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231 own interest, that of his country, that rope, in return for goods already distriof the country where his speculation buted over the interior. A spirit of intel. is laid, and finally, what may well ligence and inquiry animated the whole give a spur to his philanthropy, that society; schools were multiplied in every of the world in general. It is need
town ; libraries established, and every en. less to particularise the effects which couragement given to literature and the a well-authenticated knowledge of arts: and as travelling was free, passports Chilian enthusiasm in the cause of
were unnecessary. In the manners, and
even in the step of every man, might be Independence, and of the firm esta- traced the air of conscious freedom and blishment of Constitutional liberty independence. In dress also a total change amongst that people, will necessarily had very recently taken place, and from the produce in the minds of our states
The former uncouth, and men, and eventually in their con- almost savage costume of the ladies, and duct.
the slovenly cloaks invariably worn by the Peru, it seems, was the strong men, had given way to the fashions of hold of Spanish despotism; yet even
Europe: and, although these may be here the principles of civil liberty mention, they are not unimportant when
deemed circumstances almost too minute to had taken such deep and wide root, connected with feelings of national pride, that the natives only wanted the heretofore unknown. "It is by these, and a countenance of San Martin's army multitude of other small changes, that the to raise the flag of Independence in people are constantly reminded of their 1821. Our author visited this king- past compared with their present situation ; dom about the time of the Chilian and it is of essential use to their cause, that expedition under the abovenamed they should take delight in assimilating general; and gives a lively descrip- themselves, even in trifles, with other intion of the state of the country at dependent nations of the world. that time. The following passages,
No such changes, and no such sentiif any thing were wanting to decide ments, were to be found as yet in Peru. the question between Spanish colo- In the harbour of Callao, the shipping nial slavery, and emancipation, would gun-boats, close under the fort, and with a
were crowded into a comer, encircled by be found, we think, conclusive :
strong boom drawn round them. The The contrast between the two countries, locked; no bales of goods rose in pyra
custom-house was empty, and the door Chili and Peru, as it met our eyes, was most striking; and if due justice could be vered the road from Callao to Lima ; nor
mids on the quays; no loaded mules co. done to the description of each, a pleasing during
the whole ascent was an individual inference would be drawn by every English to be seen, except, perhaps, a solitary exman in favour of the popular side of the question.
press galloping towards the fortress. The contrast between a country in a
(Vol. i. p. 86–89.) state of war, and one in a state of peace, the 17th of December 1821.
We arrived on the 9th, and sailed on
In the inwas, perhaps, never more strikingly dis
terval of four months, which had elapsed played than upon this occasion : but, be
since we left Peru, the most remarkable sides the interest arising out of such contrast, as applicable to the states of peace affairs. The flag of Spain had been struck
change had taken place in the aspect of and war; the view was curious and instructive, as displaying the rapid effect produced
on the Castle of Callao; and in its place by a change in the government of one of
was displayed the standard of Independ. the two countries. As long as both were
ence; the harbour, which we had left similarly administered, Peru had an infi
blockaded by an enemy, was now open and nite advantage over Chili in wealth and free to all the world ; and, instead of con. importance; but as soon as Chili became taining merely a few dismantled ships of independent, she at once assumed the su
war, and half a dozen empty merchant periority,
vessels, was crowded with ships unloading We left Valparaiso harbour filled with
rich cargoes ; while the bay, to the disshipping; its custom-house wharfs piled vered with others waiting for room to land
tance of a mile from the harbour, was cohigh with goods, too numerous and bulky their merchandise. On shore all was busfor the old warehouses; the road between
tle and activity. (Vol. ii. p. 63, 64.)
