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Moldavia, which had hitherto been or Moldavia, the Prince takes the governed by the native princes, title of Highness, and surrounds though under the authority of the himself with Wallachians and MolSublime Porte. All means that the davians, who by their fortune or most dexterous intrigue and the most character have the greatest influrestless ambition can employ to gain ence among the Boyards and peoa point, were put into action by the ple of the province to which he is Fanariotes. The unfortunate Bassa- appointed. He promises to some rabu Brankovano, the last of the na- places and appointments, to others tive Hospodars, was deposed and the hands of his daughters, which miserably perished, with the whole always go with the highest offices. of his family, accused of the crime These promises are repeated, until of high treason. The Divan, seduced the Prince, having seated himself in by the fallacious promises of their his government, does not feel it neDrogmans, confided the direction of cessary either to keep them or to make these fine provinces to them, and any more. Mavrocordato was the first Fana- The morning after his appointment riote Greek who, in 1731, left the the Prince dispatches with all possibanks of the Bosphorus to take pos- ble haste to his province a Fanariote session of the sovereignty of Wal- agent, under the title of Kaïmakam, lachia. The Divan, while it deposed who, until his arrival, performs the part the indigenous princes, and clothed of his representative. The first care of the Fanariotes in their spoils, did not the Kaïmakam is to assemble all the propose to deprive the natives of all grandees of the country, and to deinfluence in their government. Va- mand of them—1st, that the palace rious posts were reserved for the na- of his Highness shall be completely tive Boyards, such as those of Chief- furnished anew with the most costly Justice, Mayor, Secretary-General, and elegant materials; and, 2d, that of the districts and cantons. The an immense number of chariots shall place of Governor was filled conjoint- be immediately sent to Constanti. ly by two, the one a delegate of the nople, to transport the goods and Fanariote Prince, and the other a chattels of the Prince and his suite. native Boyard. The Receiver-Ge- Every request is immediately comneral, or Grand Treasurer, was also a plied with; and the Kaïmakam, durnative Boyard. But the high situation ing the one or two months of his of Minister of the Interior and for agency, employs himself in deposing Foreign Affairs, of the Police, the the officers of the former Hospodar, Executors of the Orders of Criminal and installing temporary ones. The Counsel (the Sheriffs), the Grand native Boyards are meanwhile rackIntendant of the Court, the Second ing their inventions to gain the favour Treasurer, the Commercial Judge, of the new Prince. The most obvithe equerries, the military officers, ous and the most powerful means are and a multitude of other posts, were magnificent presents, which all over given to the Fanariotes in the suite the East have a magical influence of the Hospodar, who from the mo- on great men.

The richest among ment of their appointment took the them send to Constantinople the most title of Boyard. Four places were superb equipages, which however can reserved to the Mahometans. These only be of service during the jourare, 1. The Divan Effendi, to super. ney; for the Turkish laws forbid the intend the execution of the Mahome- use of them in the capital. Others tan laws. 2. The Bêcheli Aga, who send considerable sums to assist in is charged with the police as regards his outfit. The precautions which Mahometan travellers, since the law the Boyards take in this point are so of the Prophet interdicts all inter- great, that they ordinarily deposit ference with one of the faithful on with their bankers in Constantinople the part of an infidel. 3. The Mech- a sum of money to be forwarded to ter-Baschi, or chief of music. 4. The whatever Fanariote may be elevated to Bayracter, or standard-bearer. the dignity of Hospodar, on the very

