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SONNET.

I woke, and she was there a momeut there,

Distinctly visible by that soft light,

Which, beaming from herself, suffused her quite.
Ne'er yet had I beheld her half so fair:
No mournful trace, no shade of earthly, care,

Darken’d her countenance, so lovely bright:

Her vestment fell in folds, and it was white
As purest cloud, floating in summer air.,
Too soon that vision faded from my view;

Yet did the vision smile, e'en as it faded ;
But still I gazed through night's invidious hue,

For the loved face, and angel form it shaded :-
I only saw the moonbeam glimmer through

The quivering vine, which my dim lattice braided.

THE CANADAS.-EMIGRATION.

Two subjects of higher import than two empires ; and if so, the Canadas those embraced by the prefixed title will necessarily furnish that influence could scarcely be blended into one which is either to establish an equi. article. Nor are they of particular librium, or destroy it wholly. It is British, but of general national in- for this vital reason that we, as arterest. This may not at first sight dent lovers of our constitution and appear evident. How the several country, for the respective permaempires of the earth are to be affected nence and prosperity of which we are by such remote influences, as a wil- deeply anxious,-now seek to attract derness on the north bank of the St. general notice to the state of the CaLawrence, and the dis-location of a nadas and the subject of Emigration. few uneasy Scotch and Irishmen, can Our remarks, however, shall be brief; exert, is not perhaps a matter of intui- confident that a word in some cases tion. But if we penetrate the ques- is enough to catch public attention tion, wider views, and clearer ones, and fix it. may spread before the eye of the The plentiful harvest of dishonour, mind: : a vista may open into that which this nation reaped in its last boundless prospect to which we have American war, was the result, as is alluded. Some of the political con- well known, of ignorance and imbetingencies will of course be found to cility not to be paralleled in the annals be distant and doubtful; others more of administration. So gross was the near and probable; whilst the re- former, that, amongst other things, mainder are of so imminent and cer- water-casks and wood were dispatched tain a description as to merit a far from England at a vast expense, both greater portion of regard than they of time and money, to our ship-carhave yet obtained. Thus it will be penters on the borders of the Ontario, a long time before China sensibly a fresh water lake in the midst of an perceives the increasing weight of the universal forest! So extreme was Canadas and the Emigrants in her the latter, that with a navy powerful own or the opposite scale ; France enough to sink the whole American will acknowledge it earlier ; but a fleet with the very wind of a broadvery few years may elapse ere it trims side, we were baffled on the lakes, the balance between Great Britain beaten on the seas, insulted on our and the United States, or for ever own shores, and disgraced all over depresses it in favour of the latter the world. Let us hope that the new nation. This we look upon as an members and supports which admiaxiom in politics: that the beam nistration has lately taken in exchange must shortly tremble between these for its old ones, may have imparted Dec. 1824.

