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We took up our lodging at a wretched taverna, one of the few houses within the walls of Paestum, and having reposed a little, went forth to examine the temples.

How grandiosi, how imposing, how sublime are these old edifices-ruins they can hardly be called, they have still such a character of firmness, of entireness! These "firm-set". columns seem to be rooted in the earth -to have grown from it-mysterious, eternal, they seem almost productions of other energies than those of man! How inadequate are models or drawings to convey the grand characters of architecture! How we felt the fact, when our eyes took in the magnitude of the proportions, the grandeur of the ensemble of these structures! And so great a charm exists in their wild solitary situation -this wide-wide plain seems to reserve itself exclusively for their basis, this circus of mountains, and this sea form so appropriate a frame for them-the silence of man seems here the silence of reverence, and the tinkle of the sheep-bell, the distant low of the ox, the rustle of the green lizard, and even

i stridi ingrati Delle cornici squallide e de' corviare sounds consonant to the hoary antiquity, to the obscured but venerable glories of the edifices. We have no wish (probably because we have no means of adding much to the volumes of description that already exist, of these remains-so be not frightened, gentle editor-we here serve up our few observations with a brevity that must excuse their illogical disorder.

Padre Paoli must have been mad, or curst indeed with a Borrominesco taste in architecture (as Paolini observes), when he said that the style of these temples was rozzo e goffo (rude and clumsy), condemned by all persons that loved delicacy; his supposing them to be works of the Etruscans, and in the Etruscan order, was bad enough; his career of ignorance might have stopped there-the bar

barous old monk ought to have been confined to his cell a year for his contumacy!

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Mr. Forsyth was certainly right in curtailing the antiquity of the Paestum temples, and Mr. Eustace's assertion, that "from the solidity or heaviness of their forms, we must conclude that they are the oldest specimens of Grecian art now in existence," can hardly be made good. "The proportions of an order," says the former gentleman, are but a matter of convention: they often vary in the same country, nay in the same edifice; and surely a Phidias working in the metropolis of Grecian art, with its two best architects and the Pentelic quarry at his command, might well produce more elegance than contemporary, or even later artists, who were confined to the ruder materials and tastes of a remote colony." In support of this opinion we would observe that the materials

the very coarse, porous, and at the same time, very brittle stones, of which the temples are built, are such as adapt themselves more agreeably to large masses than to fine light pieces. These stones were undoubtedly formed and found at Paestum itself; they are hard coralline petrifactions: the brackish water of the river Salso that runs by the walls of the town, and in different branches across the plain, has so strong a petrifying virtue that you can almost follow its operation with the eye; the waters of the neighbouring Sele have always been remarkable for the same quality in many places where the soil had been removed, we perceived strata of stones similar to those which compose the temples, and we would almost venture to say, that the substratum of all the plain, from the Sele to Acropoli, is of the like substance. Curious petrifactions of leaves, pieces of wood, insects, and other vegetable and animal matters, are observed in the materials of the columns, walls, &c.


The cyclopean walls of the city are pretty well preserved, except on the side towards the sea; on the eastern

See vol. ix. p. 122, for the first part.

side they have suffered little, and fragments of towers, which seem to have flanked the walls at regular distances, yet exist. The gate in this part, called La Porta della Sirena (from a small rudely sculptured figure, which looks more like a dolphin, over the arch) is very perfect, but mean and small, and here the aqueduct which conveyed the water from the mountains behind Capaccio is traced for some distance. Near the hollow, called the Amphitheatre, we perceived the figure of a gladiator, seated with a shield on his arm, executed in bold relief, on a large block of fine white stone, which had been but lately discovered. It may serve to strengthen the rights of the "scooped out space" to its title of amphitheatre.-Yet if this hole was the arena of an amphitheatre, what a diminutive one it must have been! Did not the Roman taste for that amusement take so deeply among the Paestans, as among their other colonies and conquests? And yet the coin most frequently found here, bearing the Latin epigraph Paest., has the figure of a gladiator on one side and

of a wild beast on the other.

