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valued, as to have caused it to be The thoughts of reverie, it is evialmost entirely left out of account, dent from these its most striking when estimating the relative force of features, differ but slightly from the customs in giving the tone to our dis- dreams of sleep; and accordingly, positions. The habit we allude to they have been expressively named is that known by the name of reverie, waking or day-dreams in contradisor that indolent exercise of the ima- tinction to those of night. Their gination, much easier conceived than chief difference is, that in sleep the defined, to which the poetically fan- delusion is greater, because, from the ciful are most addicted. But it is more perfect torpor of external sense, not confined to them; if it were, the there is the less liability of the persubsequent remarks would be unne- ception of external objects giving the cessary: for reverie is the living lie to the impostures of fancy; on fountain of poetry; and to it we are account of the more complete repose indebted for those beautiful "and of the active faculties (the will and ethereal creations of imagination judgment) the attention is more waywhich delight and enchant the world. ward, and the connection between the

The following remarks are not in- thoughts more shadowy and evanestended for this high character of cent; and lastly, the feeling of thought; but for that “ sauntering prospectiveness does not form so humour” which the young and soli- usual or essential a constituent of the tary student is most liable to indulge, dreams of sleep as of the visions of and which, when favoured by an reverie. This diffusion of futurity union with a particular sensibility of is very evident in the day-dreams of temperament, is the source of much boyhood. In these delightful moof the unhappiness and unprofitable- ments, in which the mind, escaping ness of mature life.

from the trammels of will and judgIt would occupy much more space' ment, riots amid scenes of its own than could be well spared to this ar- creation, the reverist is transported ticle, to trace this species of reverie by his imagination to a world which in its origin, and in its progress to a he believed to exist beyond the fixed mental habit; so we will mere- bounds of his actual knowledge, and ly remark, before describing some of there, anticipating those joys and its effects, the ordinary phenomena pleasures that hope and fancy have of reverie in those who, without sketched out for him,-performs a judgment to save them from its in- part in stations for which he believes jurious consequences, have not suf- he is in time destined. By being ficient vigour of imagination to con- accustomed thus to dwell in a future stitute them poets. Its characteris- world of his own, the boy by detical features, then are first, that in it grees becomes indifferent and insenthe mind is so absorbed by its own in- sible to the actual world around him; ternal feeling, as to be insensible (in and his attention, from its being cona degree) to the ordinary appulses of stantly fixed on a particular train of external bodies : secondly, the atten- ideas, which occupy his mind to the tion, instead of being steadily anchor- exclusion of other intellectual gratied by the will, floats passively down fications, is with the greatest diffithe stream of internal feeling, with- culty attracted to the ordinary and out helm or compass: thirdly, the necessary duties of social existence. thoughts and emotions which consti- A remarkable instance of this une tute the reverie, are tinged by a hue happy effect of a habit of reverie is of futurity to which it would appear told us by Dr. Crichton, in his work they owe their vividness and plea- on Mental Diseases. He alludes to sure; for by a provision of nature, a young gentleman of large fortune, the wisdom and beneficence of which who, until the age of 21, had enjoyed it is unnecessary to dwell upon, all a tolerably good state of health. He our prospective emotions

was of a calm and gentle, but rather brightened to our conception by unsocial disposition--he seemed lost hope's unclouded sunshine, as to to every thing around him, and would give to any of our other thoughts and willingly sit nearly a whole day withfeelings with which they may com- out moving; yet without this he was mingle or coexist an interest and not like a melancholy patient; for if fascination which it would be other. his countenance were attentively wise difficult to account for.

watched, it was easy to discover that





a multiplicity of thoughts were con- couraged to go fast. This young stantly succeeding each other, many man had an early developed disposiof which were gay and cheerful. tion to solitary reverie, the evil con

