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day is ordinarily the approaching dis- is the secret of their influence and grace, or sudden death, of one of the their intrigues-the law removes Hospodars. These reports, perhaps, them from the dignities of the emhave no foundation, or the event is pire, and the Korai makes them neaverted by a well-placed bribe of cessary to it. It is impossible, within considerable amount; for, as we have the limits of a few pages, to describe seen, the Hospodar is in a situation the myriads of ways by which they to make pecuniary sacrifices for the make themselves essential to the miconservation of his head or his place. nister of the Porte, and, by conseThe Turkish administration is in- quence appropriate almost the entire variably corrupt, and as regardless management of the Ottoman empire. of any thing like justice as it is pro- But to return to the Bâche-Capifoundly ignorant of legislation and Kiahaya. It has been mentioned government. When the protectors that the Hospodariats are given to the of his master's enemies are corrupted, Drogmans of the Divan as a reward the Bâche-Capi-Kiahaya gets all he for their services in their office of inasks—and he generally asks the death terpreter. When therefore a Drogor exile of the rival; the Turk being man has been a decent time, or glad enough to get rid of one so- shorter, in the discharge of his duties, licitor and gratify another by the he begins to get uneasy at the length same stroke. These results do not of time the Hospodars are permitted in the least damp the ardour of the to remain in possession of their soveaspirants. The Fanariote never de- reignty; he accordingly applies to spairs when intrigue is the means- the Bache-Cap-Kiahayu of one of the his ingenuity is never at fault : flat- Hospodars, and bargains with him, tery of the basest kind-insinua- that if he will not oppose his designs tions the most treacherous-address, on the other Hospodariat, that he dexterity, and the art of bribery, are shall be the next Drogman of the all perfectly familiar to him; and in Divan. If he cousent, by their united Turkey every thing turns upon the power they generally succeed,--the most trifling circumstance, or is other Hospodar is ousted—the Bachebrought about by the most corrupt Capi-Kiahaya becomes

Drogman, and and tlagitious measures. An humble generally retains his office of delegate reverence made at a lucky moment, also, and waits awhile until it is his an insinuation adroitly let fall, or a turn to play the same game.

If bribe opportunely administered, are however he has retained the agency, the secret springs of political mea- he has an advantage.

In a short sures in Turkey. No principle di- time he writes to his principal, that rects the Ottoman government-Pa- he is grieved to observe that his crechas are decapitated, and Hospodars dit is declining with the Divan-that deposed or exiled, for paltry reasons, his enemies have become exceedingly which Europe in general, and even its formidable, and that it really would diplomatic agents, never suspect. be his wisest plan, in order to avoid A Turk

despises the a catastrophe, to voluntarily abdifriendship of the Fanariotes, being cate. If his advice succeeds, the well aware of the number of occa- Bâche-Capi-Kihaya steps into his sions in which they may be useful to place; if not, the Drogman resorts to him. Though his haughtiness and violent means.

He goes to the Dihis religion prevent him from soli- van, and in the most formal terms he citing, it is his policy never to refuse, renounces his charge, and declares, any thing

The Turks know that with an air of the profoundest afthe greatest number of places are ob- fliction, that he has reasons for tained through the Fanariotes: and thinking that his Highness has enteras every Turk is by the law qualified ed into very dangerous relations with for any office, the protection of a European powers, and that he consiFanariote is always a reason for ders that his flight, and the abduction hope. The secret influence of this of his treasures, will be the next step body is incalculable: as they procure he will take. The Sublime Porte, almost all favours, and yet can them- always ready to take umbrage, deselves fill no post, they are the pa- poses the accused Hospodar, and trons of every body, and are con- dispatches a Capidgi-Bâchi for his atantly exercising their power. This head. Most princes however receive

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previous intelligence of the fate which they may hold' in their hands. The impends over them, and have run Vestiar receives the orders with the away before the Capidgi-Bâchi ar- greatest zeal, and instantly experives. Such was the motive which dites them all over the province. But caused the emigration of the Hospo- these orders, though drawn up exdar Princes Ghika, Manòl-Vodà, actly in the usual form, contain a Suzzo, Ypsilanti, Caratza, &c. &c. secret sign, unknown to the Vestiar, When the Prince is fairly gone, the which informs all his Fanariote Divan recompenses the fidelity of the agents that the Prince is deposed. Drogman with his spoils.