From the moment that the Divan day of his nomination. In addition has fixed that this or that Drogman to these prudent largesses, the new shall be promoted to the high Hospodar is besieged with the offers dignity of Hospodar of Wallachia of the richest financiers to a large amount, on the credit of his future great magnificence; and proceed by revenues, and with the knowledge of very short days' marches. The his present poverty. The very mo- Prince dispatches before him one of ment the election is known, all the his three tails, accompanied by a tradesmen of Constantinople are seen Boyard, who takes the title of Coknocking at the door of his Highness, naksi, and who performs the part of and begging him to take the stock of a courier in the most solemn and imtheir entire bazaars off their hands. portant style of announcement. The But the crowd of bankers, bearers of entertainment is always at the expresents, and tradesmen, is nothing pense of the Greeks who inhabit the in comparison of the multitude of country through which he passes. flatterers who flock about his Hospo- He arrives at last within view of his dariatship. All of them have been principality, about the hundred and always his fervent admirers—the eu- twentieth or thirtieth day from his logizers of his high qualities : nay, departure from Constantinople, and their praises may be said, in some makes a halt within a few leagues, sort, to have determined the Divan that all may be ready the next day in its wise choice. The dissimulation for his solemn entry. of the Prince is at least a match for The manner and behaviour of a the baseness of his flattering friends. Hospodar are sufficiently curious. Their incense neither changes the His dignity is of a very different kind countenance nor the purposes of the from that which usually distinguishes wily Fanariote, who has won his way other great men when they condeto his post by the most active and deep- scend to be seen by their inferiors. laid intrigues, and by the overthrow When he appears in public or in his of many rivals, bitter enemies, who, palace, if he walks, he lets his head as they opposed his rise, now com- hang down upon his breast, and half mence a struggle to procure his fall. shuts his eyes; he feigns deafness, He promises largely - but his sincerity and pretends not to be able to hear is only proved after his arrival at Bu- when any question is put to him charest, or Jassy, whence he forwards which he does not choose to answer. lists of proscription to the Divan, who He never looks on one side, but keeps seldom deny the requests of a newly- a constant direct stare, rolling a appointed Hospodar. Thirty days are chaplet continually between his finthe term allowed to the new Prince gers, while with the other hand he in which he must make his prepara- chinks some newly-struck gold coin, tions; at the expiration of which, called Roubies, which he keeps in his should he not be ready to depart, he pocket for that purpose. If he speaks, is bound to pay a fine of about 161. or it is with a very soft gentle voice and 171. a day to the Agà of theJanissaries. in a sing-song tone-a kind of recitaThis fine he often voluntarily incurs in tive. This is the kind of dignity into order to leave an agreeable recollec- which an intriguing and hypocritical tion of him in the memory of the Agà. Fanariote invariably sinks, either as

The Hospodar leaves Constanti- the natural consequence of his former nople with all the honours of a Pacha, habits and his present elevation, or and leaves near the Divan a represen- because it is understood to accord tative called the Bâche-Capi-Kaihayà, with the Fanariote notions of what who is the medium of all correspon- is princely or Hospodariatish. dence between him and the Grand Nothing can equal the tender atVisir. His first station is at the vil- tentions of the Boyards, and espelage of Avaskioy, about three miles cially the Boyards from the Fanar. from the capital, where he pitches his The latter approach the person of tent for some days to arrange the ce- the Hospodar with most remarkable remonies of his march. His suite is eagerness; two or three of them seize composed of 200 armed Greek Alba- his arms and raise him from the nians and of 300 other persons, ground, so that in walking he scarceforming his own household and that of ly reaches the floor with the point of the Fanariote friends who are per- his toes, while two or three other mitted to accompany him, and whom lords take up the tail of his robe; and he immediately, on his arrival, instals thus, with all the air of a wretched into all the first places of honour. paralytic, he passes into his apart, The equipages are ordinarily of ments, followed by a train of domestics. When he is put down there It must not be supposed that this he throws away his chaplet, and, put- interval, of about three hours, is ting his money in his pocket, he spent entirely by the Prince in sleep. snatches his pipe with some agility. He employs it, according as he unAt that instant a loud Stentorian voice derstands it, for the happiness of his is heard in the hall, when the Prince subjects. These are his three hours is seated: this is the cry of the of meditation, of freedom, and, noTchaouche, one of his grooms, for minally, of leisure, though it is coffee and the coffee-bearer. The mo- often the time when he is most ment he has sung out Cafè! Cafézi- actively employed. At four o'clock Bachi, the coffee-bearer of his Hos- the noise of the innumerable clocks podariat Highness appears with a little of Bucharest, which amount to acup richly set with diamonds, which bout two hundred, and also that is immediately presented. If he wishes of the holy plates, announce that the to take a meal, the same ceremonies Prince is not to be supposed any take place. At mid-day a Tchaouche longer asleep. The holy plates are cries out a sort of speech to the certain pieces of copper suspended steward, the butler, and the cup- by two cords, which the priests bebearer, and finishes with these words, fore the introduction of bells used to and all of you, gentlemen, attached to strike with mallets, for the purpose the service of the table of his Highness of convoking the faithful. The usage prepare yourselves. Scarcely is the is still preserved by the Moldavians, Prince seated at table, when thirty or who call the sacred plates Symandra, forty unseen musicians strike up with the name they bore at Constantheir violins and Pan-pipes of four- tinople, when they were applied to teen reeds, known in this country by the same use. the name of Miskals. These inusi. The dress of the Hospodar does cians are the people known in this not differ from that of a noble Turk country by the name of gypsies, and at Constantinople, except in the head in France of Bohemians: Immense dress. In place of the turban, he numbers of them inhabit Moldavia wears a cylindrical cap in imitation and Wallachia; and are called Trin, of the Kan of the Crimæa, composed guns; some leading a settled life, and of yellow cloth, and covered round some, as elsewhere, wandering from the lower part with sable. The place to place. They are said to be Prince and the Boyards are alike disvery admirable musicians, and capa- tinguished from their inferiors by the ble of executing the richest composi- length of their beards; but no subtions of Europe with rare precision, ject, Boyard or not, is permitted to though they play entirely by ear and fine his slippers with red-this is a do not know a single note.

