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where in the dark much better than wall that we judge them so to do, those who could see. After he was when we merely see them exhibiting enabled to see he did not soon lose the same appearances they had when this faculty, nor desire a light to go we felt them before. The boy upon about the house in darkness. He whom Mr. Cheselden operated, said every new object was a new de- thought, it seems, “ that all objects light, and the pleasure was so great whatever touched his eyes," i. e. all that he wanted words to express it ; objects and parts of objects appeared but his gratitude to the operator was equally distant from him, the foreextreme, never seeing him for some legs of a chair as distant as the hind, time without shedding tears, and if in short he could not see direct disa he did not happen to come at the tance at all. It was only by habit, time he was expected, the boy could by feeling a table, for instance, by not forbear crying at the disappoint- then observing the lights and shades ment. A year after his first seeing, its different surfaces presented to his being carried to Epsom Downs, he eye (for of colour the eye is a judge), was exceedingly delighted with the it was only by this process that he largeness of the prospect, and called was at length enabled to know a table it a new kind of seeing. He was af- when he merely saw it. And it is the terwards couched of the other eye, same process which gradually teaches and found that objects appeared large us in our infancy to correct the errors to this eye, but not so large as they of our sight by the testimony of our did at first to the other: looking feeling, and to know that that is proupon the same object with both eyes, tuberant which appears flat, as every he thought it appeared about twice object does to the eye of a new-born as large as to the first couched eye child. This habit which the mind only, but it did not appear dou, gets of deciding upon the massive ble.

form of objects immediately upon Mr. Cheselden performed the open seeing them, is that from which the ration of couching on several other whole effect of painting results: when persons, who all gave nearly the we see a landscape or a group of same account of their learning to see figures on canvas, the parts assume as the preceding. They all had this to our eyes a depth or protuberance, curious defect after couching in com- though really flat, because, exhibitmon, that never having had occasion ing the same light and shade which to move their eyes, they knew not the objects represented by them do how to do it, and at first could not themselves in rerum naturâ present, direct them to any particular object, we judge them to be similar in all but had to move the whole head, till their dimensions, and to recede or by slow degrees they acquired the fam come forward from the canvas in the culty of shifting the eye-balls in their same manner as the real objects sockets.

would do if placed against a wall. Several philosophical inferences in conformity with this reasoning it may be deduced from the above-cited appears that the boy who was couch, experiment. First it is evident that ed had no perception of the effect of the eye is not a judge of direct, painting : not having yet obtained though it may be of transverse disa experience of the lights and shades tance, i. e. that it cannot estimate reflected by real bodies, when he saw the distance between two trees, for these lights and shades imitated on example, nearly in a line with itself, canvas they could not deceive him, though it may, if they are at equal as they do a person of sound sight, lengths from it, but not in the same into the supposition that they were line with it. Hence when we look reflected by massive bodies, he only at a chair standing against the wall saw flat canvas diversified with a vaof our chamber we really do not see riety of paint. that the fore legs stand out upon the Secondly, it appears that the carpet,- we see both them and all boy could not tell a cat from a dog parts of the chair painted as it were until he had felt them, it is plain (projected is the philosophical word) that neither could he tell a cube from on the wall. It is only by having a globe. It is to be observed, howfelt that they do stand out from the ever, that although at first all distinctions of shape were unperceived, information is true ; whilst judgment yet experience would shortly have tells them that these colours, lights, taught him to distinguish, by sight and shades, indicate a massive subalone, a cat from a dog, a cube from stance (viz. a chair or mouse) which a globe. All that Locke and his is false. From this it would appear, partisans asserted was,—that sight that instinct has no more to do with alone would never have taught him a cat mouse-catching, than with a to determine (anless by chance) man hare-hunting; and similar conwhich of the bodies was the cube of siderations may perhaps teach us, his feeling, which the globe. He that brute animals approach much would in a short time have seen that nearer to us in faculties than philoone of these bodies was even, and the sophers are generally disposed to other angular, but he could not cer- allow. tainly tell that the former would feel Lastly, it may be inferred, that as the globe felt before he saw it, the staring and vacant expression of nor the latter as the cube did. That countenance, which is to be seen in which was a cube to his sight he children and idiots, proceeds rather would probably have fixed upon as from an inability to move their eyes that which was the globe to his feel- than from a want of thought at the ing. At least, there is no reason time. The former through inexperiwhy, because a given body appeared ence, the latter through mental weakevenly shaped to his sight, it should ness, have not been sufficiently conenable him to determine that this versant with different objects to have body must necessarily, when he exercised the moving powers of the touched it, give him that sensation eye, which therefore remains genewhich he denominated smoothness be- rally fixed. Both, when they wish fore he was made to see.