The change above described as numerous ships were busy taking in care produced in the space of a few goes of the wines, corn, and other articles, months, from no trade to a flourishthe growth of the country ; and large suns ing one, annihilates, we conceive, at of treasure were daily embarked for Eu- once, all claims of Old Spain to her
former right of mis-government; be remarked, which is at once cause and and indicates pretty plainly, more- effect: since we know, that in former times, over, that such claims will always when no freedom of speech was permitted, be successfully resisted, now that the faculty of thinking to any purpose the inhabitants are made practically was equally repressed; a truth which, aware of the loss in comfort and though a mere common-place, it is not, on happiness they should sustain, if that account, the less interesting to see con
firmed in practice. At this time every one they ever again submitted to the ancient despotism.
not only took a pride in saying what his
opinions were, but seized every opportuIn Mexico, the Revolution was
nity that occurred, or could be devised, to perhaps more bloodless than in any manifest his political sincerity. The borother department of the colonies; ders of the ladies' shawls were wrought to the unanimity and sincerity of the into patriotic mottos ; the tops of the newsinhabitants on the subject of their papers and play-bills bore similar inscripIndependence, our author bears de- tions ; patriotic words were set to all the cided testimony,—decided, but not old national airs ; and I saw a child one dogmatic, in as much as he quotes day munching a piece of gilt gingerbread, the arguments on which his testi- stamped with the word Independencia ! i
am well aware that all this fuss and talk mony is founded :
proves not much ; and that nothing is It has sometimes been thought in other
more prostituted than this sort of verbal countries, that many of the South Ameri- show of opposition ; and certainly, taken
enthusiasm, which evaporates at the first cans were indifferent to the independence of their country, and that a great Euro singly, it would be of little moment in a pean force, by encouraging and protecting it might be to witness on a great scale:
political point of view, however amusing the expression of contrary opinions, might, but it is no bad accompaniment to successere long, succeed in re-establishing the ful action, and helps to keep alive that newancient authority. This, I am thoroughly born spirit of independence, when other, convinced, is a mistake, and he who should and more important causes are ready to reason by analogy from the fate of Spain give practical effect to the sentiment. to that of South America, if exposed to the same trial, would confound two things more highly of when viewed from a dis
Patriotic exertions are always thought essentially dissimilar : if he were to sup- tance, than when examined closely. But, pose that the cry of “ Viva la Independencia" in the one, and “ Viva la Constitu.
even in the eyes of those who are present, cion” in the other, were indicative of an
the interest which a show of patriotism exequal degree of sincerity and of right appre
cites is often at first of a very lively chahension of the subject, he would be essen
This dazzling effect, however, tially in error; for there is this important motives of the actors become so well known
speedily goes off: the real characters and distinction : the greater number of those who called out for the constitution knew
to us, that the fictitious representation of pure
disinterested public spirit no longer very imperfectly
what they were asking for; pleases ; and at last we see nothing in this whereas, every individual in the new states, however ignorant of the true nature and revolutionary drama that is acted to the extent of civil liberty,
or however indiffe life, but the cruelty and the sorrow. rent about other political matters, is strong
(Vol. ii. p. 245—248.) ly possessed of the same clear, consistent, There is an anecdote related at and steady conception of what independ. page 188 of this volume, which, with ence means; and well knows its important those matter-of-fact men of sense, practical consequences. It is because these who consider one practical proof of sentiments are universal, and receive every hour more and more strength and confir.
more weight than a whole system of mation, that I venture to speak so decided theory, will appear at once determily of the utter impossibility of again reduc- native of the doubt whether the ing to political and moral thraldom so vast Americans are really aware of the a population ; every member of which is at benefits arising from their late emanlength fully awakened to a sense of his own cipation, and whether they would interest and honour.