At the sight of this sign, they take It is not however always that the care of themselves; and, in as short Drogman succeeds—other Fanariotes a time as possible, clear the field for are frequently elevated, and one of their successors. the means they use to obtain their Generally speaking, the secret inend is sufficiently curious to deserve telligence from Constantinople is sent mention. A Fanariote prince, who by the Bâche-Capi-Kichaya; when, is intriguing for a Hospodariat, gets however, he happens to be the sucup a crowd of creditors, real or pre- cessor, or the intelligence, for other tended, whose care it is to pursue reasons, has not been sent, the scene him, and, whenever he appears, to cry is far otherwise. Nothing can equal out to him for a settlement of their the consternation of the court-the claims: and every Friday, when the Fanariote Boyards weep and run Sultan goes to the Mosque, to attack about in despair - and the Prince, him with their demands and com- abandoned by every body, is obliged plaints against the Fanariote ; till at to walk upon the soles of his feet, length the Sultan, touched with com- and, if not disposed of by a Capidgipassion at the unhappy situation of Bachi, takes refuge in some private the Prince, gives him one of the house in the city until all the FanaHospodariats, that he may escape riotes in the province assemble from from the fangs of his creditors. the country, when they all make the

When a Hospodar is to be deposa best of their way to Constantinople, ed, the Sublime Porte, on this occa- each at his own expense. sion, mistrusts the Bâche-Capi-Kia- The native Boyards have less rea. haya, even when there is no direct son to be afflicted, and prepare for cause of complaint against him; if, the reception of the Kuimakam of the on the contrary, there is, the head of new Hospodar. The Mahometans the deputy falls as well as that of his in the late Prince's government likeprincipal. The Firman of deposition wise lose their places; but, as is their is carried by a secret agent to the way, they take the change easily. Metropolitan of the province, who On an occasion of a melancholy immediately assembles the native breaking up of this kind, the Divan Boyards, and orders them to watch Effendi, made to Zallony, the physithat the deposed Prince does not cian of the deposed Hospodar, and purloin the contents of the chest of some others present, on the day of the High Treasurer, nor take his the receipt of the Firman, a very flight into a foreign country. Gene- characteristic little speech. rally however the Prince, as has been friends,” said he to them with a said, has previous information, and checrful air, “ do not despair-God has taken his measures. As soon as sends all things-every thing is writhe receives his secret intelligence, he ten above--observe me, although I calls for the High Treasurer, or lose my all, I am not sad-because Grand-Vestiar as he is called, and destiny so wills it--and the prophet desires to be informed of the state of himself could not change that. Bethe chest. If it is much filled, in a sides, the signs of this catastrophe few hours he has made such demands are by no means bad: eight days upon it that scarcely enough is left ago I observedl a shoulder of roast to pay the salaries of the clerks. Not lamb which I ate it was much however to raise the suspicions of marked with pale spots, but I saw no the Grand-Vestiar, he at the same red ones—which signifies that the tirne gives him unsealed orders upon blood of our Prince will not he shed all the governors and receivers of the come, be comforted.” dillerent districts to pay in all that When the deposed Prince arrives

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at Constantinople, he can no longer of the first rank of Bovards and his reside in the Fanar, for no one with relations, and it is seldom accorded three tails, except the Grand-Vizir, to others, cannot learn the Turkish can take up his abode in Constanti- language. Now as this language is nople; and, previous to his departure the high road to preferment, for to his province, he has received all without it no man can be a Drogthe honours of a Pacha. He conse- man, the attainment is matter of the quently betakes himself to his coun- utmost importance. The consent of try seat on the banks of the canal, the Prince is an occasion of great where he at first lives in the pro- joy, the Hotgia, or master of the foundest solitude-silence reigns in Turkish, is received with enthusiasm, his establishment the windows of and all the other masters are disa his house are almost all closed, and missed, that the young Fanariote the curtains of those left open may give his undivided attention to are let down-few lights are dis- his instructions presents are heaped cerned at night-and, in short, all upon him—his pay is ten times wears the external appearance of the amount of that of any other misfortune and mourning. Some instructor in languages; he is times the Prince employs some che- overwhelmed with the most delimical mixture to turn his beard cate attentions, and is, in short, rewhite. These and other practices ceived by the whole family with a are resorted to, until the suspicions of kind of veneration. In order to enthe Turks are destroyed and their courage his industry, a promise is compassion excited. At length, he generally held out to him that, should ventures to admit a few friends; and his pupil ever be made a Hospodar, when he is encouraged to hope that he shall be his Divan-Effendi, he shall not be asked any questions a promise sometimes kept, but orabout his former government, he dinarily broken. It should be obappears in public again, enters Con- served that there are other reasons stantinople, and recommences his for valuing a Hotgia highly, for he intrigues to be restored to his prin- can only teach his language at the cipality. Since a Hospodar seldom sacrifice of his faith. The law not possesses his place more than only interdicts the faithful from learntwo or three years, the number of ing languages, but likewise from these Ex-Hospodars occasionally be- teaching the idiom of the Prophet to comes great. The violence of their infidel ears. The Prince of course coutlicting intrigues then however only grants this privilege sparingly

