is pork to an equal quantity in the same advanced be fattened, in sufficient quantities for the state of cultivation, for far less than that consumption of so large a family ? Ten sum, on the barks of Lakes Erie, Onta- acres of meadow-land will be scarcely suffirio, and St. Clare ?
cient to yield hay enough for a pair of I shall therefore consider the emigrant of horses, two yokes of oxen, half a dozen 15001. to be settled on 500 acres in any cows, and fifty sheep. Fifteen acres of part of the Province which he may select, pasturage will be no more than adequate to with the quantity of stock, farming uten- the sustenance of fifty sheep throughout the sils and furniture already mentioned, at the Summer, admitting that the cows and oxen expense of 616h. As 8841. of the 15001. find a subsistence in the forests; and five yet remain, his prospects may be supposed acres will scarcely yield oats enough to feed to be decidedly favourable.
the horses. There remain therefore only But if he will not attend to his own ten acres for the maintenance of the family. business, and sometimes put his own hands If you will take the trouble of estimating to the plough, he must have more labourers the quantity of grain, hay, and pasturage, and other servants, than he can afford to necessary for the support of such a stock, pay. Properly to cultivate 100 acres of and the four which a large family will anland, will require the constant labour of nually consume, and compare the result of three men ; the annual expence of whom, these calculations with the average produce exclusive of their board, will be 901. For of land in Canada, you will find my statethe support of his own family, his labour- ments to be perfectly correct. ers, his oxen, his cows, and his sheep, 40 The conclusion of the whole matter is, acres will be sufficient, if judiciously cul- that a respectable emigrant, on leaving tivated. There remains, therefore, the England with 1,5001., may settle himself produce of 60 acres for the payment of liis in Canada on an estate of 500 acres, suplabourers, and for the procuring of clothing port a large family comfortably, and die for his family, supposing that his wife is worth upwards of 8001, in specie, if he is unwilling or unable to manufacture any. not imprudent or exceedingly unfortunate. In the due cultivation of 60 acres of land, We have thus laid before our read40 acres may produce a yearly crop, which, ers the few facts concerning the Caif in a fertile part of the country, will nadas and Emigration which we amount to 25 bushels per acre. This grain, which is two shillings and sixpence of those countries, and an emigrator quantity, according to the present price of have been able to glean from the vo
lumes of a writer, himself a denizen per bushel, will amount to 1251.; out of which 901. must go to pay for hired la- from Ireland. It is so difficult to bour ; so that, making no deductions what- obtain information of this kind, that ever for the failure of crops, the wasting of we make no apology for selecting it grain, or other contingencies, only 351. are from the worst-written book without left for clothing a wife and six children. any exception we ever read in our
If a person of this description therefore lives. A coxcomb or a tailor howwere, in addition to his labourers, to keep ever is the right person to apply to only one inside servant, whose wages would for what we wish to know respecting amount to 151., his whole farm would be dress; a ploughman, though as found little more than sufficient for the sup- ignorant as dirt,” for what we would port of his household establishment. The interest of his 8841., and the increase of learn of his simple art; and in the his stock, would however be fully equal to
same way an emigrator from these meet all his necessary demands : So that, countries, and a denizen of Canada, it may be said, that, with economy, fru. may be good authority on such subgality, and good success, he may live com- jects as those alone upon which we fortably, without drawing on his banker have quoted Mr. Talbot. But for its for any thing beside the interest of his utility in this point of view we should money.
have resigned his work on “ Canada”
long since, as we do now,-to the It may, perhaps, be considered, that 40 trunk-maker. acres of land will produce more grain than
THE LAND OF LOGRES.
On speaking lately to a friend who neath them had inscribed in characis engaged in a laborious work re- ters so plain, that he who ran might lating to our national antiquities, read the following distich: about the right limits of the land of
We three Logres, I found to my surprise that
Loggerheads be. he had never before heard of such a
These words, as I was sauntering place. Hence I am led to conclude that many others of my countrymen admonitions to the contrary, lagging
along on my horse, and in spite of all are equally unaware that, among the names which have at different times
some way behind, these words I unbeen given to this portion of the wittingly pronounced ; and thus on globe, that of Logres is one. Britain, the instant, according to the old FloAlbion, England, are appellations rentine's phrase, familiar, it is to be hoped, the world I was made third amid so learned a band,
But Logres is a stranger even Si ch'io fui terzo tra cotanto senno, at home. M. de Roquefort, who had
I have since thought that the trap to explain the word in his glossary of the Romance language, treats it Briton to catch an unwary traveller
was laid by some facetious Cambrothus: “ According to Borel,” says from the land of Logres like myself, he, “it is a nation. I see none but and that Loggerheads might mean the Locrians, “Locri,' a people in
“ heads from Logres," or men from Greece to whom this name can be
Logres, άμενηνά κάρηνα. applied.” When the same gentleman was afterwards employed in its old and genuine title, I may be
In vindicating to our country this editing certain old French poems, allowed to add one or two passages called the Lais de Marie, Logres from our best writers who have made again lay in his way, and though he had gained a little more light, yet it twice in the Faery Queen.
