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lington. His bust by Thorvaldson is and reported from street to street, feeble and mean; the painting of and from house to house. Phillips is more noble and much more His good humour was unruffled, like. Of Burns I have never seen and his wit never forsook him. He aught but a very uninspired resem- looked to one of his fellow volunteers blance—and I regret it the more, be- with a smile, as he stood by the bed. cause he had a look worthy of the side with his eyes wet, and said, happiest effort of art-a look beaming “ John, don't let the awkward squad with poetry and eloquence.

fire over me." He was aware that The last time I saw Burns in life death was dealing with him; he askwas on his return from the Brow-well ed a lady who visited him, more in of Solway; he had been ailing all sincerity than in mirth, what comspring, and summer had come with mands she had for the other worldout bringing health with it; he had he repressed with a smile the hopes gone away very ill and he returned of his friends, and told them he had

He was brought back, I lived long enough. As his life drew think, in a covered spring cart, and near a close, the eager yet decorous when he alighted at the foot of the solicitude of his fellow townsmen instreet in which he lived, he could creased. He was an exciseman it is scarce stand upright. He reached true-a name odious, from many ashis own door with difficulty. He sociations, to his countrymen—but he stooped much, and there was a visi. did his duty meekly and kindly, and ble change in his looks. Some may repressed rather than encouraged the think it not unimportant to know, desire of some of his companions to that he was at that time dressed in push the law with severity; he was a blue coat with the undress nankeen therefore much beloved, and the paspantaloons of the volunteers, and that sion of the Scotch for poetry made his neck, which was inclining to be them regard him as little lower than short, caused his hat to turn up be- a spirit inspired. It is the practice hind, in the manner of the shovel of the young men of Dumfries to meet hats of the Episcopal clergy. Truth in the streets during the hours of reobliges me to add, that he was not mission from labour, and by these fastidious about his dress; and that means I had an opportunity of wits an officer, curious in the personal ap- nessing the general solicitude of all pearance and equipments of his com- ranks and of all ages. His differences pany, might have questioned the mi- with them in some important points Jitary nicety of the poet's clothes and of human speculation and religious arms. But his colonel was a maker hope were forgotten and forgiven; of rhyme, and the poet had to display they thought only of his genius of more charity for his commander's the delight his compositions had difverse than the other had to exercise fused and they talked of him with when he inspected the clothing and the same awe as of some departing arms of the careless bard.

spirit, whose voice was to gladden From the day of his return home them no more. His last moments till the hour of his untimely death, have never been described; he had Dumfries was like a besieged place. laid his head quietly on the pillow It was known he was dying, and the awaiting dissolution, when his atanxiety, not of the rich and the, tendant reminded him of his medilearned only, but of the mechanics cine and held the cup to his lip. He and peasants, exceeded all belief. started suddenly up, drained the cup Wherever two or three people stood at'a gulp, threw his hands before together, their talk was of Burns and him like a man about to swim, and of him alone; they spoke of his his- sprumg from head to foot of the bed tory—of his person-of his works fell with his face down, and expired of his family-of his fame, and of his with a groan. untimely and approaching fate, with Of the dying moments of Byron we a warmth and an enthusiasm which have no minute nor very distinct acwill ever endear Dumfries to my re- count. He perished in a foreign land membrance. All that he said or was among barbarians or aliens, and he saying-the opinions of the physi- seems to have been without the aid cians (and Maxwell was a kind and a of a determined physician, whose skilful one), were eagerly caught up firmness or persuasion might have