privilege which the Hospodar reThe Prince never asks for anything serves to himself. at table, all is prepared for him, his A Boyard is easily discerned from bread even is cut into little morsels, a common inhabitant of the prinand every thing being offered to him, cipality by the enormity of his kalpak. he refuses that which he dislikes. This head dress is composed of the The wine is held in small glass de- skins of seven or eight black lambs, canters, and the cup-bearer, who is skinned for that purpose before they always one of his nearest relations, are born. It is of the form of a balkeeps standing behind him, constantly loon, and is surmounted at the sumholding out to him a glass half filled mit by a red banderoll, which marks with it. When the meal is finished the class to which the Boyard bea Tchaouche utters the cry for coffee. longs. The son of the Prince likeIt is by that time one o'clock, and wise wears a kalpak, but with this another T'chaouche shouts out of a difference, that his banderoll is white window to inform the city that his instead of red. The ordinary cirHighness has dined and is going to cumference of these kalpaks, but only take coffee, and the instant after is in the principalities, is five feet to going to take his repose. From that five feet and a half. Since the granmoment all is buried in the deepest deur of the Boyard is invariably silence, a universal calm spreads it- measured by the magnitude of his self over the palace, where business kalpak, it may readily be supposed of every kind is suspended.

that it is difficult to set limits to its size. Its dimensions are often so they should declare whether the enormous, that a Boyard, if he be a tcharans, that is, the cultivators of the very great man, is unable to admit a land, are capable of complying with friend to sit by the side of him in his the order. The Boyards are so incarriage.

terested in making a decision in the Luxury and an absurd love of affirmative, that they invariably demagnificence are the prevailing foibles clare without investigation that the of the native Boyards. Their habits country is in a situation to furnish are generally of great costliness; the demands. After this, his Serene some of them have wardrobes worth Highness enters his cabinet, and six or seven thousand pounds, and makes himself the partition of the some even richer ones. If to the impost. The partition, as one may wardrobe is added the expense of suppose, is never founded literally equipages, jewels, plate, and fur- upon the order of the firman. As niture, some idea may be formed of the price accorded to the inhabitants the extent to which these gentry love represents only a third part of the finery. The Fanariote Boyards, of value of the article furnished, the course, attempt to rival the natives in Prince, like a good speculator, quinmagnificence; and as they are mi- tuples the quantity demanded, and serably poor to begin with, they use in place of a hundred thousand meaevery means of getting money ad- sures of wheat imposes five hundred vanced, and employ every species of thousand, which are collected by the extortion to pay it off.

governors of the provinces with adBy the Sublime Porte, the Hos- mirable promptitude; the surplus he podar is allowed a very limited reve- quickly converts into money for his nue, arising from a tithe upon sheep, own use. Should the Porte wish to bees, &c. the working of the mines, construct a fortress, or to repair any the customs, &c. which are altogether of those that already exist on the valued only at 7 or 8001. a year. In confines of the empire; it demands, a very short time, however, he con- by its agents, of the inhabitants of trives to amass immense treasures the country ten thousand workmen and the means which he takes are (for instance), and a certain number well known. Since 1783, the year in of carts and waggons. It fixes the which after the abdication of the price of labour in one case, and of Kan, the Crimæa became a Russian hire in the other. The Hospodar arprovince, the Sublime Porte, de- ranges with the contractor named by prived of the resources afforded by the Porte, and fifteen hundred workthis fertile peninsula for the provi- men only are employed, whilst the sions of the capital, has directed country is charged with the whole its views towards Moldavia and expense of the ten thousand artizans Wallachia, whence it now draws the enacted by the firman. The same wheat, the sheep, the butter, cheese, collusion is practised as regards the tallow, honey, wax, wood, &c. &c. carts, and in every other matter deAccording to its ordinary manner of manded by the Divan. The Hosproceeding, the Porte frequently sends podar employs an immense number firmans for the purchase of the articles of other means to augment his init requires, and fixes at the same time come, of which it may be useful to the quantity wanted, and the maxi- give one more example. The wines mum of price it chooses to give. This of Moldavia and Wallachia are of a price never rises to a third of the real very light kind, and apt to turn sour. value of the object bought. The re- The proprietors of the vineyards exceipt of one of these firmans is al- port the surplus wine, and import a ways an occasion of joy to the Hos- quantity of eau-de-vie, known under podar. He immediately assembles the name of rack in Transylvania, the Boyards, his faithful tools, and whence it is derived, and of Hulirka communicates to them with an air of in Moldavia, which corrects the acidzeal the order of his Highness the ity of their own meagre beverage. Sultan. Suppose that the order re- An immense consumption of this spie quires a hundred thousand measures rit takes place in Moldavia and Walof corn, and forty thousand sheep; lachia, which is a very great favourite the Boyards deliberate, for, accords with the inhabitants, and is exceed. ing to the laws, it is necessary that ingly cheap. Occasionally the Prince