use of it. Spenser has it at least was scarcely sufficient to prevent his stumbling again at the same block. But Albanact had all the rorthern part, ** The land, the country, the king- Which of himself Albania he did call; dom, the city of Logres, or Loengres, Which Severn now from Logris doth de
And Camber did possess the western quart, so often spoken of, made a part of
part. Glamorganshire in the province of Wales." (Vol. i. p. 37.)
Faery Queen, Book ii. c. 10. st. 14. .
. Now let us hear the account which And Twede the limit betwixt Logris land a learned Welshman gives of the And Albany. Book iv. c. 11, st. 36. matter. Mr. Owen, in his dictionary Thus it appears that Logris, or of that language, under the word Loegria, is the country bounded by Lloeggr (which he derives from lloeg, Twede to the north, and Severn to to open or break out), defines it to the west. The writer of the Lais de be “that part of ancient Britain which Marie couples Logris and Albany towas inherited by the Belgians, pro- gether, as Spenser has done. perly speaking ; also England, south
En Loengre et en Albanie. of the Humber, exclusive of Wales,
Lai de alilon, p. 328, v. 7. Cornwall, and Devon, but now it is the popular name of England in ge- he speaks of
Milton joins it with Lyones, where neral ---Loegria."
This calls to my mind an awkward Fairy damsels met in forest wide accident that befel me when I was By knights of Logres or of Lyones, yet a younker, following my father Lancelot or Pelleas, or Pellenore. in a ride through North Wales. On
Par. Reg. b. 2. a sign-post by the road-side (I think The same author, in his History of it was not far from Corwen), some England, calls it Loëgria.
“ His wicked Dick Tinto of the land had three sons (the sons of Brutus), Loshadowed forth the appearance of crine, Albanact, and Camber, divide two doltish-looking heads, and under- the land by consent. Locrine had the middle part, Loëgria; Camber biographer Johnson has observed : possessed Cambria or Wales ; Alba- “ Why he should have given the first nact, Albania, now Scotland. But he part which he seems not to believe, in the end by Humber, king of the and which is universally rejected, it Huns, who, with a fleet, invaded is difficult to conjecture." Let Milton that land, was slain in fight, and his be suffered to give his own reasons, people driven back into Loëgria.” and no reader need be at a loss to (Book i. p. 20. Ed. 1677.) How full conjecture why he did not omit this of interest is this first book of Mil- part of our history. “ Seeing that ton's work to those readers who have oftimes relations heretofore accoumtany thing of what I should call a ed fabulons have been after found to poetical patriotism! It comprises the contain in them many footsteps and best portion of our history, our he- reliques of something true, as what roic age. There were giants in those we read in poets of the Flood, and days. The records of our Saxon giants little believed till undoubted forefathers are, for the most part, witnesses taught us that all was not confused, dull, and insipid. Since the feigned; I have, therefore, deterNormans all is a mere matter of yes- mined to bestow the telling over even terday. The very names become of these reputed tales ; be it for nosuch as one meets every day in the thing else but in favour of our Engstreets, and may read upon the shop- lish poets and rhetoricians, who by windows. The tinker, in Shakspeare, their art will know how to use them boasts himself of his Norman de- judiciously.” (P. 7.) And again, scent ; "your Slys,” says he, “came when he has said why he passed rain with the Conqueror.” But when we pidly over the story till the time of are told of our ancestors (if indeed any Brutus, he adds: “ But now of Bruof their blood yet runs in our veins) tus and his line with the whole prowho lived in the days of Heli the geny of kings, we cannot so easily be Priest, when we hear of Brute and discharged ; descents of ancestry, Corineus, and Estrildis, and “the vir- long continued laws and exploits not gin daughter of Locrine,” it is then plainly seeming to be borrowed or that we feel ourselves to be somebody, devised, which in the common belief and may, perhaps, have a pedigree have wrought no small impression; worth the looking after. Yet it is on defended by many, denied utterly by Milton's record of this æra that his few.” (P. 11.)
ORIGINAL LETTER OF EVELYN'S.
(Giving an Account of a portion of his unpublished Work upon Gardens.) Evelyn, in his interesting and most entertaining Diary, gives a short account of a visit he paid to Sir Thomas Browne, at Norwich, in 1671, and mentions that he had long been in habits of correspondence with that physician, antiquary, and philosopher. It does not appear that any of their letters are preserved in the library at Wotton, but having accidentally met with an original epistle in Evelyn's own hand, and one which has never before been printed, we cannot but hope our readers will think it an acceptable illustration to Mr. Bray's valuable volumes. The pages to which it will be more peculiarly applicable are vol. i. p. 145, vol. ii. p. 90.