vanquished his obstinacy. His il- mission and then by idolatry, and version to bleeding was an infirmity his pride must have been equal to which he shared with many better that which made the angels fall if it regulated minds; for it is no uncom- had refused to be soothed by the mon belief that the first touch of the obeisance of a reviewer. One never lancet will charm away the approach forgets, if he should happen to forof death, and those who believe this give, an insult or an injury offered in are willing to reserve so decisive a youth-it grows with the growth and spell for a more momentous occasion. strengthens with the strength, and I He had parted with his native land may reasonably doubt the truth of in no ordinary bitterness of spirit; the poet's song when he sings of his and his domestic infelicity had ren- dear Jeffrey. The news of his death dered his future peace of mind hope- came upon London like an earthless—this was aggravated from time quake; and though the common multo time by the tales or the intrusion titude are ignorant of literature and of travellers, by reports injurious to destitute of feeling for the higher his character, and by the eager and flights of poetry, yet they consented vulgar avidity with which idle stories to feel by faith, and believed, because were circulated, which exhibited him the newspapers believed, that one of in weakness or in folly. But there the brightest lights in the firmament is every reason to believe, that long of poesy was extinguished for ever. before his untimely death his native With literary men a sense of the publand was as bright as ever in his lic misfortune was mingled, perhaps, fancy, and that his anger conceived with a sense that a giant was removed against the many for the sins of the few from their way; and that they had had subsided or was subsiding. Of room now to break a lance with an Scotland, and of his Scottish origin, 'equal, without the fear of being overhe has boasted in more than one place thrown by fiery impetuosity and of his poetry; he is proud to remem- colossal strength. The world of liteber the land of his mother, and to rature is now resigned to lower, but sing that he is half a Scot by birth perhaps, not less presumptuous poetic and a whole one in his heart. Of his spirits. But among those who feared great rival in popularity, Sir Walter him, or envied him, or loved him, Scott, he speaks with kindness; and there are none who sorrow not for the the compliment he has paid him has national loss, and grieve not that Bybeen earned by the unchangeable ad- ron fell so soon, and on a foreign sbore. miration of the other. Scott has ever When Burns died I was then spoken of Byron as he has lately young, but I was not insensible that written, and all those who know him a mind of no common strength had will feel that this consistency is cha- passed from among us.

He had racteristic. I must, however, con- caught my fancy and touched my fess, his forgiveness of Mr. Jeffrey heart with his songs and his poems. was an unlooked-for and unexpected I went to see him laid out for the piece of humility and loving kindness, grave; several eldern people were and, as a Scotchman, I am rather with me. He lay in a plain unadorned willing to regard it as a presage of coffin, with a linen sheet drawn over early death, and to conclude that the his face, and on the bed, and around poet was fey," and forgave his the body, herbs and flowers were arch enemy in the spirit of the thickly strewn according to the usage dying Highlander—"Weel, weel, I of the country. He was wasted forgive him, but God confound you, somewhat by long illness; but death my twa sons, Duncan and Gilbert, if had not increased the swarthy hue of you forgive him.” The criticism his face, which was uncommonly with which the Edinburgh Review dark and deeply marked the dying welcomed the first flight which By- pang was visible in the lower part, ron's Muse took, would have crushed but his broad and open brow was and broken any spirit less dauntless pale and serene, and around it his than his own; and for a long while sable hair lay in masses, slightly he entertained the horror of a re- touched with gray, and inclining viewer which a bird of song feels for more to a wave than a cirl. The the presence of the raven. But they room where he lay was plain and smoothed his spirit down, first by sub- neat, and the simplicity of the

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poet's humble dwelling pressed the privy councillor, with his coronet, presence of death more closely on the and his long descent from princes on heart than if his bier had been embel- one side, and from heroes on both lished by vanity and covered with the and who did not care for George blazonry of high ancestry and rank. Gordon Byron the poet, who has We stood and gazed on him in si- charmed us, and will charm our delence for the space of several minutes scendants with his deep and impas-We went, and others succeeded us sioned verse. The homage was ren- there was no justling and crushing, dered to genius, not surely to rank-, though the crowd was great-man for lord can be stamped on any clay, followed man as patiently and order- but inspiration can only be impressed ly as if all had been a matter of mu- on the finest meta). tual understanding-not a question Of the day on which the multitude was asked - not a whisper was heard. were admitted I know not in what This was several days after his death. terms to speak-I never surely saw It is the custom of Scotland to so strange a mixture of silent sorrow “ wake” the body—not with wild and of fierce and intractable curiosity. howlings and wilder songs, and much If one looked on the poet's splendid waste of strong drink, like our mer- coffin with deep awe, and thought of curial neighbours, but in silence or in the gifted spirit which had lately prayer-superstition says it is un animated the cold remains, others sonsie to leave a corpse alone; and regarded the whole as a pageant or a it is never left. I know not who show, got up for the amusement of watched by the body of Burns—much the idle and the careless, and criticised it was my wish to share in the ho- the arrangements in the spirit of those nour-but my extreme youth would who wish to be rewarded for their have made such a request seem fool- time, and who consider that all they ish, and its rejection would have been condescend to visit should be accordsure.