blazes out, that the Divan among the children of his Boyards, gets impatient, and by decapitating for he does not wish to create unnesome, and exiling others, reduces cessary rivals; and when he does acthem to a reasonable quantity. cord it, he throws obstacles in the

Each of the Ex-Hospodars retains a way of success; for he always stikind of court about him; for it is pulates that the child shall only begin only from their own Prince that the to learn Turkish after he is instructo Boyards receive their title and dig- ed in Greek and French ; the consenity; by his restoration alone can quence is, that the boy is disgusted they hope for a renewal of their with the difficulties of the language, places and their revenues; he and makes but slow progress; alone has the power of depriving whereas, in the case of his own sons, them of their rank, and by a mere the Prince takes care that they suck intimation to the Drogman of the in Turkish with their mother's milk, Divan, can reduce them to simple and until the speaking of that lanRayùs again. Besides the actual guage is accomplished all other inBoyards, there are, of course, a crowd struction is withheld. of Fanariotes about him, who, in The Fanariote education embraces the expectation of his return to his little more than the three necessary dignity, spend their time in 'soliciting languages, except under the head of the Grand Kalpak, as dancing attend- manners and knowledge of the world; ance upon him is commonly called. a great deal of what is taught in The Prince has moreover other holds the latter department is embraced in upon the allegiance of his Boyards. the following morsel from the speech Without his permission, the children of a prince to his sons, “ My children,

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remember that you must never cease Moldavian or Wallachian words with
to appear in the eyes of the noble their conversation, which are to be
Turk submissive, charitable, gener- understood as having been picked up
ous, and eloquent; it is important to when the speaker formerly attended
be attentive and humble even to the the Prince in his sovereignty. This
people of his suite. When you enter is as decided a distinction as the
into the chamber of a lord of the em- Grand Kalpak. They are very social,
pire, make a low reverence as you and, like other idle people, spend
enter; arrived in the middle of the their days in the circles of their re-
room, make another, describing a se- spective princes, in cards, dancing,
micircle, so as always to let the door eating, and promenading, and, above
be seen. On approaching his lord- all, in talking over what they used to
ship, prostrate yourself on your knees, do in the principalities.
take up the hem of his robe, and after We have been induced to compile
having carried it to your forehead, these particulars both on account of
kiss it. Sometimes the generosity of their own novelty and singularity,
his lordship will prevent ibis ; in that and of the interest which the Greek
case gather up the fringe of his sofa Revolution has excited for every thing
in your hand, and kiss it before you connected with it. It was in the
carry it to your forehead: then raise provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia
yourself and retreat to some little dis- that the present contest may be said
tance from his lordship, without ever to have commenced, and through the
turning your back upon him. If, by insurrection in these countries the
a sign, he invites you to sit down, Fanariotes have lost their privileges.
hasten to throw yourself on your After the defeat of Ypsilanti, the go-
knees in one of the extremities of the vernment was settled anew by the
chamber, taking care that no Turk is Divan, and the ancient laws and pri-
behind you. If his Grandeur has the vileges of the country restored to the
goodness to inquire after your health, native Boyards, two of whom were ap-
answer, My Lord, I kiss the dust of pointed by the Turkish council to head
your feet; and in all youranswers take the principalities. These measures
care only to employ the third person were the result of conferences between

delegates from the two countries and While the sons receive such lessons the ministers of the Porte, at which as these, we may be certain that the the Sultan assisted incognito. For an education of the daughters is not account of Moldavia and Wallachia, neglected; they take to intrigue as and of the insurrection which led to naturally as their fathers and bro- the deprivation of the Fanariotes, we thers, and excel them, if possible, in refer our readers to Mr. Blaquiere's ignorance and pride. The young History of the Greek Revolution. ones are very handsome, and their We ourselves, for the details of the manners light and vivacious in the foregoing pages, have been indebted extreme. To talk with excessive ra- to a book which was published a few pidity is particularly genteel ; to months ago at Marseilles, and which move the features with extraordinary has not as yet probably reached this agility while speaking is accounted country. It is written in French by interesting ; and all well-bred ladies a Greek physician of the name of of the Fanar constantly set off their Zallony, who has had abundant opthoughts with the oath of Na-zi-ôn portunities for making the observaAfthèndis,“ by the life of our Prince.” tions which he has recorded in this The highest mark of gentility, how. very curious and valuable volume. ever, is accidentally to mix up a few We transcribe its title below.*