of money.

imposes a very heavy duty on this succeeded in getting from Vienna or liquor, having an understanding with Holland some costly decoration, or certain speculators, who have pre- set of ornaments, which she thinks viously laid in a large stock, and take must secure the superiority to heradvantage of the impost to run up self. At that moment the imprudent the price. The prohibition of the rivals are recalled to court, and put article brings on smuggling; an ac- to shame by the exhibition of the tive preventive service is set on foot, newly purchased splendours.. and considerable confiscations are al- It the invariable practice with ways accruing to the Prince. He, the Turkish government, that each however, not content with the duty, high functionary who' resides out of the high price he shares, and the for- Constantinople leaves an accredited feited goods, actually smuggles him- agent near the Divan, with whom the self to a large amount. In time ministers of the Sultan alone commuhowever the supply, from the action nicate. He receives the orders and of different causes together with the sends them to his patron, and from him preventive service, fails, and a scarcity receives and forwards his dispatches, is universally complained of. Petitions and to him they look for the satisfacare presented to the Prince for the tion of any questions they may put repeal of the duty, and the finishing to him with respect to the conduct of stroke is put to all this villanous ra- his principal. It has been already pacity and extortion by his selling mentioned, that the agent or reprethe repeal to the petitioners for a sum sentative whom the Hospodar leaves

Another resource, of is named the Bûche-Capi-Kiahaya. which the fiscal genius of the Hos. The choice of this delegate is one of podar avails himself, is that of dimi- the greatest importance, for the desnishing the nominal value of the fo- tiny of the patron may be said to be reign money immediately before the in his hands. The Hospodar usually time at which the duties are paid, chooses him from amongst his nearand doing precisely the converse est relations. He is surrounded by when the payments are to be made. a numerous suite in the pay of the The money of the Grand Seigneur is Hospodar, and he himself touches the only coin with which he dares not considerable emoluments. Not contake these liberties, but it is exceed- tent however with any degree of preingly rare in the provinces. It would caution which he has used in the be tiresome even to allude to the ten choice of this representative, the thousand other modes which these Prince usually appoints a secret spy Princes have invented, of fleecing the upon the conduct of the Bûche-Capiunfortunate multitudes who are Kiahaya: for, among these people, placed at their disposal.

when intrigue and perfidy are the The wife of the Hospodar has re- order of the day, there is no point of venues independent of her husband, confidence above the reach of suspiand assists him, on her own account, cion. in grinding the wretched slaves of The office of the Bâche-Capi-Kihis dominions. She is entitled to a ahuya is one of incessant vigilance, capitation tax on the Bohemians, or activity, and intrigue. It is his buTzingans or gypsies of the country, siness to execute the orders of his who amount to thirty or forty thou- Prince, and to transmit those of the sand. They are considered as her Divan—to distribute, with all possiproperty, and she has the right to sell ble prudence, the presents due to the any of them where and when it powerful members of the gorernpleases her. Between the Princess ment-to study their character, and and the wives of the native Boyards to dispose them to the interests of his a perpetual contest in luxury and master. On the other hand, he has to magnificence is maintained. Should counteract the intrigues of those deit, however, unfortunately happen that posed Hospodars who have not fallen the spouse of the Hospodar is clearly under the sabre of the Capidgi-Bachi, outdone, the successful rival falls and those of the new aspirants to the under her high displeasure, and is Hospodariat—the ambitious Fanariimmediately banished the court. The otes, who pick up and invent all kinds sexile, however, only endures for a of calumnies against the Fanariote short time, until the Princess has already in possession. The news of the

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