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strength and stability to the whole put his finger on his birth-place: we body. Whatever may be said of the are pretty sure that neither he nor permanent functionaries, we have at any of his assessors at the councilleast reason to congratulate ourselves board could positively have sworn and each other that the interests of that there was timber for a fleet of the British nation are no longer con- cock-boats in all Canada.* It is, we fided to a Secretary incapable of acknowledge, scarcely to be expected speaking plain English, and a Chan- that antiquaries or inquisitors should cellor of the Exchequer scarcely able proceed of their own accord to such to speak at all. If we must go down unclassic ground as Hibernia and the the hill of destruction, it is some con- Canadas, or be sent thither by their solation to be led to our fate by a man patron societies: the local history of of eloquence and a man of understand- such countries is neither very seducing, not by Shallow and Silence.- tive to a student, nor altogether indisHaving adverted to the ignorance pensable to private individuals. But in which the nation and its ministry with ministers the case is different; are, even as yet, we surmise, pro- to them an accurate, and minutely foundly immersed upon the subject of topographical knowledge of the proCanada and its internal economy, we vinces under their governance is abcannot but indulge ourselves in a solutely necessary, for the purposes remark, which we would fain hope of enabling them to act upon occasion might have its proper effect in the with promptitude, vigour, and sucproper quarter. This prolific soil of cess. “A geographical spy or two, ours is the fruitful mother of adven- with a modicum of secret serviceture, commercial, military, philoso- money in his pocket, or the prospect phical, and foolish: we furnish officers of a place on the pension-list, would to be roasted by the Anthropophagi in all probability have furnished such of Sierra Leone, and missionaries to information respecting the Canadas as be ridiculed by the savages of Siberia; would have rendered the late Amewe explore the deserts of Africa, and rican struggle less disastrous, or, at the wilds of Tartary; we dispatch one all events, somewhat less disgraceful. connoisseur to bring us paradoxical We should never have so appositely bones from the pyramids, another to illustrated the proverb of “ carrying turn Turk for a sight and a specimen coals to Newcastle," nor have comof Palmyrene marble, a third to ga- mitted that illimitable series of blunther shells on the Erythræan shore, ders which made us the scorn of our and a fourth to inspect the architecture enemies, the shame of our friends, of the Esquimaux; this ship sails to and the laughter of all Europe. Or the poles, that to the tropics; we do why not oblige the delegated authoall this, and a great deal more, for rities there to furnish the necessary the prospect of remote or equivocal information ? Why not make their advantages, for abstract,'insignificant, services in this way the price of their ridiculous, or no purposes. But in places ? Are they so dull that they the mean time we sit down in fat cannot ?- They must be admirable contented ignorance of some of our officers! Are they so idle that they own provinces and colonies: Ontario will not ?- They must be meritorious is taken for a salt water lake, Canada pensioners ! But if such unprofitable for a woodless country; nay, to step servants must be retained for past no farther than from Port-Patrick to services or present convenience, are Donaghadee,–Ireland is thought by there no men to be found who would one half of us to be nothing but a write descriptions of Canada for mopurgatory of Orangemen, by the other ney? If they were mere statistical one paradise of White-boys. For our accounts, mere geographical surown part we much question whether veys, without any attempt at phia late minister, upon being shown the losophising, or " seeming wise," map of his native land, could have such a quantity of local knowledge

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In support of this conjecture, we beg leave to remind the reader, that upon the same memorable occasion which called for wood and water-casks to supply the necessities of Lake Ontario,-a couple of gun-brigs, to act upon the Lakes, were also dispatched to Quebec, ministers not being aware that certain things called Rapids intervened between that city and the ultimate destination of the said gun-brigs.

might be collected from their uni- custom of making over a province ted contents, as would in the event to some prætor or pro-consul, and of a war,

or any other circum- leaving him to himself to peculate stance requiring the interposition of or tyrannise, or both, or neither, acgovernment, considerably lighten the cording as he may be inclined, is a darkness in which ministers must very old one, and as bad as it is old. walk without it. They would be able History will confirm this assertion, to reflect back some of the light, and if it be not too axiomatical in its illuminate the paths which were to nature to admit of a proof. We be trod towards glory, the steps profess ourselves unable to see why which led on to success. By such the supreme council at home should an industrious provision as this not have the governor of Canada they might enter the Cabinet with little less under their eye than the systems prepared and minds made Custos Rotulorum of Westmorland ; up; as competent to decide upon nor why they should not be able to what was to be done, the when, the urge or control him with nearly the where, the why, the how, as if the same dexterity as they do the Lieu. Canadas were within range of a tenant of Dover Castle. . Supposing bomb from the centre of the council- them as well acquainted with the board. With such facilities as mi- internal economy of the country as nisters possess they should be as fa- they might be, we can discern no miliar with every “ concession” in reason why they should not rule it our American colonies as with the with as much credit to themselves lids of their own snuff-boxes; as in- and benefit to the inhabitants, as the timately conversant with the great duchy of Cornwall or the principalines of demarcation there, as with lity of Wales. There is certainly their own signatures. We see no some difference in the difficulties of reason why they should be a whit governing Canada and the Island of less particularly informed upon the Jersey, but nothing proportionate to state of our possessions at one side the existing difference in the goodof the river St. Lawrence, than ness of their respective governments. the American Cabinet of theirs on On the present enlarged scale, and the other. The President of Con- with the present rapid mode of ingress visits Fort Niagara as seldom tercourse between the two countries, perhaps as our Prime Minister visits there is no evil which might not be Fort George. At least there ought remedied, no injury which might not to be no such difference as should be redressed, no beneficial institution render a nation which hardly knows which might not be promoted, no the sound of a cannon equal at the end mischievous practice which might not of a campaign to one which has be restrained, with a little more delay, scarcely known the sound of any but with little less certainty in the one thing else for the last century. Any place than in the other. On the above fracas between us and the United hypothesis (i. e. exact local knowStates should, as yet, be but play to ledge on the part of ministers), there one party and death to the other. is at least no abuse but such as is It is only by a combination upon our tolerated here which ought to prevail part of ignorance and imbecility such there; nor is there any error in as “ conducted us” through the last policy or government but those comwar that the Americans can for mitted with impunity at home, which a long time attempt to meet us in the should exist two months longer in field or on the waves, without being the Canadas. Nay the arm of gotrampled into the dust of the earth or vernment being less shackled there swept off the face of the ocean. by public opinion, or at least by pub