resolutely maintain their liberties inIn all companies, the conversation turn- violate against all the attempts of ed on political topics ; and it was very their late oppressors : curious to observe, amidst much prejudice and error in reasoning, and much exagge. While we were admiring the scenery, ration and misstatement of facts, how just- our people had established themselves in a ly every one felt on the occasion, and with hut, and were preparing supper, under the what delight they exercised the new privi. direction of a peasant, a tall copper-colour. lege of speaking out; a privilege, it may ed semi-barbarous native of the forest ; but
who, notwithstanding his uncivilized ap- under such circumstances, we give pearance, turned out to be a very shrewd him up as we should a man who defellow, and gave us sufficiently pertinent nied the sun shone, whilst its brightanswers to most of our queries. The
ness and heat struck him' blind and young Spaniard of our party, a royalist by foolish. birth, and half a patriot in sentiment, asked him whát harm the King had done, litical part of our review, which, as
We have now done with the pothat the Mexicans should have thrown him it was of major importance, deserved off?“ Why,” answered he, “as for the King, his only fault, at least that I primary notice. We are anxious to know about, was his living too far off: if disseminate as widely as possible a king really be good for a country, it ap- amongst the different classes of our pears to me that he ought to live in that countrymen, (all of whom are mecountry, not two thousand leagues away diately or immediately interested in from it. On asking him what his opinion the matter,) information as to the was of the free trade people were talking state of the Independent South Ameso much about ? My opinion of the free rican States upon which they can trade,” said the mountaineer,“ rests on rely, and by which they can regulate this,-formerly I paid nine dollars for the their future conduct, mercantile, mepiece of cloth of which this shirt is made, I now pay two-that forms my opinion of
chanical, or otherwise. the free trade.” The Spaniard was fairly trust we have done; and for the baffled. (Vol. ii. p. 188, 189) power of doing this as satisfactorily
as the limits of our work permits, At page 47 also there is a Table
we have to acknowledge ourselves given, which shews the relative prices of Copper, the staple commodity of greatly indebted to Captain Hall. It
is not a little gratifying to us, that Chili, and of several articles used in the mines, during the years pre- tion so favourable to the hopes of
we are able to communicate informaceding and following the era of liberty in that kingdom. We beg leave every enlightened and benevolent
on the subject of American to quote a few items :
liberty; and that this information Copper, per quintal of 100 Dollars. Dollars. should be drawn, not only from a Spanish lbs.
64 10 7 12 to 13 Steel,........do.....
man of impartiality, sense, and inIron,
telligence, but from one whom we
7 to 7) Wheat, per fanega of 150 lbs.
may look upon as an accredited agent
of our government. This seems to Fine Cloth, ........ per yard
evince pretty manifestly what the
feeling of government must be upon Printed Cotton Goods, do........ 18 to 24 24 10 3 Velveteens,
the question which now agitates so
many cabinets, as (with all respect From this Table it appears, that for our author's candour and honthree important commercial advan- esty) Captain Hall would scarcely, tages have been obtained by the Re
we suppose, have given publicity to volution : 1, the enlargement of the such generous sentiments, and such market caused by opening a trade with convincing documents, were he not the whole world,- this is evinced by certain they would meet with apthe price of copper being doubled in probation in the influential quarters the second column which represents above him. In taking leave of this the new prices;—2, the increased va- part of the subject, we cannot but lue of that staple commodity; --3, the express our regret that Captain Hall diminished cost of its production, did not extend his voyage and reowing to the fall in the price of every marks to Buenos Ayres, Brazil, and article used in the mines. If with Colombia. We are much in want of such a document before him, any one such honest information as he could can be found bare-faced enough to afford us on the state of these three uphold the cause of Spain and her kingdoms, especially the latter. ancient despotism, her brutal ig- In another less important respect, norance, her infatuated policy, and that is, as a Book of Wonders, our her cruel administration, which de- author's Journal will be considered prived a whole people of such ad, perhaps more than moderately devantages,—if any one can be found ficient. He travelled by sea alongwho professes himself unable to see side and half the whole length of the the absolute necessity of a revolution Andes, those standing miracles of
50 25 10
..... do....... Jerked Beef, do.......
