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stock jobbing purposes. There is intelligence, however, from Mexico, which declares that country to be in a state of such commotion, that, after the old Roman example, a dictator has been appointed. The govern ment there seem to have been apprised of all Iturbide's movements, and to have suppressed his pension on his departure from Italy for Eng land. The province seems to be not only in a discontented but very desperate state, and it is impossible to say what effect the enterprise of that military adventurer may produce every thing, of course, depends upon his continued favouritism with the army, upon whose support, it is said, he chiefly calculates; a support, we lament to say, rarely given to the friend of liberty.
We have nothing to add, favour able or otherwise, on the state of Greece. The United States have remitted 6600l. to the Greek Government, being the amount of the subscriptions received in that country, and 20001. more has been collected in our settlements in India.
Our number for this month will, in all probability, conclude the labours of parliament for the present very uninteresting session; in our next, we shall give the speech at its prorogation, which will be delivered too late to enable us to include it according to our accustomed arrangements. We continue, of course, our summary, which we have laboured to render as complete as possible, consistent with the brevity requisite in a publication of this nature. The House of Commons was occupied for two nights in a somewhat tedious debate upon the case of Mr. Smith, the Demerara Missionary, who was tried by a court martial in that colony, on the charge of having contributed to the revolt of the negroes, was condemned to death, recommended to mercy, pardoned in consequence, but died of illness in prison, previous to the communication to him of the extension of the Royal mercy. A great many petitions had been presented to the House from different parts of the country, praying for an inquiry into this case, and the present debate was commenced by Mr. Brougham, by a motion for that purpose. We can
merely give the motion, which cer tainly went to affix a lasting stigma on the members of the Court, had it been acquiesced in; as to the debate itself, it would more than occupy our entire number. Mr. Brougham moved "that an humble address be presented to his Majesty, setting forth that the House, having taken into their most serious consideration the proceedings which had taken place on the trial of Mr. John Smith, at Demerara, contemplated with the most serious alarm the violation of law and justice which had then been committed; and they did earnestly pray that his Majesty would be most graciously pleased to give orders for such an impartial and humane administration of the law in that colony, as would secure the rights not only of the negroes but of the planters themselves." This motion was negatived by a majority of 46. The numbers being on a division-for it 147-against it 193.- We cannot omit recording upon this subject what may be only a bit of scandal respecting the honourable House: our readers may observe that the debate was adjourned; upon the second night, however, the members are said to have almost all rushed suddenly out to see a balloon which was ascending in their neighbourhood, in consequence of which the great legislative assembly being diminished be low 40 members, the order became a dropped order, and the balloon itself had dropped an entire week before the debate could be resumed! This little incident, if true, may furnish Mr. Canning with a new argument against any innovation on the perfection of such an assembly.
An ineffectual motion was made by Mr. Hume for the better regulation of the naval service, a duty which the present system of that service rendered imperative, and which the leisure of the present moment rendered now particularly expedient. The principal objection raised by the honourable member was to the impressment of our seamen, a practice which made our sea service one of general terror and abhorrence. The necessity which was urged in its extenuation did not, in fact, exist; men were found in abundance for the army, but for the other service so invincible a repug
nance arose, that many even mutilated themselves to avoid it; and yet the navy enjoyed many advantages not participated by the merchant service. In the American navy there was no impressment, neither was there such long intervals as existed in the British, between the earning and the receipt of wages. Another objection was the length of service. He himself had seen seamen, who, after many years' absence from their country, were returning to enjoy their hard earnings, torn away by a man-of-war's boat before they could reach the shore, and, without a moment's rest, obliged to commence a new service which was to end perhaps only with their lives. Another evil arose from the mode of punish ment; the practice of inflicting punishment at the discretion of courts martial was a bad one, but it was still worse to punish at the discretion or whim of officers, without any court martial whatsoever. The employment of so many young captains, and the unequal distribution of prize money, were evils also calling for correction. The honourable member said that he had a plan of his own to propose in lieu of the present system, but thinking it better to refer the subject to a committee, he should conclude by moving "That this House being well aware of the difficulty of manning the navy in time of war, and of the evils of forcibly impressing men for that purpose; and, considering that a time of profound peace will best admit of the fullest and fairest examination of that most important subject, will, early in the next session of parliament, take that subject into their most serious consideration, with a view to the adoption of such regulations as may prevent those evils in future, consistently with the efficiency of the navy, and the best interests of the country." This motion was opposed by Sir George Cockburn, and several naval officers. It was, they contended, impossible to do away with the practice of impressment, without maintaining in time of peace as well as war a sufficient number of seamen to man both our navy and our merchant ships. With respect to what had been said of corporal punishment, it was well known that the very lowest and vilest of criminals
were often sent on board ship, and it was absolutely necessary to invest their commander with those prompt and summary powers, the exercise of which could alone strike terror into such minds as theirs. The British seamen were, at present, well disposed and contented, a spirit which grew out of the liberality of parliament, in granting to them the "long service pensions." In a few years there was every reason to expect that the crime of desertion would be more scarce in the British naval service than in any other. Mr. Hume's motion was finally negatived by a majority of 108 to 38.