But independent of prospective lic power, should exert itself more prudence such as this, the welfare of vigorously to the benefit of the peothese colonies demands the present ple : but how can this be done if the attention of government in a peculiar head which directs the arm be empty degree. Unlike other distant mem- or addled ? how can this be done bers of the empire they have little when by reason of defective informainternal strength to support them- tion or shallowness of understanding, selves, and therefore cannot be left the arm, not knowing where or in to themselves without danger. The what manner beneficially to exert

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itself, must either lie inactive, or animals - blasphemously self-denostrike about at random, knocking minated—the Holy Alliance. down a friend instead of an enemy, Adverting particularly to the subdemolishing what is harmless, and ject of Canada, we beg leave to ask wearying itself to no purpose or

whether the following passages from bad one, like that of Don Quixote a work now before us* contain noamong the puppets? Besides, a thing worthy of ministerial interfergrown-up state is very often best ence or public notice. left to itself to work out its own prosperity, but an infant state re

Tobacco, though very little cultivated in quires the supporting hand of its pa- wherever it is tried : But, I think, it could

either of the provinces, seems to thrive well rent. The former has experience not be planted to such an extent as would and judgment to direct it what to do render it profitable as an article of comfor its own benefit; it has also wealth merce, except in the London and Western and physical power to carry its pro- Districts of the Upper Province. The soil jects into execution. Ministerial in- and climate of these districts are so terposition is, in this case, imperti. very favourable to its growth, that some nent, and ministerial assistance su- samples have been recently exhibited in the perfluous. But in the other case ex

Western District, not at all inferior in quaperience and judgment, wealth and lity to any ever produced in the United physical power, are all and equally States. If the attention of the farmer in wanting to the infant community, directed to the production of Tobacco

these two Districts were almost exclusively which should therefore be supplied

and Hemp, they would undoubtedly reas far as may be, from the ma

turn a profit sufficient to compensate him ternal resources, or by maternal for his labour, and to stimulate his exerregulations. Here indeed would in- tions, which, however trifling it might be, terposition be kind and assistance would be more than he can now derive useful ; and it is exactly here that from the cultivation of any kind of grain, neither are forthcoming. Like the For it is a fact universally acknowledged in relatives of a man beginning the Canada, that a bushel of wheat, in the world who will neglect him whilst present depressed state of affairs, costs the he is struggling with the waves of farmer thirty per cent. more than he can fortune, but as soon as he has got his obtain for it, if his time be'èstimated at the chin above them "encumber him is, however, no spirit for enterprise in the

common price of a day-labourer. There with help," so ministers have ever

country ; and, as it has been well observed been found ready to interfere with by'a late writer, “ all plans for its improve. prosperous colonies and to leave un- ment, however rational or practicable, are happy ones to themselves. The doomed to linger for want of supporters.' government of a great state, which The Colonial Government seems so little has many colonies, will always find concerned about the prosperity of the counas much matter for internal adminis- try, that no encouragement to agriculture, tration among the latter as within or to any thing else, can be expected from the former. Canals, harbours, docks, that quarter. It seems to be a matter of arsenals, public institutions, such as

perfect indifference to the existing authori

ties of the country, whether its inhabitants schools, colleges, hospitals, &c. en

dwindle out their lives in penury and toil couragement of agriculture, com- or enjoy the comfortable independence which merce, and manufacture, regulation might certainly be the lot of every indusof official services, inspection of ac- trious Canadian, if those measures were counts, and supervision of conduct, adopted by their rulers which appear to with numberless other details, would every unprejudiced mind as practicable, as give full employment to an active they are indispensable to happiness and Colonial Secretary, and would pro- comfort ; But more of this hereafter. perly engage much of the attention Hemp is another article, the cultivation of of the council itself. We are not

which, though now totally neglected, would quite sure but that the interests of be much more likely to enrich the Provinces the empire would be as much ad- article of commerce with which we are ac

and benefit the parent State, than any other vanced by our ministers directing quainted. The soil and climate of Canada their vigilance to these neglected are allowed to be quite as favourable to its matters, as by watching an insolent growth as those of Poland and Russia; and, association of three or four forked although it is admitted by all persons of

* Talbot's Five Years' Residence in the Canadas, 2 vols. 1824. Longman & Co.