ing to their own taste. There was a I am to speak the feelings of an- crushing, a trampling, and an impaother people, and of the customs of a tience, as rude and as fierce as ever I higher rank, when I speak of laying witnessed at a theatre; and words of out the body of Byron for the grave. incivility were bandied about, and It was announced from time to time questions asked with such determinathat he was to be exhibited in state, tion to be answered, that the very and the progress of the embellish-. mutes, whose business was silence ments of the poet's bier was record- and repose, were obliged to interfere ed in the pages of an hundred public with tongue and hand between the cations. They were at length com- visitors and the dust of the poet. In pleted, and to separate the curiosity contemplation of such a scene, some of the poor from the admiration of of the trappings which were there on the rich, the latter were indulged the first day were removed on the with tickets of admission, and a day second, and this suspicion of the good was set a-part for them to go and sense and decorum of the multitude wonder over the decked room and called forth many expressions of disthe emblazoned bier. Peers and peer- pleasure, as remarkable for their esses, priests, poets, and politicians, warmth as their propriety of language. came in gilded chariots and in hired By five o'clock the people were all hacks to gaze upon the splendour of ejected—man and woman—and the the funeral preparations, and to see rich coffin bore tokens of the touch of in how rich and how vain a shroud hundreds of eager fingersmany of the body of the immortal had been which had not heen overclean. hid. Those idle trappings in which The multitude who accompanied rank seeks to mark its altitude above Burns to the grave went step by the vulgar belonged to the state of step with the chief mourners ; they the peer rather than to the state of might amount to ten or twelve thouthe poet; genius required no such sand. Not a word was heard; and, attractions; and all this magnificence though all could not be near, and served only to divide our regard with many could not see, when the earth the man whose inspired tongue was closed on their darling poet for ever, now silenced for ever. Who cared there was no rude impatience shown, for Lord Byron the peer, and the no fierce disappointment expressed.



It was an impressive and mournful but to confute a pious fraud of a re-sight to see men of all ranks and per- ligious Magazine, which made Heasuasions and opinions mingling as ven express its wrath at the interbrothers, and stepping side by side ment of a profane poet, in thunder, down the streets of Dumfries, with in lightning, and in rain. I know the remains of him who had sang of not who wrote the story, and I wish their loves and joys and domestic not to know; but its utter falseendearments, with a truth and a ten- hood thousands can attest. It is one derness which none perhaps have proof out of many, how divine wrath since equalled. I could, indeed, have is found by dishonest zeal in a comwished the military part of the pro- mon commotion of the elements, and cession away—for he was buried that men, whose profession is godwith military honours-because I am liness and truth, will look in the face one of those who love simplicity in all of heaven and tell a deliberate lie. that regards genius. The scarlet and A few select friends and admirers gold — the banners displayed—the followed Lord Byron to the gravemeasured step, and the military array, his coronet was borne before him, with the sound of martial instru- and there were many indications of ments of music, had no share in in- his rank; but, save the assembled creasing the solemnity of the burial multitude, no indications of his gescene; and had no connexion with nius. In conformity to a singular the poet. I looked on it then, and I practice of the great, a long train of consider it now, as an idle ostentation, their empty carriages followed the a piece of superfluous state which mourning coaches- mocking the dead might have been spared, more espe- with idle state, and impeding the cially as his neglected and traduced honester sympathy of the crowd with and insulted spirit had experienced barren pageantry. Where were the no kindness in the body from those owners of those machines of sloth lofty people who are now proud of and luxury-where were the men of being numbered as his coevals and rank among whose dark pedigrees countrymen. His fate has been a re- Lord Byron threw the light of his proach to Scotland. But the reproach genius, and lent the brows of nobility comes with an ill grace from Eng- a halo to which they were strangers? land. When we can forget Butler's Where were the great Whigs? Where fate-Otway's loaf--Dryden's old were the illustrious Tories ? Could a age, and Chatterton's poison-cup, mere difference in matters of human we may think that we stand alone in belief keep those fastidious persons the iniquity of neglecting pre-emi- away? But, above all, where were nent genius. I found myself at the the friends with whom wedlock had brink of the poet's grave, into which united him? On his desolate corpse he was about to descend for ever- no wife looked, and no child shed there was a pause among the mourn- a tear.