On the 11th of June, as Mr. Brougham was proceeding through the lobby of the House of Commons into the house, he was assaulted by a gentleman of the name of Gourlay, for whom some years ago he had presented a petition. Mr. Gourlay accused the honourable member of having "betrayed him," and had, as Mr. Brougham declared, "a great wildness in his countenance." The Speaker notified the fact to the house as a breach of privilege, and Mr. Gourlay was detained by the Serjeant at Arms. Several members declared their doubts as to the unfortunate gentleman's sanity, and his case was referred to two eminent physicians, who gave it as their opinion that he was affected by a temporary alienation of mind. He accordingly remains still in confinement. Mr. Gourlay is very indignant at the mental imputation, and has published certainly a very sane letter, declaring it unfounded. Our readers may, perhaps, recognise in this gentleman the name of the person who recently, by a
protracted and rather stormy litigation with the Duke of Somerset, attracted so much public attention.
A petition was presented by Mr. Hume to the House, from a person of the name of Carlisle, who was convicted of publishing a blasphemous libel, and sentenced to fine and imprisonment. It appeared that the term of his imprisonment had for some time expired, but he was still detained on the non-payment of the fine. Considering himself therefore as a Crown debtor, he had forwarded the present petition. On the part of the Crown, it was denied that he was its debtor, and Mr. Peel de
clared that he was obliged to order even a more strict confinement, in consequence of this man's asserting that, conceiving his further imprisonment illegal, he considered himself quite justified in putting every one to death who was hereafter accessory to it. As to the fine, it was quite necessary that those who were sentenced to such punishment, should remain for some time in confinement, or fines never would be paid; but non-payment of a fine never led to perpetual imprisonment. The peti tion was ordered to lie upon the table. Mr. Lambton, in moving that a petition from Mr. Buckingham should be brought up, went at considerable length into the case of that gentleman. Mr. Buckingham, it appears, had been connected with the press in India, and in the year 1808 established a paper called the Calcutta Journal, which brought him in a profit of 8000l. per annum; the independent spirit of the paper gave of fence to the government, the consequence of which was the prosecution and acquittal of Mr. Buckingham; he was soon after, however, banished from India by Mr. Adam, who succeeded Lord Hastings pro tempore, as was also his successor Mr. Arnot, and the paper itself was subsequently suppressed. The immediate cause of the removal of Mr. Buckingham was alleged to be his having rather freely commented on the appointment of a Doctor Brice, who was at the head of the Presbyterian Church in India, to supply the government offices with stationerythis appointment was afterwards cancelled by the Court of Directors, and censured by the Presbytery of Scotland as degrading to their body, and yet Mr. Buckingham was banished for having merely disapproved of it! The conduct of the Indian government was vindicated by the President of the Board of Control, on the ground that Mr. Buckingham had already commenced proceedings against Mr. Adam in a Court of Law, and that therefore the House should not interpose. The petitioner had been warned no less than five times not to continue the course he had commenced, on pain of the withdrawal of his licence; these admonitions, however, he had chosen to disregard, and Mr. Adam, in concur
governments. Such a recognition implied no alliance, no guarantee, no assistance, no approbation with these things we had nothing to do we had merely to maintain our own rights and security. Mr. Canning declared that this country had only thought it fair to Spain to give it the opportunity of a precedency on this subject, hoping she would avail her self of it; that hope was now at an end, and therefore we must act as we thought most expedient. At the same time, to continue the present discussion, might rather retard than precipitate the object in view. Government had taken means to arrive at that information by which alone it could be led to a decision.
Mr. Canning, adverting to a late treaty entered into between this country and the Netherlands, with respect to our East India possessions, stated, that we had acquired Sincapore, got rid of the Dutch possessions which were a source of irritation to us on the Continent of India, and obtained a recognition of the principle of a free trade-as an equivalent for these advantages, we had only ceded Bencoolen, which cost us 87,000l. a-year, and agreed to a line of demarcation between the Dutch and British settlements in India. It was intended to place the new possessions under the administration of the East India Company.
Sir James Mackintosh gave notice of two motions for next session; one to amend the law of Copyright-the other to repeal the act of Geo. II., giving to the Lord Chamberlain, or his deputy, the right of licensing plays.
The proceedings in the House of Lords have been almost entirely des titute of interest during the last month. The County Courts Bill and the Cruelty to Animals Bill, which had both passed the Commons, were rejected by their Lordships. Earl Grey presented the Catholic Petition to which we adverted in our last, and declared, as did Mr. Brougham in the House of Commons, his dissent from certain parts of it. To what a wretched condition have these men reduced themselves, when even their own advocates are compelled thus to protect themselves from a participation in their absurdities. That Parliament are not inclined to
go at least to the extreme of illiberality, is evident from the fact of their unanimously passing a bill to enable the Duke of Norfolk to hold the now vacant office of Deputy Earl Marshal of England without taking those oaths by which Catholics have been hitherto excluded. Bills have also passed, restoring, through the Royal Grace, several attainted Scotch Peerages, amongst which is the Earldom of Mar.