JOHN EVELYN, ESQ. TO SIR THOMAS BROWNE. Honour'd Sir,-By the mediation of that noble person Mr. Paston, and an extraordinary humanity of your owne, I find I haue made acquisition of such a subsidiary, as nothing but his greate favour to me, and your communicable nature could have procur'd me. It is now therefore that I dare promise myselfe successe in my attem t; and it is certaine, that I will very justly owne your favours, with all due acknowledgements, as the most obliging of all my correspondents. I perceive you haue seene the proplasma and delineation of my designe, which, to avoyde the infinite copying for some of my curious friends, I was constrain’d to print, but it cannot be imagined that I should haue travell’d over so large a province (though but a garden) as yet, who set out not many moneths since, and can make it but my diversions at best, who haue so many other impediments besieging me, publique and personall, whereoff the long sicknesse of my unicus, my onely sonn, now 5 moneths afflicted with a dubble quartan, and but 5 yeares old, is not one of the least; so that there is no danger your additionalls and favours to your servant should be prevented by the perfection of my worke, or if it were, that I should be so injurious to my owne fame or your civility, as not to beginn all a new, that I might take in such auxilliaries as you send me, and which I must esteeme as my best and most effectuall forces. Sir, I returne you a thousand acknowledgements for the papers which you transmitted me, and I will render you this account of my present vndertaking. The truth is, that which imported me to discourse on this subject after this sorte, was the many defects which I encounter'd in bookes and in gardens, wherein neither words nor cost had bin wanting, but judgement very much ; and though I cannot boast of my science in this kind, as both vnbecomming my yeares and my smale experience, yet I esteem'd it par donable at least, if in doing my endeauour to rectifi some mistakes, and advancing so vsefull and innocent a divertisement, I made some essay, and cast in my symbole with the rest. To this designe, if forraine observation may conduce, I might likewise hope to refine upon some particulars, especially concerning the ornaments of gardens, which I shall endeavor só to handle, as that they may become usefull and practicable, as well as magnificent, and that persons of all conditions and faculties, which delight in gardens, may therein encounter something for their owne advantage. The modell, which I perceive you have seene, will aboundantly testifie my abhorrency of those painted and formal projections of our cockney gardens and plotts, which appeare like gardens of past-board and march-pane, and smell more of paynt then of flowers and verdure: our drift is a noble, princely, and vniversall Elysium, capable of all the amenities, that can naturally be introduced into gardens of pleasure, and such as may stand in competition with all the august designes and stories of this nature either of antient or moderne tymes; yet so as to become vsefull and significant to the least pretences and faculties. We will endeauour to shew how the aire and genious of gardens operat vpon humane spirits towards virtue and sanctitie, I meane in a remote, preparatory and instrumentall working. How caues, grotts, mounts and irregular ornaments of gardens do contribute to contemplatiue and philosophicall enthusiasme; how Elysium, Antrum, Nemus, Paradysus, Hortus, Lucus, &c. signifie all of them rem sacram et divinam ; for these expedients do influence the soule and spirits of man, and prepare them for converse with good angells; besides which they contribute to the lesse abstracted pleasures, phylosophy naturall and longevitie: and I would have not onely the elogies and effigie of the antient and famous garden heroes, but a society of the Paradisi Cultores, persons of antient simplicity, Paradisean and Hortulan saints, to be a society of learned and ingenuous men, such as Dr. Browne, by whome we might hope to redeeme the tyme that has bin lost, in pursuing vulgar errours, and still propagating them, as so many bold men do yet presume to do. Were it to be hoped, inter hos armorum strepitus, and in so generall a catalysis of integrity, interruption of peace and propriety, the hortulane pleasure, these innocent pure and vsefull diversions might enjoy the least encouragement, whilst brutish and ambitious persons seeke themselues in the ruines of our miserable yet dearest country, quis talia fundo--?-But, Sir, I will not importune you with these matters, nor shall they be able to make me to desist from my designe, so long as you rëanimate my languishings, and pardon my imperfections. I greately thanke you for your discourses, and the acoustic diagramme &c. I shall be a faithfull reporter of your favours to me. In my philosophico
medicall garden you can impart to me extraordinary assistances, as likewise in my coronary chapter, and that of transmutations, c. i. lib. 3. Norwich is a place, I understand, which is very much addicted to the flowry part; and what indeede may I not promise my selfe from your ingenuity, science and candor? And now to shew you how farr I am aduanced in my worke, though I haue drawne it in loose sheetes almost euery chapter rudely, yet I cannot say to haue finished any thing tollerably, farther then chapter xi. lib. 2. and those which are so compleated are yet so written, that I can at pleasure inserte whatsoeuer shall come to hand to obelize, correct, improve and adorne it. That chapt. of the history of Gardens being the 7th of the last booke, is in a manner finished by itselfe, and if it be not over tedious, I thinke it will extreamely gratifie the reader: For I do comprehend them as vniversally as the chapter will beare it, and yet am as particular in the descriptions as is possible, because I not onely pretend them for pompous and ostentative examples, but would render them usefull to our travellers which shall goe abroad, and where I haue observed so many particularities, as, happly, others descend not to. If you permitt me to transcribe you an imperfect summ of the heads, it is to let you see how farr we correspond (as by your excellent papers I collect) and to engage your assistance in suppling my omissions ; you will pardon the defects in the synchronismes, because they are not yet exactly marshalled, and of my desultory scribbling.