He would laugh heartily at times; sequences of which might have been but his laughter was not of that un- prevented by a more judicious memeaning kind we often see in idiot- thod of education than that adopted ism, but such as any one might towards him, but he was unfortunate indulge who had ludicrous thoughts, enough to have for his tutor a man and was not under the restraint of unpleasant and austere manners, of society. In a moment after the -a man, says Crichton, whose chawhole expression of his counte- racter was more suited for the sevenance changed, and he would sink rities of a monkish life, than the cominto a deep reverie. In the course panion of a man of fortune. It must of his disorder he became so remark- be evident that a man of this dispoably inattentive, that even when sition would be the last to wean a pressed by some want which he youth from so fascinating a habit as wished to express, he would, after he that of reverie: on the contrary, as had gotten half way through the sen- was unfortunately the case with this tence, suddenly stop, as if he had young man, he could serve no purpose forgotten what to say. When his but that of strengthening and conattention was roused, and he was en- firming it. This extreme effect of gaged to speak, he always expressed reverie did not arise from a connate himself in good language, and with defect of judgment; for his answers great propriety; and if a question to questions that required the exerwere proposed to him which required cise of judgment were remarkable the exercise of judgment, and he for their accuracy and their procould be made to attend to it, he priety of expression. The difficulty judged correctly.

of fixing the wandering attention on In the latter part of his illness, a any particular object is the most total disregard that he had for those striking feature in this case, arising, whom he formerly loved amounted no doubt, from the unmathematical to a disgust which he expressed course of his education, and the unrudely, and which could not be con- palatableness of the intellectual food ciliated by kindness. When he was placed before him—transforming the placed in such situations as required custom of his will throwing the reins the exercise of judgment in order to on the neck of fancy into a necespreserve him from danger, he exerted şary and unavoidable habit. This himself until he became familiarized shows the importance of an early with it, and then grew gradually less wholesome discipline of the mental attentive. Dr. Crichton prevailed on powers, as the only means of strengthhim to drive a curricle, and accom- ening the reasoning faculties, which panied him to watch his mind. For are thereby enabled to supply the a few days he was all attention, but fancy with ballast on her occasional the irksomeness of the exertion made excursions to Utopia. If this young him soon tire. He drove steadily, man's intellectual culture had been and when about to pass a carriage, conducted more judiciously, and took pains to avoid it; but when at his studies thereby rendered allast he became familiar with this ex- Juring, and desirable, instead of ercise, he would often relapse into being insipid and repugnant, his atthought, and allow the reins to hang tention thus attracted to suitable obloose in his hands. His ideas were jects would have grown into an oppofor ever varying: when any one șite habit, and prevented the sequel crossed his mind that excited anger, which a different course produced. the horses suffered for it: but the There is another remarkable case spirit exhibited at such unusual and told us in the Zoonomia, which was unkind treatment, made him soon successfully treated by the author of desist, and re-excited his attention that work, who says, that they in to his own personal safety; as soon whom the temperament of sensibias the animals were quieted he would lity predominates have the greatest relapse into thought: if his ideas tendency to reverie. The patient was were melancholy the horses were a young lady of seventeen, with light allowed to walk slowly, if gay and eyes and hair, who (after some nercheerful, they were gently vous attack) fell into a reverie for



about an hour every day for six break the periodical chain of ideas, weeks. She conversed aloud with and by that means to give the maimaginary persons, with her eyes lady a new type. In the next place, open, and could not for an hour be it shows us that, let the mind be brought to attend to the stimulus of never so much absorbed by its own external objects by any kind of vio- internal feelings, we have still some lence which it was proper to use. command over the train of ideas These conversations were quite con- with which the attention is occupied. sistent, and she imagined her com- This was seen in the turn which the panions to answer. Sometimes she sight of the tuberose gave to the was angry, at other times shewed ideas of the young lady, and in the much wit and vivacity, but was remarkable effect of the sunshine in most frequently inclined to melan- giving a cheerful hue to the visions choly. In these reveries she some of the reverie ; but more evidently times sang over some music with in the singular but melancholy exaccuracy, and_repeated whole pas- pressions, which the sound of the sages of the English poets. In re- passing bell and the sight of her shoe peating some lines from Mr. Pope's gave birth to. “I love the colour works, she forgot some word, and black-a little wider, and a little began again, endeavouring to re- Jonger, even this might make me a collect it; when she came to the coffin.” And lastly, it shows us that, forgotten word, it was shouted aloud when we have succeeded in attractin her ear, and this repeatedly to no ing and then fixing the attention to purpose; but by many trials she at other objects, the cure is accomlength regained it herself. After plished; as