We did not quit the interesting ruins until evening closed in. Our quarters at O S Pepe's were not particularly good; his hostelry consisted of a stable and pig's-sty on the ground floor; upstairs a good sized room that was kitchen, tap, parlour, and dining-room, a bed-room for the whole family behind, and on one side a spence about ten feet square, in which they had shaken down two sacks of straw for us. Comfort we could not expect, but we were very merry withal the few inhabitants of that secluded spot met at St Pepe's to spend the evening in jollity befitting the season (you remember it was Easter Sunday); an old man played the Spanish guitar, and a boy beat a tabor; the landlord's children (ne aveva una bella provista) danced the tarantella, while the older bystanders beat time and cracked their fingers for castanets. We contributed our portion to the amusement by treating them to supper and wine, and this had so good an effect that we were soon in as gay a circle as can be imagined. The joke, the story, the rustic song went round, one peal of laughter followed another, but though rough and noisy, their

mirth was not at all gross or offen-
sive. We made the singers repeat
slowly three or four of their songs,
which, like ancient oral traditions are
spread from mouth to mouth, and
without ever being committed to the
custody of ink and paper, enjoy a
circumscribed, tiny immortality, in
the town or village where they were
produced; we wrote them down,
they are exceedingly simple, but not
without prettiness-how figurative-
how eastern is this passage!
Figliuola con quisto pietto palombino,
Luci più della luna di Yennaro,
'Sta buccuzza vostra yetta fiori,
Le labruzze son coralli naturali;
Quanno ti metti 'sta tovaglia bionna,
Mi pari un antenna in auto mare!
Maid with the dove's breast,
Thou shinest brighter than the moon of

This mouth of thine throws forth flowers,
Thy lips are natural corals;
When thou puttest thy brown napkin o'er
thy head

Thou seemest to me a sail in the high sea!

Admire, we beseech you, the orientality of the simile," when thou puttest thy brown napkin over thy head, thou seemest to me a sail in the high sea.' No northern imagination, less than Macpherson-Össian can come up to this!

When our merriment was at its height, it was interrupted by loud cries across the plain, and the barking of dogs: a boy came in saying, "sono calati i lupi" (the wolves are come down), and we all ran to the door: the noise, however, waxed weaker and weaker, and soon ceased. This incident introduced a long conversation on the privation of fire-arms, on wolves, and shooting. On the reintegration or pristination (the latter is the favourite word now) of King Ferdinand's government after the fall of the constitution, the people were disarmed, punishments decreed against such as concealed their arms, and many obstacles placed in the way of obtaining licences, especially for such as had been, or were suspected of having been Carbonari. This was felt as a dreadful evil all over the kingdom, and the inhabitants of this part of the country had strong and particular motives of discontent. "The mountains around are full of wolves," said our host,

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and mares before our eyes, and we
can do nothing but shout and throw
our sticks at them; the rogues have
found out we have no guns, and the
next thing they will do will be to
come and eat us in our houses."
But, besides affording this protec-
tion, a gun was a great provider;
the plain abounds in game, and, be
it said in confidenza, now and then
an unruly wild boar, or a silly fat
buck or so, would wander from the
royal woods of Persano, to places
where he had no business, and the
country people (always preserving
la distanza di rispetto towards the
game-keepers, who are numerous),
would now and then take the liberty
of bringing him down and eating him.
We remembered that the Epicu-
rean Horace speaks somewhere with
satisfaction of supping on a Lucanian
boar, but we had no idea of the sa-
vouriness of a Lucanian wolf; here,
however, we learned that the pea-
sants are accustomed to eat that
flesh, and that they think it very
good. Su di questo proposito our host
told us a delightful story: a short
time after his marriage he took a
wolf and gave a dinner to some of
his neighbours; his spouse, who was
a forestiera, and not endowed with
the Paestan predilection for wolf-
flesh, ate of it heartily without know-
ing what it was; as soon as the
repast was ended, the frolic began
by the company's imitating the ulu-
lare of the wolf, which harmonious
noise, they said, proceeded from the
animal they had eaten-she felt ra-
ther qualmish at the time, but ever
since has had no objection to a bit of
the monster. The following membra
disjecta of the evening's lucubrations
are too precious to be lost.