to observe a new object, turn the Thirdly, the above-mentioned ex- whole head rather than the eyeball. periment appears to suggest a doubt And, that vacancy of look does not of the truth of that philosophical dis- always proceed from want of ideas in tinction which has usually been put the mind at the time, is evident between Reason and Instinct. If it from this,-that men intently enis by an exertion of judgment that a gaged in contemplating certain ideas man coming into a room where there generally stare with a fixed and foolis a real chair and one ill-painted on ish countenance, whilst their reverie the wall, will sit down upon the continues. If a child were shut up former and neglect the latter, it is in a dark room where he might exercertainly by an exertion of a similar cise all his senses but one, it is obfaculty, that a cat coming into a vious that upon light being admitted room where there is a real mouse and at the end of some years, when he an ill-painted one, will spring upon had acquired a good stock of ideas the former and neglect the latter. And by means of these four senses,—it is from the same principle it is, that obvious that he would still continue the man will attempt sitting down to stare like an infant, how full soon a well-painted chair, and a cat ever his mind might be of ideas. For will attempt catching a well-painted the motion of his eyes is consequent mouse,--neither discovering their er-, upon an act of his will so to move ror till they come near enough either them, and he can have no will to to see the defects of the painting or move them from the object at which to feel the delusive objects, and thus he first looks, because he knows as correct the mistake of their judg- yet of no other object existing, and ment acting upon the information of could therefore have no motive to sight alone. For it is to be remem- excite his will to action. bered that, in this case, it is not There are many other inferences their sight which deceives them, but which might be drawn from this cutheir judgment; sight informs them rious experiment, but I will leave that certain colours, lights, and them to the reader's own sagacity or shades, appear before them, and its fancy.




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My dear EDITOR.-I perambulate and shepherdesses are kicking up their the streets every morning, as you heels to the edification and amusewell know, for the exercise of my ment of several bullfinches, who are body and eye-sight, with my hands piping open mouthed within arm's in my breeches pockets, and my legs length amidst the chintz evergreens in a pair of inexpressibles, popping of the pattern. Many a time I gazed my poll into every curiosity-shop at these mute “tuneful warblers," and that hangs out a good bill of fare for the figurantes before them, when I a hungry inquisitor. These places, was a little chubby snubby fellow, you know likewise, are at present being always a mischievous ill-congenerally dignified with heathen- ditioned whelp, I was idolized by my Greek compound names, which puzzle grandmother, and indeed by all the a plain Englishman to pronounce,- pious old people in the parish),-and

jaw-breakers, as we term them,--all now that I am a man I gazed at the ending in the same word, orama, and group in the Panorama with equal all meaning as much as this-Here astonishment if not admiration. The is a great sight, good people ! tell scenery however may be put into the out and ye shall see it. Shillings other scale ; there is something, (as are not half so plentiful with me as we Reviewers say)---redeeming in it. shop-keepers' bills, but I have never- One likes also to see the relative aptheless spent some in this way lately, pearance of the volcanic and ante-voland you shall have the benefit of my canic places: a forest of modern trees experience. Though too mad a fel- growing on the top of an ancient city! low to mind any thing past or im- Íhe hanging gardens of Babylon were pendent, I am the more inclined to nothing to this. In that part of Pomdo this as you sent me a letter-full of peii now at the Strand there is not compliments, and five guineas, (by no much excavation to be seen, and what means the least agreeable partof your is to be seen is not much worth seecorrespondence) for my Peep into ing. A Temple of Venus and Bacthe Piccadilly Museum.” So much chus appears in comparative shape by way of preamble.

and preservation (Love and Wine we The Panorama of Pompeii, in the know will stand as long as men are Strand, is not worth climbing up Bow mortal). The twin Panorama in the Steeple to see, but that in Leicester Fields is better worth money and Fields is. They belong to the same seeing. Here are the remains of pair of proprietors, were drawn by the more old Roman houses than would same draughtsman, I believe, and may build a city with cock-tail mice (cochave been painted by the same pain- tilibus muris) for all the Lazzaroni in ter, provided he was not the same Naples. There is the groundwork of man at the two different perform- a huge Theatre remaining in fine