After plished; as was exemplified in the three weeks, the reveries became less recovery of this young lady in about complete, so that she could walk six weeks, through the philosophical about without striking the furniture. treatment of her physician. It would She drank tea, when the apparatus be easy to quote cases that painfully attracted her attention. She once illustrate the pernicious consequences seemed to smell a tuberose (belong- of a too freely indulged habit of ing to her sister), which was in reverie ; but these will suffice to imflower in her chamber, and delibe- press upon us the necessity of renderrated aloud about breaking it from ing the studies of youth alluring to the stem, saying “it would make the mind, and thereby placing the her sister charmingly angry.” At attention within the control of the another time, in her melancholy mo- will. By neglecting to do this, the ments, she heard the sound of a spring of life beeomes cheerless and passing-bell, and then taking off unhappy, and, what is of more conone of her shoes, said, “I love the sequence, the three after seasons are colour black-a little wider, and a confounded into one black mass of little longer, even this might make sorrow and despondency. There is me a coffin." Great light thrown a passage in Mr. Locke's work on upon her rendered her ideas less me- Education which we cannot forbear lancholy. Her pulse was unaffected. quoting, as it bears on the subject She never could recollect a single under consideration, and points out idea of what had passed in the re- the necessity of address in ascertainverie.

ing the most suitable object for fixThis is an exceedingly interesting ing the attention. case, and, by its successful method Upon the first suspicion a father of treatment, encourages us with has that his son is of a sauntering the hope of cure, even when the temper, he must carefully observe habit of reverie presents the aspect him whether he be listless and indifof a formidable malady.

ferent in all his actions; or whether It shews us, in the first place, in some things alone he be slow or how apt all aberrations from the sluggish, and in others vigorous and mental, as well as corporeal, standard eager. For though he finds that he of health are to assume a certain does loiter at his book, and let a good periodical character, which indeed deal of the time he spends in his serves as a guide in our endeavours chamber-study run idly away, he to reclaim the subjects of these must not presently conclude that aberrations, Accordingly, Dr. Dar- this is froin a sauntering humour in win's first efforts were directed to his temper. It may be childishness


and a preferring something to his acquired. We might adduce rumstudy which his thoughts run on: berless instances of the truth of this, and he dislikes his book, as is natural, one of the most recent is that of because it is forced upon him as a Alfieri, whose father endeavoured task. To know this perfectly, you with might and main for twenty years must watch him at play, when he is to eradicate the poetic disposition of out of his place and time of study, his son ; with what success, his following his own inclinations; and energetic tragedies testify. see there, whether he be stirring and To conclude-fixing the attention active; whether he designs any in youth is laying the surest foundathing, and with labour and eagerness tion of that superstructure on which pursues it, till he has accomplished the intellectual and moral happiness what he aimed at; or whether he of the individual depend. It is the lazily and listlessly dreams away his first step towards the developement time. If then his sloth be only when and perfecting of the reflecting faculhe is about his book, I think it may ties; and he, in whom the reflecting be easily cured. If it be in his tem- faculties lie torpid and useless, may per, it will require a little more have that power which wealth and pains and attentions to remedy it." fortune involve, but can never as

There is a prejudice abroad—in- pire to that empire over the minds sisted on principally by the man-mil- of men, which constitutes the true liners of literature, against restrain- aristocracy and dignity of human ing the fancy in youth; as if indeed nature. To achieve any noble enterthere were any hope of diminishing prise of intellect, it is first necessary the number of candidates for poetic to “ gird up the loins of the mind;" fame. But “ poeta nascitur, non fit” and that can be only done by him holds good in more senses than one: who has the imaginative faculties if nature has endowed the youth with under that guidance of the will sufficient intellect to convert the which is incompatible with a fixed sprouts of fancy into vigorous plants habit of “sauntering.” reverie. of the imagination, the weight of “A man's nature," says Lord Bamore solid 'acquirements serves but con, “runs either to herbs or weeds; to condense the elastic “poeticity” therefore let him seasonably water of feeling until, time or accident the one and destroy the other :" a having given it vent, it rushes forth maxim as instinct with the spirit of with an expansive energy which it poetry as of wisdom. never probably could otherwise have