"Wolves are kings-true kings,
for they eat of the best, and take any
kind of meat they like without pay-
ing for it."

"Our King Ferdinand cares more
for a wild boar or a brace of beccaccj
The last time he
than a subject.
was down here, a number of us sur-
rounded him, begging for a testimony
of his generosity." "Go and take
your zappe" (a sort of hoe), said he,
and work-you are better off than
I am."

"We were all Carbonari here about
(perchè era la moda), because it was
the fashion!"

and we watched them with a mute pleasure until they had all disappeared behind projecting rocks, and their chaunt had sunk to a melancholy murmur.

From Capo di fiume we toiled up a very precipitous path to Capaccio Vecchio. On a small flat which we found very much crowded stands the church and an hermitage attached to it, the only buildings not in ruins; several gay flags were flying by the church door, within they were celebrating mass, and the wide nave was covered with kneeling women, for the most part very pretty, and dressed in the same costume. We saw the object of the devotion and the festa in a hideous wooden gilt statue of a madonna, holding a pomegranate in one hand; besides this treasure the church contains an old marble pulpit and a marble urn, in which, according to tradition, reposed the bones of a certain San Matteo, until the wealth or power of the Salernitans transported them to the cathedral of Salerno, where they have ever since remained, and work a miracle annually, even unto this day.

According to old chronicles, the inhabitants of this town, safe in their situation, and the walls and fortresses with which they had strengthened it, lived peacefully and happily, while the towns in the plains and on the sea coast were continually devastated by the Saracens and other enemies. This happiness at length came to a fatal termination in 1218, when the Count of Capaccio, who had joined a rebellion of the Barons against the Emperor Frederic II. was obliged to retreat and defend himself in this, his last strongest hold, and after a long and obstinate resistance to surrender to an enraged enemy. The popular tradition says, the place was taken through the treachery of an old woman, to whom the conquerors emphatically expressed their detestation of her crime-a crime by which they had succeeded, by throwing her from the loftiest of the towers down a tremendous precipice. How alike are these stories in all ages and in all countries! they proceed from sentiments which are natural, and do honour to man. It appears that the Emperor's troops destroyed the town and castles, and that the portion of

the population that escaped repaired to a neighbouring village called San Pietro, which thenceforward assumed the name of Capaccio Nuovo. The punishment inflicted on the conspirators was barbarous and bizarre at the same time; each was sewed in a sack with a dog, a monkey, a cock, and a viper, and so thrown into the sea; their relations even to the fourth and fifth remove, were burned after having their eyes scooped out, and only one, a boy nine years old, was saved from that horrid fate, by the fidelity and craft of a servant. The ruins of the town, which are very considerable, show it to have been surrounded by high walls, strengthened by a number of towers; large parts of these, as well as of the main castle or keep, are yet standing, the stone work of a number of little houses is almost entire--they have been deserted for centuries, and yet they seem as if they had been inhabited but the other day.

When the devotional exercises in the church were terminated, the scene assumed the character of a country fair; there were little stalls exposing coarse laces, ribbons, corone (rosaries), pictures of saints, and madonnas, wine-barrels, shoes, fox and badger skins, and a variety of other articles for sale: there were stalls of bread, wine, and fruit, and little cookshops with fires in the open air, frying meat, boiling maccaroni, minestra verde and other good things. We procured a dish of eels, taken in the river Salso below, a boiled fowl, and a little meat-we had providently brought a boraccio of good wine from our host O Sì Pepe's, and about noon we sat down with our two conductors on the brow of the hill, to dinner. The picture was peculiarly pleasing and exhilarating-the day was lovely; not a single spot dimmed the cerulean canopy-a playful zephyr mitigated the heat of the sun, and wafted to us the sweets of flower and herb, of shrub and blossoming tree; before us spread the wide Paestan plain, specked with its grand edifices and scattered farms, and bounded majestically by the blue Mediterranean, and the lofty irregular Apennines-our eyes could make out through the light silvery vapours of noon the white mass of Salerno and several other towns-we marked


