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quences which war at last entails shocking together, should go through upon any nation even through the all sorts of new combinations to be midst of peace,-she drives nations again dissolved by the fortuitous to all sorts of experiments and expe- impulse of fresh shocks, until at dients ; and finally after infinite de- length by pure accident some combivastations, ruin, and universal ex- nation emerges capable of supporthaustion of energy, to one which ing itself (a case of luck that could reason should have suggested with- hardly be looked for):-or whether out the cost of so sad an experience; (in the second place) we should raviz. to quit the barbarous condition ther assume that nature is in this of lawless power, and to enter into a instance pursuing her regular course federal league of nations, in which of raising our species gradually from even the weakest member looks for the lower steps of animal existence to its rights and for protection—not to the very highest of a human existits own power, or its own adjudica- ence, and that not by any direct intion, but to this great confederation terposition in our favor but through (Fædus Amphictyonum), to the united man's own spontaneous and artificial power, and the adjudication of the efforts (spontaneous, but yet extortcollective will. Visionary as this idea ed from him by his situation), and may seem, and as such laughed at in in this apparently wild arrangement the Abbé de St. Pierre and in Rous- of things is developing with perfect seau (possibly because they deemed regularity the original tendencies she it too near to its accomplishment),– has implanted :-or whether in the it is notwithstanding the inevitable* third place) it is more reasonable to resource and mode of escape under believe that out of all this action and that pressure of evil which nations re-action of the human species upon reciprocally inflict; and, hard as it itself nothing in the shape of a wise may be to realise such an idea, states result will ever issue; that it will must of necessity be driven at last to continue to be as it has been; and the very same resolution to which therefore that it cannot be known bethe savage man of nature was driven forehand but that the discord, which with equal reluctance—viz. to sacri- is so natural to our species, will fice brutal liberty, and to seek peace finally prepare for us a hell of evils and security in a civil constitution under the most moral condition of founded upon law. All wars there- society such as may swallow up this fore are so many tentative essays very moral condition itself and all (not in the intention of man, but in previous advance in culture by a rethe intention of nature) to bring a- flux of the original barbaric spirit of bout new relations of states, and by desolation (a fate, by the way, against revolutions and dismemberments to which it is impossible to be secured form new political bodies: these a- under the government of blind chance, gain, either from internal defects or with which liberty uncontroled by external attacks, cannot support law is identical, unless by underthemselves,—but must undergo simi- laying this chance with a secret lar revolutions ; until at last, partly nexus of wisdom) :-to all this the by the best possible arrangement of answer turns upon the following civil government within and partly question; whether it be reasonable by common concert and legal com- to assume a final purpose of all napact without, a condition is attained tural processes and arrangements in which, like a well-ordered common- the parts, and yet a want of purpose wealth, can maintain itself in the in the whole?' What therefore the way of an automaton.

objectless condition of savage life Now, whether in the first place) effected in the end, viz. that it checkit is to be anticipated from an epi- ed the developement of the natural curean concourse of efficient causes tendencies in the human species, but that states, like atoms, by accidental then, by the very evils it thus caused,


* During the two last centuries (i. e. from the date of the scheme for organizing Christendom for some common purpose, no matter what, by the first of the Bourbons, Henry IV. of France, down to the late congresses at Aix la Chapelle and Verona) the human species have been making their first rude essays-putting forth their feelers as it were-towards such an idea.-- Translator.


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drove man into a state where those motions by which the intellect of the tendencies could unfold and mature species is unfolding and forming itthemselves—namely, the state of ci- self, to say nothing of their shrinking vilization;—that same service is per- from all positive aid to those motions. formed for states by the barbaric But all good, that is not engrafted freedom in which they are now exist- upon moral good, is mere show and ing-viz. that, by causing the dedi- hollow speciousness—the dust and cation of all national energies and re- ashes of morality. And in this desources to war-by the desolations lusive condition will the human race of war-and still more by causing linger, until it shall have toiled upthe necessity of standing continually wards in the way I have mentioned in a state of preparation for war, it from its present chaotic abyss of pochecks the full developement of the litical relations. natural tendencies in its progress; but on the other hand by these very

PROPOSITION THE EIGHTH. evils and their consequences, it com- The history of the human species pels our species at last to discover as a whole may be regarded as the unsome law of counterbalance to the ravelling of a hidden plan of nature principle of antagonism between na- for accomplishing a perfect state of tions, and in order to give effect to civil constitution for society in its inthis law to introduce a federation of ternal relations (and, as the condition states and consequently a cosmopoli- of that, by the last proposition in its tical condition of security (or police) external relations also) as the sole state