MONASTERY OF ST. ALBAN's. The foilowing curious description he directed that no person, whom in of the manners and customs, as well any way he benefited by his endowas of a deception practised in or- ments or bequests, should, so long as der to amuse the vulgar, at one of he partook of his bounty, become a our most celebrated English monas- member of either of those learned teries, is taken from the manuscript bodies; and having quarrelled with collections of a well-known anti- some unfortunate native of Scotland, quary and collector, preserved in the the Doctor moreover decreed that the Bodleian Library. It is in the hand- same ineligibility should attach to writing of Dr. Richard Rawlinson, every Scotchman or son of a Scotchbrother to Thomas Rawlinson (the man, and to all persons born in any Tom Folio of the Tatler) of books of our plantations abroad. With all collecting notoriety, and himself a these infirmities of temper and pecuvery singular person. He first be- Jiarities of disposition, the friends of queathed his property to the Royal literature are under considerable oband Antiquarian Societies, and then ligations to Dr. Rawlinson. He in' a codicil cut them both off without founded a lecture for the promotion a shilling, for some trifling misunder- and encouragement of Anglo-Saxon standing with one of their officers : literature in the university of Oxford, in order to be completely revenged, left the principal part of his propers

ty to augment the fellowships and came thithet, they sat at the end of his scholarships of the college in which table. After the monks had waited some he had himself received his education, time on the abbot, they sat down at two and bequeathed to the public library other tables placed on each side of the a collection of printed books and of hall, and had their service brought up by manuscripts, embracing almost all the novices, who when the monks had

dined sat down to their own dinner. subjects, and in almost all languages,

This Mr. Shrimpton remembered that but peculiarly abounding in treasures

when the news of Queen Marie's death arpertaining to the history and anti- rived at St. Albans, the then abbot, for quities of his own country, as well as grief, took his chamber and dyed within in miscellaneous English literature. a fortnight. He also remembered the It is from a loose paper, written by image, erected near St. Albans' shrine, Dr. Rawlinson, and inserted in one when one being placed to govern the wyres, of these manuscripts, that we have the eyes would move, and head nodd, actaken the following:

cording as he liked or disliked the offering;

and that, being young, he had many times Mr. Robert Shrimpton, grandfather by crept into the hollow of it. the mother's side to Mistress Simpson of In the grand processions through the St. Albans, was four times mayor of St. town, when the image of St. Alban was Albans : he dyed about sixty years since, carried, it was usually born by twelve being then about 103 years of age. monks, and after it had been sett down a

He lived when the abby of St. Albans while at the markett cross, and the monks flourished, before the dissolution, and re- assaying to take it up again, they pretendmembered most things relating to the ed they could not stir it, the abbot coming buildings of the abby, the regiment of the and laying his crossier upon the image, house, the ceremonies in the church, the and using these words, “ Arise, arise, St. grand processions, which he would often Alban 1 arise, and get thee home to thy discourse of in his life-time. Among sanctuary !" it forthwith yielded to be others : that in the great hall there was an borne by the monks. In the abby was a ascent of fifteen steps to the abbot's table, large room with bedds on each side for the to which the monks brought up the service receipt of strangers and pilgrims, where in plate, and staying at every five steps, at they had lodging and diett for three days, a landing place, they sung a short hymne. without question made, whence they came, The abbot usually sat alone in the middle or whither they went ? but after that time of the table, and when any noblemen, am- they staid without rendring an account bassadours, or strangers of eminent quality of both."

PRINCE CHARLES'S JOURNEY INTO SPAIN. There is no English historian who The pamphlet is entitled A true does not make especial mention of Relation and Journall of the Manner the Spanish match, and of the expe- of the Arrivall and magnificent Enterdition of King Charles the First tainment, given to the high and mighty (then Prince of Wales) into Spain. Prince Charles, Prince of Great BriIt is not however generally known taine, by the King of Spaine in his that, in order to quiet the alarms of Court at Madrid. Published by Authothe people, and probably to mitigate rity. London, Printed by John Havithe public displeasure so likely to land for William Barret. 1623. manifest itself, when the extraordi- From this it

appears that the Prince nary situation, if not the imminent arrived at Madrid on Friday March danger, to which the heir-apparent the 7th, at eight in the evening, atof the English throne was exposed tended only by the Marquis of Buckshould become generally understood, ingham, and the postilion with whom a very particular account of the re- they had ridden post the three preception given to the Prince on his ceding days. "They immediately arrival at Madrid was printed in went to the house of the Earl of BrisEngland during his residence in the tol, then ambassador at the Court, Spanish capital. It is a tract of hoping that their names and rank great rarity; and as it betrays evident might remain concealed.

It soon signs of having issued from head however got whispered abroad that quarters, and besides throws no small the Marquis was arrived, but the very light on the manners of the two next morning the Conde de Gondomar courts at that period, we shall give was privately informed of the real some account of it in our present ar- character of both these illustrious ticle.

visitors, and instantly repaired to

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