Our domestic intelligence is almost confined to the parliamentary ab
There have been several balloon ascents lately, one of which, we lament to say, has terminated in the death of Mr. Harris the aeronaut. The unfortunate gentleman was accompanied by a female of the name of Stocks, and after a fine ascent unhappily let too much gas escape on his return, by which means the machine rapidly descended, and was found on the ground completely collapsed, with Mr. Harris in the car quite dead, and the female in a state of stupor; she has, however, since recovered. Mr. Graham made a successful ascent on the very day of Mr. Harris's funeral. The unfortunate deceased has left a widow and child. His father deposed upon the inquest, that he had often told him during the progress of the balloon that he was building a machine which would be the death of him." A sad omen, and sadly verified.
Several occurrences have taken place in our Courts of Law within the last month not altogether unworthy of notice. No less than eight indictments have been tried during the last Old Bailey sessions, against poor illiterate wretches charged with selling the Age of Reason. These men, or rather boys, seemed to consider themselves quite as martyrs, and were sentenced to six months, two years, and three years' imprisonment for the same offence. The Recorder alleged the difference of the defences as the reason for the difference of punishment!
At the Surrey Sessions where Lord Eastnor presided, a gentleman of the name of O'Callaghan was found guilty of an assault upon a clergyman of the name of Saurin. Mr. O'Callaghan conceived that Mr. Saurin had insulted some ladies under
his protection, and the jury, after hearing the evidence, recommended the defendant to mercy on the ground that he had received "the strong est provocation." The assault consisted in one blow struck with a switch which the defendant wrested out of Mr. Saurin's hand, and the Rev. Gentleman declared that he would have "MET" the defendant had his friends permitted! The Court sentenced the defendant to a month's imprisonment in the House of Correction, and to pay a fine of 204.!! Mr. O'Callaghan has been kept on bread and water-refused permission to purchase his own food, and not even allowed to see his friends except through an iron grating, where they are exposed to the severest inclemency of the weather. This treatment has excited a powerful sensation throughout the metro polis, and will, we hope, however grievous towards the individual, produce some benefit to the public. We believe the case from beginning to the end to be unparalleled in the annals of this country.
Mr. John Hunt has been at last sentenced for the publication of the Vision of Judgment, a libel on the late King. He was fined 100%. The King's Bench have done themselves infinite credit by such a sentence. Justice adds much to its dignity, and loses nothing of its force by be ing tempered with mercy.
The variations in the weather have been as great during the latter part of May, and the whole of June, as at any other period of the present year. The temperature of the air has been continually changeablethe middle of the day warm, and the morning and evening cold, with the wind gene rally north or north-east, bringing with it some very severe frosts. The late rains have, however, much altered the general appearance of the crops upon the light warm soils for the better, while those upon the wet cold lands are not at all improved. The wheats are upon the whole, however, looking well; but it is still doubtful whether the crop will be very productive. The barleys have not entirely recovered from the severe check they received; upon the high heath lands they are almost perished, notwithstanding the late rains. The ,grasses were expected to have been very heavy, owing to the excellent appearance of the layers in the winter; if the length be not great, the bottom is generally excellent. In
some parts the hay harvest has begun with good promise. For the ensuing turnip. crop the farmers are in active preparation. and are got in well. The markets have Swedes are already sown in many places, been very dull during the last month, notwithstanding the small arrivals, and the prices have consequently fallen most particularly for inferior samples of wheat.
The average arrivals during the month have been of wheat 6090 quarters; barley 1576 quarters; oats 16,662 quarters; English flour 5560 sacks; foreign flour 716 bolls; and the average prices for the week ending June 5th, for wheat 63s. 8d.; barley 32s. 2d.; and oats 26s. 4d. Flour continues exceedingly dull, and fetches from 55s. to 60s. per sack.
The reports respecting the hop planta, tions are various. Those from Maidstone represent the vines as having made but small progress of late in consequence of the cold, while the Worcester statements give a favourable account; the vines are said to be growing rapidly, and gaining so much strength, that at least half a crop is expected. The duty is laid at 130,0007.
Oak bark fetches from 81. to 10%. a ton; and the wool trade is brisk, but the prices are nominal.
In Smithfield the market for beef and lamb is higher, but the mutton trade is dull.
as 3 " mere speak of it in high terms. His method, as it will be seen, certainly goes completely contrary to the established opinion, that the seed should be sown immediately after the ploughing. The plan which Mr. Sutton offers to the public is very simple, and, what is also a most important consideration, may be tried at an extremely small expense, Whether it will be found to answer upon a large scale is yet to be determined, the experiments having been limited in their ex
The attention of Mr. Sutton was particularly directed to this subject by the following circumstance. He Early in the summer of the year 1822, when the weather was extremely hot, and the ground quite parched, I had a piece of land of about twenty perches, which was dug up and prepared for a crop of turnips-but on account of the dry weather that prevailed, I did not sow it till eight or ten days after, when a little rain fell. I immediately, for the same purpose, prepared several other plats of ground in the same garden, the whole of which I sowed with turnip seed at the same time. All the plants came up well; but in the course of a few days, all