corresponding to that municipal of society in which the tendencies of security which arises out of in- human nature can be all and fully deternal police. This federation will veloped. This proposition is an inferitself not be exempt from danger, ence from the preceding. else the powers of the human race tion arises upon it-whether expewould go to sleep; it will be suffi- rience has yet observed any traces of cient that it contain a principle for such an unravelling in history. I anrestoring the equilibrium between its swer-some little: for the whole peown action and re-action, and thus riod (to speak astronomically) of this checking the two functions from de- unravelling is probably too vast to stroying each other. Before this last admit of our collecting even the form step is taken, human nature then of its orbit or the relation of the about half way advanced in its pro- parts to the whole from the small gress-is in the deepest abyss of fraction of it which man has yet left evils under the deceitful semblance behind him; just as little as it is of external prosperity; and Rousseau possible from the astronomical obwas not so much in the wrong when servations hitherto made to deterhe preferred the condition of the sa- mine the course which our sun togevage to that of the civilized man at ther with his whole system of planets the point where he has reached but pursues amongst the heavenly host; is hesitating to take the final step of although upon universal grounds dehis ascent. We are at this time in a rived from the systematic frame of high degree of culture as to arts and the universe, as well as upon the litsciences. We are civilized to super- tle stock of observation as yet accufluity in what regards the graces and mulated, enough is known to wardecorums of life. But, to entitle is rant us in asserting that there is to consider ourselves moralized, much such a course. Meantime our human is still wanting. Yet the idea of mo- nature obliges us to take an interest rality belongs even to that of culture; even in the remotest epoch to which but the use of this idea, as it comes our species is destined, provided we forward in mere civilization, is re- can anticipate it with certainty. So strained to its influence on manners much the less can we be indifferent as seen in the principle of honor-in to it, inasmuch as it appears within respectability of deportment, &c. our power by intellectual arrangeNothing indeed of a true moral in- ments to contribute something tofluence can be expected so long as wards the acceleration of the species states direct all their energies to idle in its advance to this great epoch. plans of aggrandizement by force, On this account the faintest traces of and thus incessantly check the slow any approximation in such a direction become of importance to us. At age, will be by withdrawing its oppopresent all states are so artificially sition at least to the feeble and tardy inter-connected, that no one can pos- exertions of the people in this direcsibly become stationary in its inter- tiou. Finally, war itself becomes nal culture without retrograding in gradually not only so artificial a propower and influence with respect to cess, so uncertain in its issue, but all the rest; and thus if not the pro- also in the after-pains of inextinguishgress yet the non-declension of this able national debts (a contrivance of purpose of nature is sufficiently se- modern times) so anxious and burcured through the ambition of na- thensome; and, at the same time, tions. Moreover, civil liberty cannot the influence which any convulsions at this day any longer be arrested in of one state exert upon every other its progress but that all the sources state is so remarkable in our quarter of livelihood, and more immediately of the globe -- linked as it is in all trade, must betray a close sympathy parts by the systematic intercourse of with it, and sicken as that sickens; trade,--that at length, those governand hence a decay of the state in its ments, which have no immediate external relations. Gradually too participation in the war, under a this liberty extends itself. If the

sense of their own danger, offer themcitizen be hindered from pursuing his selves 'as mediators-though as yet interest in any way most agreeable without any authentic sanction of to himself, provided only it can co- law, and thus prepare all things from exist with the liberty of others, in afar for the formation of a great prithat case the vivacious life of gene- mary state-body, or cosmopolitic ral business is palsied, and in con- Areopagus, such as is wholly unprenexion with that again the powers of cedented in all preceding ages. Althe whole. Hence it arises that all though this body at present exists personal restriction, whether as to only in rude outline, yet already a commission or omission, is more and stirring is beginning to be perceptimore withdrawn; religious liberty is ble in all its limbs-each of which is established; and thus by little and interested in the maintenance of the little, with occasional interruptions, whole ; even now there is enough to arises Illumination; a blessing which justify a hope that, after many revothe human race must win even from lutions and re-modellings of states, the self-interested purposes of its the supreme purpose of nature will be rulers, if they comprehend what is accomplished in the establishment of for their own advantage. Now this a cosmopolitic state as the bosom in illumination, and with it a certain which all the original tendencies of degree of cordial interest which the the human species are to be deveenlightened man cannot forbear tak- loped. ing in all the good which he perfectly comprehends, must by degrees mount upwards even to the throne, and ex- A philosophical attempt to compose ert an influence on the principles of a universal history in the sense of a government. At present, for exam- cosmopolitical history upon a plan tendple, our governments have no * money ing to unfold the purpose of nature in a disposable for national education, be perfect civil union of the human species cause the estimates for the next war (instead of the present imperfect union) have absorbed the whole by antici- is to be regarded as possible, and as capation : the first act therefore, by pable even of helping forward this very which the state will express its inte- purpose of nature.- At first sight it is rest in the advancing spirit of the certainly a strange and apparently an


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No money disposable,&c. The reader must remember that this was written in Germany in the year 1784, and in the midst of petty courts (which are generally the most profligate). In England, and even elsewhere, there is now the dawn of a better system. Translator.