I have no wish to set myers as if loath to part with his re- self up as a judge in domestic infemains; and when he was at last low- licities, and I am willing to believe ered, and the first shovelful of earth they were separated in such a way sounded on his coffin-lid, I looked up as rendered conciliation hopeless ; and saw tears on many cheeks where but who could stand and look on tears were not usual. The volun- his pale manly face, and his dark teers justified the fears of their com- locks which early sorrows rade by three ragged and straggling making thin and gray, without feelvolleys. The earth was heaped up, ing that, gifted as he was, with a the green sod laid over him, and the soul above the mark of other men, multitude stood gazing on the grave his domestic misfortunes called for for some minutes' space, and then our pity as surely as his genius melted silently away. The day was called for our admiration. When the a fine one, the sun was almost with- career of Burns was closed, I saw out a cloud, and not a drop of rain another sight—a weeping widow and fell from dawn to twilight. I notice four helpless sons; they came into this-not from my concurrence in the the streets in their mournings, and common superstition—that “ happy public sympathy was awakened ais the corpse which the rain rains on," fresh; I shall never forget the looks of his boys, and the compassion tion? Why was the door closed awhich they excited. The poet's life gainst him, and opened to the carhad not been without errors, and such cases of thousands without merit, errors, too, as a wife is slow in for- and without name? Look round the giving ; but he was honoured then, walls, and on the floor over which and is honoured now, by the unalien- you tread, and behold them encumable affection of his wife, and the bered and inscribed with memorials world repays her prudence and her of the mean and the sordid and the love by its regard and esteem. impure, as well as of the virtuous


Burns, with all his errors in faith and the great. Why did the Dean and in practice, was laid in hallowed of Westminster refuse admission to earth, in the churchyard of the town such an heir of fame as Byron? if he where he resided ; no one thought of had no claim to lie within the conseclosing the church gates against his crated precincts of the Abbey, he body, because of the freedom of his has no right to lie in consecrated poetry, and the carelessness of his ground at all. There is no doubt life. And why was not Byron laid that the pious fee for sepulture would among the illustrious men of Eng- have been paid-and it is not a small land, in Westminster Abbey? Is one. Hail! to the Church of England, there a poet in all the Poet's Corner if her piety is stronger than her who has better right to that distinc- avarice.


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QUEEN ELIZABETH. Her personal vanity has been il- kept his arithmetic to himself: but I see, lustrated and severely commented on said she, the greatest clerks are not the by Lord Orford, in his article on

toisest men. Lord Essex, in the “ Noble Authors;" When her Majesty sent the Earl and it is noticed by all who have writ- of Essex on the Cadiz expedition, ten on her life and character. The she appointed the following Prayer following is extracted from Sir John to be used throughout the fleet, and Harington's “ Brief View of the Camden expressly ascribes the comState of the Church of England,” position to herself'; “ His præscriptis penned so early as 1608 or 1609, but (says he in his Annals) illa precationot printed till 1653. Harington nem dictavit, qua per singulas naves was godson to the virgin queen, which quotidie divinam opem cæptis implorenders what he says of better au- rarent.” It is transcribed from “A thority and the greater interest. briefe and a true Discourse of the

There is almost none that waited in late honorable Voyage vnto Spaine, Queen Elizabeth's court, and observed any and of the Wynning, Sacking, and thing, but can tell, that it pleased her very Burning of the famous Towne of much to seeme, to be thought, and to be • Cadiz there, and of the miraculous told that shee looked young. The majesty Overthrowe of the Spanish Navie at and gravity of a scepter, borne forty four that Tyme, with a Report of all yeares could not alter that nature of a wo

other Accidentes thereunto apperman in her. Dr. Anthony Rudd, Bishop of St. David's, once preaching before her, tayping. By Doctor Marbeck, attouched on her age, and quoted certain tending ypon the Person of the Right texts on the infirmities of the old, as Eccl. Honorable Lord Highe Admirall of xii. &c. &c. When he had concluded, England all the Tyme of the saide the Queen plainly told him, he should have Action." Marbeck + says, that

* This is in manuscript among Dr. Rawlinson's collection in the Bodleian. It was printed, with some variations, and without the name of the author, in folio, in order to be inserted at the end of some copies of the first volume of Hakluyt's Voyages, Lond. 1599.

+ Roger Marbeck was the son of John Marbeck, a celebrated musician and thc

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