This might have been easily form and dimensions : Covent Garmanaged. For instance, I am the den and Old Drury might serve as same man that I was when I wrote vomitoria, or entrances to it. What

Peep,” but I am not the same a barbarous, luxurious, ferocious, reman that I was when I wrote my fined, brutal, omnipotent people were

Fugitive Poems,” which were pub- those descendants of the shepherdlished by the present Sheriff Whit- robbers ! Who would think that taker, of Avemary, and had vast cir- Cicero could write, and a gladiator culation through all the pastry cooks fight within a brick wall of each in the city, to the great emolument other? The Fives-Court is a place of no one. The first of the afore- of elegant amusement compared to a said Oramas is, as I hinted, pretty Roman arena. Some of the mounenough: there is, indeed, a group of tain-scenery in this orama reminds dancers on the foreground, designed me of another orama which I will I suppose to enliven the dead imagery treat of presently—the Diorama: it is around them, which put me in mind of beautiful. the figures on my grandmother's bed- The next curiosity-shop I popped hangings, where a flock of shepherds into was a Glass Exhibition within

SEPT. 1824.




a handful of doors of the Strand the gape-seed and glass-blowing, the
Pompeiiorama. I saw a glass-case full value of his or her admittance-
full of poodle-dogs, seventy-fours, money in the manufacture * itself.
landaus, handbaskets, and several The proprietor, at my departure,
other gimcracks, nailed to a door- blew me a dog,-wrapping him up in
post with “only a shilling,” on a cotton, and enclosing him in a shav-
board beside it. Walked in, up, on, ing-box, all of which I conveyed
round, out. By the bye, this is not into my waistcoat-pocket. A young
a fair account of my peregrinations friend of mine, to whom I presented
through the glassery. I staid there my new-found-glass dog, in teaching
poring over the britile machinery till him to “ give the paw," broke off
I was almost cracked myself, and one of his legs, but the gentleman
like Locke's lunatic was afraid to sit aforesaid very politely blew it on
down lest I might break myself in aguin. He added, that he should be
pieces. Along with a parcel of very happy to blow on a leg for me when-
well-behaved gentlemanly old ladies ever I wished it. Upon the whole,
I beheld the whole operation of glass- the only thing wanting to this exhi-
blowing; and I assure you, Editor, bition is an impudent name; modest
in that brief space of time I learned merit never did at any time, and its
more of this noble art than I shall ever scarcity in the present age has not in
attempt to practise. Seriously; it is any degree enhanced its reputation.
an exhibition very well worth a wise Instead of calling his curiosity-shop
man's fooling away a few hours in merely what it is,-a Glass Exhibi-
seeing. The proprietor, who pre- tion, I should advise the proprietor
sides at the furnace, blew us up se- to call it a Hyalorama (or a Hyalour-
veral times—minikin decanters, wine- geiorama, which looks uglier and bet-
glasses, goblets, and tin cans, in a ter): he would by this means infalli-
much shorter time than any one could bly seduce more people from the
empty them, besides several flower- straight road of the Strand into his
baskets and false curls for the ladies. museum, than if he were to blow up
There was also a glass-wig in a glass- a house for every customer that asked
case there (and a balloon in a bottle), him.
which I contemplated with much sa- But the Peristrephic Panorama is
tisfaction; every hair of it is as fine that which pleased me best,--as well
and elastic as hair itself. Baldness by the terrors of its name as of its
will no doubt in a few ages be uni- subject. Peristrephic Panorama !
versally propagated, it being for the What a world of mysterious magni-
most part an hereditary disease; and ficence is contained in those two tre-
there is some consolation in knowing mendous titles! how sublime and un-
that, in such a deficiency of hair, we intelligible ! how agreeably cacopho-
can have glass-wigs and frontlets for nous to the common ear, and how
the price of them. The curls are super-syllabically sonorous to the
drawn off from the vitreous fluid, lugs of learning !-As I strolled one
on a wheel, -seven hundred yards (I evening through the mazes of Spring
think) of glass hair being wound off Gardens, I heard the Peristrephic
in a minute. One great advantage in music shaking the tiles off the neigh-
a wig of this material would be that bouring houses; (there is a trumpeter
it could be melted up into a fresh wig in the band, by the bye, who would
whenever one chose it, and moreover blow the cupola off St. Paul's if he
could not be easily blown off the head, exerted himself beneath it,-he al-
except when it was actually blows most blew the roof off my skull with
ing. A word from the The LONDON a single blast of his buccina.) The
is, I know, enough to set all London uproar proceeding from this curio-
afire; so I beg leave to recommend sity-shop induced me toenter;—when
this Orama to all those who have I was young and innocent I remem-
eyes in their heads and shillings in ber that I always broke my drum or
their pockets. One powerful induce humming-top to see what was inside
ment to sight-seeing people to visit of it that made such a noise. The
the Glass Exhibition is this,-every same philosophical spirit attends me
one gets at his or her final exit, besides to this day. I went into the Peris-


I beg pardon : this should be ventrifacture, or more accurately pulmonifacture.