A Walk to Paestum, Leucosia, &c.-Part II

the position of Amalfi of Posidonia,
and other places built on the preci-
pitous sides of the promontory, where
they seem as if they were about to
slip into the sea-the rugged cliffs of
Capri just peeped out beyond the
Capo Campanella, and the Siren rocks
showed themselves sleeping in the
shade of the lofty coast: around us
groups of peasants were seated on
the declivities of the hill, or in angles
of the grey ruins, eating, drinking,
and laughing-all so gay-so full of
life. "And then the women smiling
so prettily from under their modest
head-drapery." The reflected rays
of so much happiness warmed our
hearts-there was no resisting, and
in spite of sundry laudable resolu-
tions not to make too free with the
rosy God, we sucked at our boraccio
so heartily and so frequently that it
waxed low-it was again filled, and
again devoutly emptied, and we pro-
tested with the jolly Bishop, the wor-
thy Monsignore Fortiguerra, that

Di tutti i beni che ci ha dato Iddio.
Non è mica il minor quello del vino.

Il Ricciardetto.
About three o'clock the company
began to drop off in large parties and
in different directions, some to Capa-
cio Nuovo, some to La Rocca, some
to Trentenara to Acropoli, and
some to the plain. We joined a gay
straggling troop that was going to the
first of these places. We have seen
many popular feste (we are fond of
them-we like to see nature in its
broad, unveiled colours-we would
rather go to one than to a ball, a
masquerade, or a new opera), but in
justice we must acknowledge we
never saw one equal to this. It of-
fered us satisfactory and consoling
scenes of rustic life, and impressed
us with a very favourable opinion of
the peasantry of these parts; there
was a deal of genuine simplicity,
cheerfulness, kindness, and affection
throughout; and among the women a
degree of personal beauty that in all
our wanderings we have rarely seen
surpassed in people of this class, and
certainly never equalled in this king-
dom. Their costume was such as is
common in the south of Italy; a clean
piece of white linen cloth (frequently
fringed) was folded in a curious man-
ner over the head, it dropped down
behind, and fell upon the neck, con-

cealing the hair, except a few wan-
dering tresses, but forming a simple,
pretty frame, to the oval, well com-
plexioned face, the large dark eye,
the fine lined nose, the little mouth
and white teeth, and the firm round
chin, and setting off at the same
time the Guido-Madonna-like ex-
pression of modesty, ingenuousness,
and good nature that characterized
the whole. A vest closely embraced
the firm but not inelegant bust; this
was the smartest part of the apparel;
it was commonly of cloth, either blue,
or red, or green, laced in front and
trimmed with knots of gay
at the shoulders and wrists; in some
a little lace ran round the bosom, but
we did not observe any of the galloon,
or spangles, or gaudy frippery that
the Neapolitan peasantry generally
bedeck themselves with: the petti-
coat, of more sober colour, also for
the most part of cloth, fell in rich
folds, so long as almost to touch the
earth. All the women were dressed
alike as to fashion, the only difference
being in the quality or colour of the
materials, and the same uniformity
existed in the dress of the men.
These costumes are, at least to us,
affecting; they seem to unite people
in one vast family, to form a bond of
union, to draw closer the ties of so-

A rough road along the sides of
the mountain conducted us to Capac-
cio Nuovo, which is about two miles
from the ruined city. We had learn-
ed at the festa that there was a Fran-
ciscan monastery here, and to this
we repaired forthwith, to secure a
lodging. The old Guardiano at first
received us rather morosely and
started difficulties, alleging that
theirs was a miserable monastery,
that they had no beds and nothing
fit to be eaten by persons of our
quality; we, however, set forth the
modesty of our demands and over-
ruled all his difficulties, and at length
he agreed to receive us, and to treat
us as well as he could. The society
contrived, after great exertion, to
furnish one coarse bed, the interest of
the superior in the town procured
another, and on these we reposed
soundly until a short time after night
fall, when an old monk came with a
lamp in his hand to conduct us to
supper. We found the community
consisting of eight individuals besides

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