+ The reader must remember what Kant means by a universal history: in the common sense, as the history of the whole world in its separate divisions, such a history exists already in many shapes that perhaps could not be essentially improved. But in Kant's sense, as a history of the whole as a whole, no essay has been made towards it.


extravagant project to propose a being more and more developed by history of man founded on any idea every revolution, prepared continualof the course which human affairs ,ly a still higher step of improvement: would take if adjusted to certain rea- -in that case, I believe that a clue sonable ends. On such a plan it may will be discovered not only for the be thought that nothing better than a unravelling of the intricate web of romance could he the result. Yet, if human affairs and for the guidance we assume that nature proceeds not of future statesmen in the art of powithout plan and final purpose even litical prophecy (a benefit which has in the motions of human free-will, been extracted from history even this idea may possibly turn out very whilst it was regarded as an incouseful; and, although we are too herent result from a lawless freedom short-sighted to look through the se- of will),—but also such a clue as cret mechanism of her arrangements, will open a consolatory prospect into this idea may yet serve as a clue for futurity, in which at a remote disconnecting into something like syste- tance we shall discover the human matic unity the great abstract of hu- species seated upon an eminence man actions that else seem a chaotic won by infinite toil where all the and incoherent aggregate. For, if germs are unfolded which nature has we take our beginning from the Gre- implanted-and its destination upon cian history-as the depository or at this earth accomplished. Such a jusleast the collateral voucher for all tification of nature, or rather of proelder or synchronous history; if we vidence, is no mean motive for choospursue down to our own times its ing this cosmopolitical station for the influence

upon the formation and survey of history. For what does it malformation of the Roman people avail to praise and to draw forth to as a political body that swallowed up view the magnificence and wisdom the Grecian state, and the influence of the creation in the irrational kingof Rome upon the barbarians by dom of nature, if that part in the whom Rome itself was destroyed; great stage of the supreme wisdom, and if to all this we add, by way of which contains the object of all episode, the political history of every this mighty display, viz. the history other people so far as it has come to of the human species-is to remain our knowledge through the records an eternal objection to it, the bare of the two enlightened nations a- sight of which obliges us to turn bove-mentioned; we shall then dis- away our eyes with displeasure, and cover a regular gradation of improve- (from the despair which it raises of ment in civil polity as it has grown ever discovering in it a perfect and up in our quarter of the globe, which rational purpose) finally leads us to quarter is in all probability destined look for such a purpose only in anto give laws to all the rest. If fur- other world? ther we direct an exclusive attention My object in this essay would be to the civil constitution, with its laws, wholly misinterpreted, if it were supand the external relations of the state, posed that under the idea of a cosin so far as both, by means of the mopolitical history which to a cergood which they contained, served tain degree has its course determined for a period to raise and to dignify à priori, I had any wish to discouother nations and with them the arts rage the cultivation of empirical hisand sciences, yet again by their de- tory in the ordinary sense: on the fects served also to precipitate them contrary, the philosopher must be into ruin, but so that always some well versed in history who could germ of illumination survived which, execute the plan I have sketched,


A learned public only, that has endured unbroken from its commencement to our days, can be an authentic witness for ancient history. Beyond that, all is terra incognita ; and the history of nations who live without that circle must start from time to time as they happened to come within it. This took place with the Jewish people about the time of the Ptolemies, and chicfly through the Septuagint translation of the Bible ; apart from which, but little credit should be given to their own insulated accounts unsupported by collateral evidence. From this point we may pursue their records upwards, and so of all other nations. The first page in Thucydides, says Hume, is the only legitimate commencement of all genuine history.

which is indeed a most extensive which will long have perished, simply survey of history, only taken from a by the value of that which will then new station. However the extreme, concern themselves-viz. by the good and, simply considered, praiseworthy or evil performed by nations and their circumstantiality, with which the governments in a cosmopolitical view. history of every nation is written in To direct the eye upon this point as our times, must naturally suggest a

connected with the ambition of ruquestion of some embarrassment. lers and their servants, in order to In what way our remote posterity guide them to the only means of bewill be able to cope with the enor- queathing an honorable record of mous accumulation of historical re- themselves to distant ages; may furcords which a few centuries will be- nish some small motive (over and queath to them? There is no doubt above the great one of justifying Prothat they will estimate the historical vidence) for attempting a Philosodetails of times far removed from phic History on the plan I have here their own, the original monuments of explained.



When you look on my grave,
And behold how they wave-

The cypress, the yew, and the willow-
You think 'tis the breeze
That gives motion to these,-

"Tis the laughter that's shaking my pillow !
I must laugh when I see
A poor insect like thee

Dare to pity the fate thou must own ;
Let a few moments slide,
We shall lie side by side,

And crumble to dust, bone for bone !
Go weep thine own doom !
Thou wert born for the tomb,

Thou hast lived, like myself, but to die ;
Whilst thou pity'st my lot,
Secure fool! thou'st forgot

Thou art no more immortal than I!


CLARKE, LLD. Of all popular writers, perhaps a with the air of one who knows that writer of travels is the most popular. it will not be withheld. We give up He is at once the historian and the our faith to him on easy terms. It hero: he addresses us with the frank- is the least return we can make for ness of an intimate correspondent, the obligations under which we are and appeals directly to our sympathy laid by one who enables us without

The Life and Remains of the Rev. Edward Daniel Clarke, LLD. Professor of Mineralogy in the University of Cambridge. London, Cowie, 1824.

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