Nature, yet was so unfortunate as to lum, an instrument for determining see nothing worth bringing home to the figure of the earth. At the Gafill up the mouths of his gaping read- lapagos Islands, under the line, the ers, but a few bits of quartz and observations gave us for the elliptifeldspar. Yes; he does describe one city, and at San Blas in California remarkable phenomenon concerning 373,15 them,-a phenomenon pregnant with
Our author's account of the climate physical results of a nature, however, of Peru is directly at variance with apparently unconnected with our subé that of Ulloa and Anson, which have lunary sphere, being indeed wholly hitherto regulated the belief of forelative to the matter of the Moon. reigners; the heat, instead of being
temperate, is, if we adjust our faith On the 26th of May we sailed from Val- by Captain Hall's Journal, intolerparaiso, and proceeded along the coast to Lima. During the greater part of this able, and instead of the “ fierce voyage the land was in sight, and we had beams of the sun being intercepted many opportunities of seeing not only the by a canopy of gray clouds” (as RoAndes, but other interesting
features of the bertson directs us to imagine), the country. The sky was sometimes covered glare of that luminary our author asby a low dark unbroken cloud, overshadow. serts to be unmitigated by any such ing the sea, and resting on the top of the celestial machinery, and to be, in high cliffs which guard the coast ; so that fact, oppressive to the very last dethe Andes, and, indeed, the whole country, gree. The country itself, it would except the immediate shore, were then appear, is a desert--sandy, sterile, screened from our view. But at some and unwatered by any considerable places this lofty range of cliffs was inter
rivers. sected by deep gullies, called quebradas, connected with extensive vallies stretching scribed, and with such necessary si
Earthquakes have been often defar into the interior. At these openings we were admitted to a view of regions, which, milarity, that we will not fatigue our being beyond the limits of the cloud, and readers with that which destroyed therefore exposed to the full blaze of the the town of Copiapó in Chili, 1819. sun, formed a brilliant contrast to the dark. Some local customs which our author ness and gloom in which we were involved. describes in a pleasant and familiar As we sailed past, and looked through vein, will perhaps be more generally these mysterious breaks, it seemed as if the interesting. Jealousy it seems is not eye penetrated into another world ; and had altogether a male monopoly amongst the darkness around us been more complete, the light beyond would have been equally
the Spanish colonists: resplendent with that of the full moon, to
A Chilian gentleman of my acquaintwhich every one was disposed to compare
ance lived close to the bull-ring, and parthis most curious and surprising appear.
ties used frequently to be made up at his
house to go to the Chinganas, the name As the sun's rays were not, in this case, given to the scenes described above. After reflected from a bright snowy surface, but chatting together for some time one evenfrom a dark coloured sand, we are furnish- ing, the gentlemen of the party went off to ed, by analogy, with an answer to the dif- the bull-ring, while the ladies excused ficulties sometimes started, with respect to
themselves for not accompanying us.
But the probable dark nature of the soil com- within a quarter of an hour afterwards, posing the moon's surface.
while we were lounging about in one of the (Vol. i. p. 186, 187.) most noisy of the Ramadas, it was inti.