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trephic, where however I found some- the superiority of the Copernican syswhat more internal furniture than tem above the other is somewhat less ever I heard of in a humming-top,- problematical than that of the dioraunless this huge round world turning matic principle above the perioramaon its invisible spindle may be consi- tic. The earth revolving on its own dered one. I saw the Battle of Wa- axis saves the sun, moon, and stars, a terloo: all the great men, Buona- great deal of unnecessary trouble in parte, Wellington, Blucher, Bruns- performing their several diurnal cirwick, General Picton, and Corporal cles according to the old system; but Shaw, painted to the life or death as except the giddy delight of partici. it happened: cuirassiers, voltigeurs, pating in the vertiginous motion of Scotch sans-culottes, Blues, Greys, the dioramatic platform, a spectator Body-guards, all in fine coats and posted there is not immediately aware confusion: charges of cavalry and that he reaps any peculiar advandischarges of infantry, great guns, tage. Whether the scene perambuthunder-bombs, flying artillery, lying lates abont the spectator, or the spectroops, and dying soldiers: the Mar- tator about the scene; whether the quis of Anglesea up to his belt in object moves past the eye, or the eye blood-red trowsers, and the Duke past the object, is, philosophically down to his heels in a blue wrap-ras- considered, quite insignificant. Excal. O'twas a glorious sight! Like cept, indeed, the spectator have a Don Quixote and the puppets I fancy for orbicular progression,-if longed to attack the peristrephic he have any inclination for a circular people sword in hand, and kill a few jaunt, I would strenuously recomdozen Frenchmen on canvas. What mend him a tum or so on the horiwould I now give to be the old zontal wheel of the Diorama. Indeed woman who remained the whole time I have heard many people express in the farm-house which stood in the their entire approbation of this new very midst of the field of battle! kind of merry-go-round and its unWhat a sublime situation for an old accompanying scenery. The effect of woman to be in! How I should this ingenious but hasty piece of mehave felt had I been there! When chanism however was-that throughheaven and earth were coming toge- out the whole “ little world of man" ther, to sit smoking (as she did per- there was propagated a species of haps) amidst the war of elements, or awkward sensation which might be to" stand secure amidst a falling denominated by help of a solecism-a world” with my hands in my pockets, terrestrial sea-sickness. This, though as the drowned Dutchman was found amounting to but a trifling quantity, after shipwreck! Only conceive her detracted somewhat from the pleasure (blind of one eye possibly) looking of my excursion round the inner wall out through a cranny with the other, of the Dioramatic establishment. and beholding two hundred thousand The wheel I speak of is the only men engaged in mutual massacre, thing about that curiosity-shop which and two hundred pieces of cannon has the hue of a humbug. I advise bellowing, bursting, and ball-playing the proprietor of the Diorama (which around her! blood streaming, smoke appears to intend itself for a perma. wreathing, dust flying, the scream of nent exhibition) to divert the enthuagony, the cry of fear, the groan of siasm of his steam-engine, or whatdeath, and the shout of victory !-0, ever “old mole” it is that works beif poeta nascitur non fit be not a true neath his platform, from disarranging maxim, that old woman ought to write the stomach of his visiters, to the less a far better epic poem than blind ambitious purpose of moving his Homer, blind Milton, or Bob Southey scenery around them. Unless there himself!- But I am becoming to be some better reason than the mere eloquent.

novelty of the thing, for operating The last of the Oramas which I upon the spectators instead of the swallowed was the Diorama.--The scenes, the innovation had better be difference between the Ptolemaic and reformed back again to its ancient the Copernican system of the world model--the Periorama. may serve to illustrate that between Trinity Chapel and the Valley of the Periorama (thus let us abridge the Sarnen have been carried about the Peristrephic) and the Diorama. But town these two months by the billa

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