* Essai sur les Fanariotes, où l'on voit les Causes Primitives de leur Elévation aux Hospodariats de la Valachie et de la Moldavie, leur Mode d'Administration, et les Causes Principales de leur Chûte; suivi de quelques Reflexions sur l'Etat Actuel de la Grèce. Par Marc-Philippe Zallony, Docteur en Médécine, Ancien Médécin de Jussuff-Pacha (dit le Borgne), Grand Visir, et de son Armée, de plusieurs Pachas, Muphtis, Ulémas, Ministres de sa Hautesse, et de divers Princes, Hospodars, Fanariotes, &c. &c. Mara seille, Avril, 1824. 8vo. pp. 342.

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THE ERRORS OF ECSTASIE. A few years ago we saw a por- and very few who could be the coue tion of an unfinished poem in manu- temporary competitors of those who script, entitled, “ Recollections of are now known to us. The latter Frenzy, by a Maniac.” The scene consequently wrote composedly, withof it was an apartment in Bedlam, out the now prevalent feeling that and the opening incident was the either they must push their ideas beadoption of a means of curing mad- yond one man's or another's, or they ness, which was discovered near the would never be heard of. Success end of the last century, and was said brought them less of immediate gain to be practised with success in some and honour; and the impulse to write, peculiar cases. It consisted in causing though it might be a strong one and a drop of water to fall incessantly, govern their whole lives, was not so with exact regularity of interval, from impatient and importunate, in as the ceiling to the floor. This was much as their object was not one of said to compose the patient and pro- instant acquisition, nor like to those duce sleep when other means were which instigate the actions of daily ineffectual. “ The Errors of Ecsta- life. Poets, and amongst them sesie” reminded us of this production, veral writers of merit, have lately as being ejusdem farinæ, though this been struggling in a crowd. Some of was in lyrics, and the Errors is in the lowest order have been respected blank verse.

Such a design cannot for nothing else than a smart jacket, be good. The rhapsodies of poems and others of the highest have passed should be very short when incidental; without notice, because they wore but a work of which the scheme and the star of their order within. We construction is rhapsodical will never could mention several poems which be read, and therefore it must be said our readers would hear of for the to be bad, as all other things are first time, though the writers of them, when they will not answer the pure in the world where they shall come pose they were made for. The errors to light, will not be degraded to the of youth, which are excused as being level of some who are popular now.t such in life, are not the least offensive The ambition which we allude to errors in writing; and we fear that has led the author occasionally to the work we are noticing is of the unnatural efforts, which seem such order of books which see no second even in a professed rhapsody. These edition. Those who are susceptive we do not intend to point out, nor the of like trains of thought, those who Hibernicisms of the poem, and of raare familiar with the usages of poe- ther an interesting preface. Juvenility try and tired of its common-places, and nationality cannot be helped. who would be ready to apprehend at The poem is short, the scene a wooda glance a novel image, or a delicate land by moonlight, the former part a peculiarity of expression, could not monologue by one of the characters fail to perceive that the work is re- called Mystic, and the rest a dialogue markable. There are passages in it, between him and the Moon. The which, were they to be quoted as be- design we shall not pretend to exlonging to some poet of acknowledged plain, our readers may collect what pre-eminence, would not be con- they can of it. In his monologue, sidered as insufficient titles to his Mystic first contemplates the scene place. There is a good deal in it in which he is placed, and opens the which is more characteristic of our description of it with the following earlier poetry than of the present, short passage. It is needless to call but there is an obvious ambition the reader's attention to its beauties which belongs to our times. In of language. former ages there were few poets;

* The Errors of Ecstasie : a Dramatic Poem, with other Pieces. By George Darley. London. Whittaker, 1822.

+ In speaking thus, however, we do not allude to our present poets of the very first eminence, whom we do not question to be the greatest of their time.

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