mated to me privately, by a gentleman in There were two or three other sci- the secret, that three of the ladies we had entific observations of some impor- left were actually in our company ; but so tance made by Captain Hall, who completely metamorphosed, that, even appears laudably anxious to promote when pointed out, they were with difficulty the interests of knowledge on every recognised. Thus made party to the joke, I occasion. From data furnished by found they came as spies upon the proceedings him, the orbit of a comet which was
of the master of the house, the husband of one visible at Valparaiso, in 1821, has of these tapadas, as they called themselves. been computed by Dr. Brinkley, of There had been a feud, it seemed, be
tween these ladies and some others of their Dublin University, and the results, acquaintance, and the object of this escapo, together with the original observa
or frolic, was to watch how the gentleman tions, published in the Philosophical would deport himself towards their foes. Transactions for 1822. Experiments They had, accordingly, the satisfaction, or were also made with Kater's pendu- the mortification, to detect him in treacher
ous flirtation with the enemy; and then the sweet-mouthed sex after a careful allowing themselves to be discovered, to toilette. the confusion of the unsuspecting
parties, they immediately disappeared. The next Spanish countries is that of present
A pretty custom prevalent in all day we learnt that the ladies had returned ing a rose to every stranger who enin about ten minutes, differently disguised, ters the family-door. As our author and had amused themselves in watching the motions of such of us as had been says, the favor itself is nothing, and formerly admitted to their confidence, and it is essential to the civility that it who were still chuckling over the success
should be nothing; the merit lies in of the first exploit. I attempted, next
the simple expression of good-will, evening, to pass a similar jest upon them, which, while it really obliges, is of a and disguised myself with great care ; but nature to impose no obligation, their practised eyes were not to be deceived, According to an old saying, the and they saw through it all at the first capital of Peru is “the heaven of glance. (Vol. i. p. 16–18.) women, the purgatory of men, and
we take it The celebrated Paraguay tea, called the hell of jackasses : Mattee, is prepared and drunk in the that this particular heaven, enjoyed
by the female sex, is no very distant following primitive manner :
resemblance of Mahomet's paradise, Before infusion, the Yerba, as it is called, and that the ladies perform the part has a yellow colour, and appears partly of clandestine Houries,-at least if ground, and partly chopped; the flavour we may judge from a few such susresembles that of fine tea, to which, in- picious relations as follow, with redeed, many people prefer it. The mattee spect to the dress and manners of the is made in an oval-shaped metal pot, about fair Limenians: twice as large as an egg, placed nearly full of water, on the hot embers of the brazier, In the cool part of the day, for about an which stands in the middle of the parlour; hour and a half before sunset, the ladies when the water begins to boil, a lump walk abroad, dressed in a manner probably of sugar burnt on the outside is added. unique, and certainly highly characteristic The pot is next removed to a filagree silver of the spot. This dress consists of two stand, on which it is handed to the guest, parts, one called the saya, the other the who draws the mattee into his mouth
The first is a petticoat, made to through a silver pipe seven or eight inches fit so tightly, that, being at the same time in length ; furnished, at the lower extre. quite elastic, the form of the limbs is ren. mity, with a bulb pierced with small holes. dered distinctly visible. The manto, or The natives drink it almost boiling hot, cloak, is also a petticoat, but, instead of and it costs a stranger many a tear before hanging about the heels, as all honest pethe can imitate them in this practice. There ţicoats ought to do, it is drawn over the is one custom in these mattee drinkings, to head, breast, and face; and is kept so which, though not easily reconcileable to
close by the hands, which it also conceals, our habits, a stranger must not venture to
that no part of the body, except one eye, object. However numerous the company
and sometimes only a small portion of one be, or however often the mattee pot be re
eye, is perceptible. A rich coloured handplenished, the tube is never changed ; and kerchief, or a silk band and tassel, are to decline taking mattee, because the tube frequently tied round the waist, and hang had been previously used, would be thought nearly to the ground in front. rosary, the height of rudeness. A gentleman of also, made of beads of ebony, with a smali my acquaintance, becoming very fond of gold cross, is often fastened to the girdle, this beverage, bought a tube for himself,
a little on one side ; though in general it and carried it constantly in his pocket ; but is suspended from the neck. this gave so much offence that he was even
The effect of the whole is exceedingly tually obliged to relinquish its use.
striking; but whether its gracefulness-for, (Vol. i. p. 21, 22.) with the fine figure of the Lima women,
and their very beautiful style of walking, this We question much whether the dress is eminently graceful-be sufficient American herb will ever supplant the to compensate for its undeniable indelicacy Chinese, with our tea-drinkers, but to an European eye, will depend much upon the mode of serving it, as above des
the stranger's taste, and his habits of judg. cribed, will in all probability never be ing of what he sees in foreign countries. generally adopted in our fashionable thing into comparison with what they have
Some travellers insist upon forcing every circles ; to " kiss the tube and pass it left at home, and condemn or approve, acto the rest,” would be tolerable, and cording as this unreasonable standard is then indeed delightful, when the per- receded from or adhered to. To us, who son osculating happened to be one of took all things as we found them, the saya