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The Canadas.Emigration.

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agricultural knowledge to be a most profit- encouragoment or something equivalent to
able plant, and productive of much wealth it, the Canadians never can supply the
wherever it is exclusively cultivated, the British navy. It has been suggested, by a
two Canadas cannot at present afford a respectable writer,* that, if the government
sufficient quantity to hang their own male. would appoint agents in different parts of
factors. Government, in its wisdom, has the provinces to purchase the article when
recently proposed to purchase the naval prepared for sale, and to pay for it in specie,
supplies of this article from the Canadians, very favourable consequences would proba-
provided they can furnish them at as cheap bly result. In support of this statement,
a rate as they are obtained in Russia. it is argued with great justness, that if no
This surely, at first sight, is a generous such persons are appointed, the profit of
offer from a government, whose liberality this article, as well as of every other, will
to its subjects is without a parallel in the be entirely engrossed by a few speculating
annals of the world! Would not a wealthy characters, who, like the merchants at pre-
and independent father pay his needy mer- sent, would monopolize the whole trade
cantile sons a never-to-be-forgotten compli. with government. The Canadian farmers
ment, if, in the plenitude of his wisdom are actually too poor to purchase the machi-
and affection, he were to inform them“ that nery necessary for the proper manufacture
if they would supply him with groceries of hemp, or to send it to any distant
and other articles of domestic consumption, market ; but if an agent were appointed in
at as cheap a rate as he could purchase them each district, with authority not only to buy
from a perfect stranger, he would be gra- the hemp, but also to advance small sums
ciously pleased to deal with them, but

not for the purchase of machinery, to such otherwise!”

persons as could give good security for its If government entertained any doubt, repayment in hemp, all difficulty would that the Canadians could not supply the very shortly be obviated, and the farmers Navy with a sufficient quantity of hemp, of each township would in a few years be it would perhaps be bad policy to offer them enabled to transport the produce to the any competent encouragement for cultiva- Kingston market, and eventually to that of ting it extensively, as ministers might Quebec; when the country agents, if not thereby incur the displeasure of Russia, instantly dispensed with, might be grawho, to retaliate, would very probably, in dually reduced. After the temporary reward the event of their want of success in the had imparted a strong impulse to agriculCanada market, refuse to afford Great Bri- ture, had given a fresh and salutary direction tain the usual supplies. But, as it has to industry, and had opened a new and probeen ascertained by actual experiments, fitable market for this sort of produce, it that these fruitful provinces are capable, might be discontinued ; and regular comand the colonists willing, to supply the mercial enterprise would then achieve all navy, if suitable encouragement be given that remained to be done for the encouragethem, the government has no just reason ment of the farmer, by making its way to for indulging in these fearful apprehensions. the best mart for the purchase of hemp, and It is impossible, however, while the price by discovering the cheapest and readiest of labour continues high, and while the mode of conveyance. navigation of the country remains in its pre- In the year 1822, the provincial parliasent unimproved condition, that the Cana- ment of Upper Canada voted the sum of dians, especially those of the Upper Pro- 3001. for the purchase of machinery to mavince, should be able to grow hemp and nufacture hemp, and 50% a year for three transport it for sale to the Quebec market at a years to keep it in repair. The machinery cheap rate, unless some efficient aid be ren- was to be purchased by the Lieut. Governor, dered by the parent country. If his Ma. by and with the advice of the executive jesty's ministers were to take into consi- council, and placed in that part of the proderation the depressed state of a :riculture vince in which his Excellency might think in Canada, and would offer a small premium it was more immediately required. Since to such persons as should raise a given the voting of the money I have not heard quantity of hemp annually, and if they any thing of the machinery ; but, as yet, would engage besides to purchase at the there has been no need of it. Russian price the quantity produced, they The writer to whom I have just alluded, would very soon find themselves indepená observes : It is very extraordinary, that, dent of a foreign power. The Russian although the British government has several price would fully compensate the farmer for times, since the commencement of the prethe trouble and expense incurred in raising sent century, exerted itself in some degree and preparing the hemp; and the pre- to promote the culture of hemp, not only mium, however trifling in amount, would, in Canada but in the East Indies, those if paid in cash, operate as a powerful sti- exertions have been hitherto utterly fruitless: mulus to his exertions; but, without this It is said, that the East India climate is too

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