CHAP. VII, LIB. 3. Paradise, Elysian fields, Hesperides, Horti Adonidis, Alcinoi, Semyramis, Saloman's. The pensile gardens in Babylon, of Nebucodonosor, of Cyrus, the gardens of Panchaia, the Sabean in Arabia felix. The Egyptian gardens out of Athenæus, the Villa Laura neere Alexandria, the gardens of Adominus, the garden at Samos, Democritus' garden, Epicurus’s at Athens, hortorum ille magister, as Pliny calls him. That of Nysa described by Diodorus Siculus ; Masinissa's, Lysander's, the garden of Laërtes, father of Ulysses, ex Homero. Theophrastus', Mithridates gardens; Alexandrus' gardens at Sydon, Hieron's Nautilus gardens out of Athenæus ; the Indian king's garden out of Ælian; and many others, which are in my scattered adversaria, not yet inserted into this chapter.
Amongst the antient Romans.-Numa's garden, Tarquin's, Scipio Africanus's, Antoninus Pius's, Dioclesian's, Mæcenas', Martial's gardens ; the Tarentine garden, Cicero's garden at Tusculum, Formia, Cuma; the Laurentine garden of Pliny junior, Cato at Sabinus, Ælius Spartianus' garden, the elder Gordian's, Horti Cassipedis, Drusi, Dolabella's garden, Galienus', Seneca's, Nero's, the Horti Lamiani, Agrippina's, the Esquiline, Pompey's, Luculla’s most costly gardens, &c.
More moderne and at present.--Clement the 8th's garden ; the Medicean, Mathæo's garden, Cardinal Pio's; Farnesian, Lodovisian, Burghesean, Aldobrandino's, Barberini's, the Belvedere, Montalta's, Bossius's, Justiniane's, the Quirinal gardens, Cornelius's, Mazarini's, &c.
In other parts of Italy.--Ulmarini's at Vacenza, Count Giusti's at Verona, Mondragone, Frescati, D'Este's at Tivoli. The gardens of the Palazzo de Pitti in Florence ; Poggio, Imperiale, Pratoline, Hieronymo del Negro's pensile garden in Genöa, principe d'Oria's garden, the Marquesi Devico's at Naples, the old gardens at Baiæ, Fred. Duke of Urbine's garden, the gardens at Pisa, at Padoa, at Capraroula, at St. Michael in Bosco, in Bolognia ; the gardens about Lago di Como, Signior Sfondrati's, &c.
In Spaine.—The incomparable garden of Aranxues, Garicius' garden at Toledo, &c.
In France.-Duke of Orleans at Paris, Luxemburg, Thuilleries, Palais Cardinal, Bellevus, Morines, Jard. Royal, &c.
In other Parts of France. The garden of Froment, of Fontaine Beleau, of the Chasteau de Fresnes, Ruel, Richelieu, Couranet, Cauigny, Hubert, Depont in Champagne, the most sumptuous Rincy, Nanteuile, Maisons, Medon, Dampien, St. Germain en Lay, Rosny, St. Cloe, Liancourt in Picardy, Isslings at Essonne, Pidaux in Poictiers. At Anet, Valeri, Folembourg, Villiers, Gaillon, Montpellier, Beaugensor, of Mons. Piereskius. In Loraine, at Nancy, the Jesuites at Leige, and many others.
In Flanders.—The gardens of the Hofft in Bruxelles, Oroenendael's neere it, Rise. wick in Holland. The court at the Hague, the garden at Leyden, Pretor Hundius' garden at Amsterdam.
In Germany.—The Emperor's garden at Vienna, at Salisburgh; the medicinall at Heidelburg, Caterus’ at Basis, Camcrarius' garden of Horimburg, Scholtzius' at Vratislauia, at Bonne neere Collen, the elector's there : Christina's garden in Sweden made lately by Mollet ; the garden at Cracovia, Warsovia, Grogning. The elector's garden at Heidel.